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Encyclopedia > Battle of Fort William Henry
Battle of Fort William Henry
Part of the French and Indian War
Date August 3August 9, 1757
Location Lake George, New York
Result French victory
Combatants
France Britain
Commanders
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro
Strength
1,600 natives
6,000 regulars and militia
2,500 regulars and militia
Casualties
Unknown 297 dead or wounded
2,308 captured
Seven Years' War in North America:
The French and Indian War
Jumonville GlenGreat Meadows – Fort Beauséjour – MonongahelaLake GeorgeFort BullFort OswegoFort William HenryLouisbourg - Fort CarillonFort Frontenac - Fort DuquesneFort LigonierTiconderogaFort NiagaraBeauportQuebec – Sainte-Foy – Restigouche - Thousand IslandsMontréal - Signal Hill

The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britain's loss of Fort William Henry to a French army under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm. In the aftermath of the siege, some of Montcalm's Native American allies violated his surrender terms and killed a column of British survivors (women and children as well as men), making it one of the notorious battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. Combatants France and its native allies, mostly Algonquin and Huron Great Britain and its native allies, mostly Iroquois Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Lake George is a village located in Warren County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 985. ... Official language(s) None Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Lt Col George Monro (sometimes spelt Munro) was a British Army officer, best remembered for his resolute but ultimately unsuccessful defence of Fort William Henry in 1757 during Seven Years War / French and Indian War and the subsequent massacre of his garrison at the hands of France’s American Indian... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Hanover Kingdom of Ireland Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763), some of the theatres of which are called the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War (see below), was... Combatants France and its native allies, mostly Algonquin and Huron Great Britain and its native allies, mostly Iroquois Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven... The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor Robert Monckton Strength 162 2,000 Casualties 162 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Fort Beauséjour marked the opening of a British-American offensive in North America in the Seven Years War. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed British attempt... Geoff/Gsl 21:56, 26 October 2005 (UTC) Category: Possible copyright violations ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Chaussegros de Léry James Wolfe Strength 259 regulars and militia 103 natives Unknown Casualties 1 dead 2 wounded 103 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Fort Bull was a French raid on the British-held Fort Bull on March 27, 1756. ... The Battle of Fort Oswego was the first in a series of early French victories in the French and Indian War theater of the Seven Years War that belied New Frances military vulnerability. ... The Fortress of Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... The Battle of Fort Frontenac took place from August 25 to August 27, 1758 near the end of the Seven Years War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States) between France and Britain. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 militia and natives 400 regulars 350 militia Casualties 16 dead or wounded 300 dead 100 captured The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of General John Forbess British-American army... The battle of fort Ligoneir was fought in 1758 and was a battle of the French-Indian war. ... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Beauport was fought on July 31, 1759 between a British fleet and French land forces. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle of the North American theatre of... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... Combatants Britain France Commanders Capt. ... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... For other military campaings relating to Montreal, see Battle of Montreal Combatants Great Britain France Commanders Jeffrey Amherst François Gaston de Lévis Strength 11,000 regulars 6,500 provincials 700 Iroquois 2,100 effectives The Siege of Montreal took place at the end of the French and Indian... Combatants France Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe MacDonell Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars Casualties 10–20 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill was fought on September 15, 1762 in the closing months of the French and Indian War. ... The British Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George, New York, was built during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) by Sir William Johnson as a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga). ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... A Hupa man. ... Combatants France and its native allies, mostly Algonquin and Huron Great Britain and its native allies, mostly Iroquois Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Hanover Kingdom of Ireland Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763), some of the theatres of which are called the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War (see below), was...


Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro's British 35th Regiment of Foot , elements of the 60th Foot and militia troops resisted a long siege and bombardment by the French, but surrendered after parlaying with the Montcalm. Though stubborn and reluctant to surrender, Monro eventually gave in after being shown an intercepted message from General Daniel Webb, the commander of British forces in the New York colony, which said that he would be unable to send reinforcements to relieve the beleaguered garrison. Thus, with little hope of relief, Monro agreed to Montcalm's terms, which allowed the British to leave with their weapons and be allowed to retreat without being attacked. After the British withdrawal, French-aligned Native Americans attacked and killed a few hundred of the 3,000 troops and civilians in the column leaving the fort. Historians note that it is likely that Montcalm tried to prevent the attack, but probably didn't have the means to stop it by force. Lt Col George Monro (sometimes spelt Munro) was a British Army officer, best remembered for his resolute but ultimately unsuccessful defence of Fort William Henry in 1757 during Seven Years War / French and Indian War and the subsequent massacre of his garrison at the hands of France’s American Indian... The 35th (Royal Sussex) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment in the British Army . ... The Kings Royal Rifle Corps was a British Army formation. ... Daniel Webb is an English football player who currently plays for Yeovil Town. ... The Province of New York (Dutch: Provincie Nieuw-Nederland or Provincie New York) was a British colony that existed roughly where the U.S. state of New York does now. ...


General Webb did, in fact, send reinforcements to Fort William Henry, which arrived one day too late, and Webb was recalled to England for his failures. In addition, the loss of Fort William Henry was a severe blow to British war strategy and would preclude any attempt towards Montreal for the remainder of the year. Thus, by 1758, three years of bitter campaigning by the British had granted them almost no territorial gain against New France. Motto: Concordia Salus Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area    - City 366. ... New France (French: ) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ...


The events of the battle and subsequent killings were depicted in the 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper and in its various film adaptations. The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative in prose. ... The Last of the Mohicans is an epic novel by James Fenimore Cooper, first published in January 1826. ... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ...

Contents

A note on the "massacre"

Montcalm attempted to negotiate an honourable surrender for the British troops. From a Native American perspective, the only way to surrender honorably was, when in captivity, to die quietly without a fight. The Chiefs of the multiple Native tribes got a rough understanding of the very European military peace terms but did not successfully translate the terms to their more than 1000 men of multiple languages. In knowing there was anger and confusion over their peace terms, Montcalm and his men elected to quietly march the unarmed British to Fort Edward, the closest British Fort early one morning. When some Natives saw the troops marching out they let out a war cry, alerting all the Natives. A few Natives ran in to the men looking for a war prize. Look up surrender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A troop is a military unit. ... A Hupa man. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about the continent. ... Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—the source text—and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language—the target text, also called the translation. ... Fort Edward is a town located in Washington County, New York. ...


Many of the Natives were expected to bring home captives to work as slaves, replace dead family members, or sell to the French as servants. Scalping was also a popular way of acquiring war prize. Scalping took time and was most often done on the dead, but because of the panic for prizes during this event, some scalped men alive. Of the 2,308 soldiers, 2,000 ran, escaped or were returned. Many of them were returned through negotiations with the French. In some cases, the government in New France freed Americans and British by purchasing them from the Natives. A servant is a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ... Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. ... New France (French: ) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ...


After the battle, native warriors disinterred numerous corpses from the fort cemetery which they scalped and robbed. Unfortunately for them, many of these had died of smallpox. Along with the scalps and other plunder, these natives carried the dreaded "spotted sickness" to their villages in the Great Lakes. A devastating outbreak of smallpox soon followed.


Reconstruction of Fort William Henry

The British did not try to build over the site of Fort Willam Henry. The fort lay in ruins for many years. In the 1950s, excavation of the site eventually led to the reconstruction of Fort William Henry as a tourist destination for the Town of Lake George.


External links

  • An Account of the Two Attacks on Fort William Henry
  • History of the 35th Foot in the French and Indian War
  • The French Army 1600-1900

Further reading

Steele, Ian K. (1990) Betrayals: Fort William Henry & the 'Massacre'. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505893-3


Bellico, Russel P. (1995) Chronicles of Lake George: Journeys in War and Peace. Purple Mountain Press. ISBN 0-935796-62-2


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fort William Henry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (537 words)
The British Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George, New York, was built during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) by Sir William Johnson as a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga).
Fort William Henry was named for Prince William Henry, a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of King George III.
The fort was attacked by the French in August of 1757.
Battle of Fort William Henry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (764 words)
The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britain's loss of Fort William Henry to a French army under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm.
In addition, the loss of Fort William Henry was a severe blow to British war strategy and would preclude any attempt towards Montreal for the remainder of the year.
The events of the battle and subsequent killings were depicted in the 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper and in its various film adaptations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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