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Encyclopedia > Battle of Erzurum (1916)
Battle of Erzurum
Part of Caucasus Campaign
Date: 11-20 January , 1916
Location: Erzurum, Turkey
Result: Russian victory
Combatants
Russia Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Nikolai Yudenich Karim Pasha
Strength
Russian Caucasus Army Turkish Third Army
Casualties
? 25,000 dead or wounded, 9,000 prisoners
Caucasus Campaign
SarikamisMalazgirtKara KillisseVan – Koprukoy – ErzurumErzincanSardarapat

The Erzurum Campaign was a modest Russian victory over the Turks along the Caucasus Front during World War I. the Erzurum campaign is often known as the battle of Erzurum. Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire, First Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha, Vehip Pasha, Kerim Pasha, Mustafa Kemal Nikolai Yudenich The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the Caucasus during World War I between the Russian Empire a member of the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire... (Redirected from 11 January) January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... (Redirected from 20 January) January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire, First Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha, Vehip Pasha, Kerim Pasha, Mustafa Kemal Nikolai Yudenich The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the Caucasus during World War I between the Russian Empire a member of the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Battle of Kara Killisse was a battle of World War 1 Which took place in the town of Kara Killisse in 1915. ... Background by April 1915, the Armenians had already donated their grains, their food, their warehouse supplies, money and men to the Ottoman war effort. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Vehip Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army Turkish Third Army Casualties ? 34,000 The Battle of Erzincan was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ... In violation of the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, Turkish Nationalist troops under the command of Kemal Atatürk crossed the border in 1918 and attacked Alexandropol (Leninakan). ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million Spanish Flu...

Contents


Backgound

Russia had won a significant battle at Sarikamis (1914) and had captured parts of the Turkish Caucasus but lacked the resources to exploit their victorys. In August 1915 they lost Van to the Turks (though they recaptured it one month later) and in September Grand Duke Nicholas arrived as Russian viceroy in the Caucasus. The Grand Duke kept General Yudenich in command of the army and he proved his worth in the 1916 campaigns. General Yudenich planned an offensive aimed at the fortress of Erzurum which had been the launching point for the Turkish offensive in 1914. Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people. ... Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The battle of Gallipoli was ending and the Ottoman victory would free some divisions for redeployment elsewhere. Eight of these divisions were designated for the Caucasus front. Yudenich believed he could launch an offensive before these divisions could be ready for battle. Combatants United Kingdom France India Australia New Zealand Newfoundland Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto Liman von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000 (205,000 British, 47,000 French) 253,000 The Battle of Gallipoli took...


The Campaign Begins

On January 11, in the middle of winter, Yudencih moved his army out from winter quarters in secrecy. The Russian army was split into two colums, the first colum would attack Erzurum from the north, and the second colum from the south. The Russian army had been issued winter weather gear before the campaign started and was better equiped then their Turkish opponents. for 3 days the Russians advaced with no resistance, it wasn't until the battles of Koprukoy and Tafta on January 14 that here was any fighting in the Erzurum Campaign. January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


the Battle of Koprukoy

the first Russian colum advanced towards Erzurum and encoutered Turkish troops outside the city of Kopruckoy on January 14. the Russians immediatly launched attacks against the chain of turkish forts around Koprukoy. most of the forts were captured by the russians on the 14, and the rest of the Forts were captured by the russians on January 15. the turks retreated from the town, but were surrounded by russian troops outside of Koprukoy. After 3 hours of intence fighting outside of Koprukoy, the Turkish troops surrendered to russians and the russians contiued their advance on Erzurum.


The Battle of Tafta

the second colum of the russian offence arrived at the town of Tafta on January 13. the Turkish troops had retreated from the town when the russians arrived, and now the turkish troops were gathering for an attack on the rusians in the town. the turkish attack began on January 14 with the turks beggining a bombardment of the town. during the night of January 14 the russians slipped out of the town and encirled the Turkish forces. on November 15 the turks found themselves surrounded by russians. after a 2 hour battle where the turks attempted to break out of the russian encirclement, the Turks surrendered to russians, who resumed their march against Erzurum.


The Battle of Semirum

the Second Russian colum arrived on the ouskirts of Erzurum on January 17. the entrance to the city was gaurded by the fortress of Semirum. the Russians bagan bombarding the fort on January 17, and on January 18 the Turks advanced from the fort to the russian lines, only to cut down by machine gun fire. after the failed turkish attacks the Russian were able to easily strom the fort and resume their advance on Erzurum.


The Capture of Erzurum

After Taking Semirum (January 18), the second Russian colum camped ouside the city of Erzurum. the russians decided to wait for the first colum to arive before attacking the city. When the first Russian colum arrived ouside Erzurum on January 19, Karim Pasha, the commander of the ottoman forces inside Erzurum, lost his nerve and decided to retreat from Erzurum rather then risk a battle with the superior russian forces. the russians marched into Erzurum unopposed on January 20. January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The limit of the Russian advance into Anatolia
Enlarge
The limit of the Russian advance into Anatolia

Image File history File links Russian-Caucas-Front-1916. ... Image File history File links Russian-Caucas-Front-1916. ...

Results

During the 9 days of fighting and conquest the Russians captured some 13,000 prisoners and 323 guns. As a result of the Erzurum Campaign the Ottomans lost an important fort, supply base and strategic position. With the 3rd Army once again broken and demoralized the Russians were able to advance deep into Anatolia. In the southern area of Armenia, Mush and Bitlis were captured in early March. In the north, Trebizond fell in April. As a result of this defeat, Karim Pasha was replaced by a new commander Vehib Pasha. Bitlis is a city in Turkey, capital of Bitlis Province. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ...


Sources

  • Tucker, Spencer The Great War: 1914-18 (1998)
  • Compton's Home Library: Battles of the World CD-ROM
  • Pollard, A. F. (1920). A Short History of the Great War (chapter 10).
  • Chronology of Russian Military Actions in World War 1

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Sarikamis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (739 words)
The Battle of Sarikamis, sometimes spelled Sarikamish or Sarıkamış, known in Turkish as Sarıkamış Faciası ("Sarikamis Tragedy"), was a decisive Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire in the Caucasus region during World War I.
The battle finally ended on January 4 and the Ottoman army retreated in complete disorganization back through the mountains in the middle of winter.
On the other side, the victor of the battle, General Yudenich, was appointed commander of the Russian Caucasus Army and he launched an offensive of his own in the summer of 1915 towards Erzincan and Lake Van.
World War I - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about World War I (9656 words)
Erzurum was captured in February, and Trebizond in March, the Turkish garrison retreating south towards Baiburt.
By the end of 1916 the combined effect of casualties at the Somme and Verdun, the decline of Austrian military strength, and the Allied economic blockade prompted limited moves towards a peace settlement in Germany.
The Battle of Caporetto began on 24 October in heavy rain and snow; the disaffected Italian troops broke almost immediately, and the Germans quickly crossed the Isonzo and then the Italian frontier and advanced to the Piave River, nullifying in a day all the Italian gains of the preceding two and a half years.
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