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Encyclopedia > Battle of Dunkirk

This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Commanders Vicomte de Turenne Juan José de Austria Louis II de Condé Strength 26,000 and ships 15,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 captured The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14 (Gregorian calendar), 1658...

Battle of Dunkirk
Part of World War II

A famous image of Dunkirk: "A British soldier fires at German aircraft strafing him on Dunkirk's beaches"[1].
Date May 26, 1940June 4, 1940
Location Dunkirk, France
Result German tactical victory, Allied evacuation.
Combatants
United Kingdom
France
Belgium
Germany
Commanders
Lord Gort
General Weygand
Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A)
Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist)
Strength
approx. 400,000 approx. 800,000
Casualties
68,000 casualties including
34,000 captured
6 destroyers and 200+ smaller vessels sunk
177 aircraft (106 Fighters)[2], 60 Fighter Pilots killed[3].
10,252 killed, 42,000 wounded and 8,467 missing
101 aircraft[4]

The Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation of the British and Allied forces that had been separated from the main body of the French defences by the German advance. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort VC GCB CBE DSO and two Bars MVO MC (commonly known as Lord Gort) (10 July 1886 - 31 March 1946) was a British soldier who served in both World War I and II, rising to the rank of field marshal... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. // Weygand was born in Brussels. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured wounded or not; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or... Combatants Croat SS soldiers Germany Commanders Ferid Džanić Unknown Strength 500-1,000 Unknown Casualties 146 N/A The Villefranche-de-Rouergue uprising took place on September 17, 1943, when a division composed of about 500-1000 Croats and Bosnian Muslims from Croatia, which has been sent by force... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead,wounded or missing 6,450 Captured 2,000 Killed 6,000 Wounded Operation... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2000 killed 3000 wounded 5500 killed or wounded, 5,600 POW The Battle of Aachen was a battle in World War II that took place in October 1944 in the German city of... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ...


After the Phoney War, the Battle of France began in earnest on 10 May 1940. To the east, the German Army Group B invaded and subdued the Netherlands and advanced westward through Belgium. On the 14 May Army Group A burst through the Ardennes region and advanced rapidly to the west toward Sedan, then turned northward to the English Channel, in what Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein called the "sickle cut" (known as the Manstein Plan). British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phoney War The Phoney War[1] was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Army Group A was the name of a German Army Group during World War II. During the German invasion of the Low Countries and France Army Group A was the southern attacking Army Group. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Early plans for Fall Gelb; below left the original Manstein Plan as first presented to the OKH. Note that the small attacks to the south were to be carried out simultaneously to the main effort, not as a second phase operation and that only a limited number of armoured divisions...


A series of Allied counterattacks, including the Battle of Arras, failed to sever the German spearhead, which reached the coast on May 20, separating the British Expeditionary Force near Armentières, the French First Army, and the Belgian army further to the north from the majority of French troops south of the German penetration. After reaching the Channel the Germans swung north along the coast, threatening to capture the ports and trap the British and French forces before they could evacuate to Britain. The Battle of Arras, was an Allied counter-attack to the German blitzkrieg through France during World War II. // Background Early on during the Battle of France, German forces managed to repel Allied forces and push them back considerably. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... Armentières is a commune and a canton of the département of Nord, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région, in France. ... French First Army was a field army that fought during World War I and World War II. At the beginning of WWI the First Army was put in charge of General Auguste Dubail and took part, along with the French Second Army, in the Invasion of Lorraine. ...

Contents

The battle

On 24 May Hitler visited General Gerd von Rundstedts headquarters at Charleville. Von Rundstedt advised him that the infantry should attack the British forces at Arras, where they had shown themselves capable of significant action, while Kleist's armour held the line West and South of Dunkirk in order to pounce on the Allied Forces retreating before Army Group B[5]. This order allowed the Germans to consolidate their gains and prepare for a southward advance against the remaining French forces. In addition, the terrain around Dunkirk was considered unsuitable for armour[6] , so the destruction of the Allied forces was initially assigned to the Luftwaffe and the German infantry organised in Army Group B. The true reason for Hitler's decision to halt the German armour is a matter of debate. The most popular theory is that Von Rundstedt and Hitler agreed to conserve the armour for future operations further South - namely for Fall Rot[7]. is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Charleville can refer to: a former commune of the Ardennes département in France, now part of Charleville-Mézières a commune of the Marne département, in France. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... In World War II, Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ...


On 25 May 1940, General Lord Gort, the commander of the BEF, decided to evacuate British forces. From 25th to 28th of May, British troops retreated about 30 miles northwest into a pocket along the France-Belgian border extending from Dunkirk on the coast to the Belgian town of Poperinge. The Belgians surrendered on May 28, followed the next day by elements of the French 1st Army trapped outside the Dunkirk Pocket. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort VC GCB CBE DSO and two Bars MVO MC (commonly known as Lord Gort) (10 July 1886 - 31 March 1946) was a British soldier who served in both World War I and II, rising to the rank of field marshal... (Redirected from 25 May) May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... (Redirected from 28 May) May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Poperinge is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Starting on May 27, Operation Dynamo began — the evacuation of Allied troops from the Dunkirk area. The German Panzer Divisions were ordered to resume their advance the same day, but improved defences halted their initial offensive, although the remaining Allied forces were compressed into a 5 km wide coastal strip from De Panne through Bray-Dunes to Dunkirk by May 31. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk British evacuation on Dunkirk beach Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation, the Miracle of Dunkirk or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the... Panzer Division is the German term for armored division. ... De Panne: Beach and flats De Panne is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Bray-Dunes is a French village in Picardy, the site of many casualties during World War II. Guardsman John Edward Harrison died at Bray-Dunes 01 June 1940. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A total of five nations took part in the successful evacuation from Dunkirk — Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Poland.

British fisherman giving a hand to an Allied soldier while a Stuka's bomb explodes a few metres ahead .
British fisherman giving a hand to an Allied soldier while a Stuka's bomb explodes a few metres ahead .

The necessary defence of the perimeter led to the loss or capture of a number of British Army units such as the 2nd Battalion of the Royal Norfolk Regiment who were involved in the Le Paradis massacre on 26 May. 35,000 French soldiers were made prisoners. Between May 27 and June 4, 338,226 men left France including 120,000 French and Belgian troops, together with a small number of Dutch troops. Image File history File links British_fisher_boat_dunkirk. ... Image File history File links British_fisher_boat_dunkirk. ... The Royal Norfolk Regiment, orignally formed as the Norfolk Regiment, was a regiment of the British Army. ... Le Paradis massacre occurred during the Battle of France in 1940, members of the Royal Norfolk Regiment were victims of a German SS war crime at Le Paradis in the Pas-de-Calais on May 26. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Number of men rescued (in chronological order):

In accordance to military principle where priority is given to men over arms, the Allies left behind 2,000 guns, 60,000 trucks, 76,000 tons of ammunition and 600,000 tons of fuel supplies. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • 10,252 German soldiers lost
  • 42,000 wounded
  • 8,467 missing
  • 1,212,000 Dutch, Belgian, French and British prisoners taken
  • 30,000 British died
  • 338,000 men saved in the evacuation

The Germans gained:

  • 1,200 field guns
  • 1,250 anti-aircraft guns
  • 11,000 machine guns
  • 25,000 vehicles

Aftermath

Battle of Dunkirk memorial.
Battle of Dunkirk memorial.

The successful evacuation of 338,000 Allied troops from Dunkirk ended the first phase in the Battle of France. It provided a great boost to British morale, but left the remaining French to stand alone against a renewed German assault southwards. German troops entered Paris on June 14 and accepted the surrender of France on June 22. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1162x788, 831 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Dunkirk ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1162x788, 831 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Dunkirk ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A marble memorial was established at Dunkirk (Dunkerque), it translates in English as: "To the glorious memory of the pilots, mariners, and soldiers of the French and Allied armies who sacrificed themselves in the Battle of Dunkirk May June 24 ad.


The loss of so much materiel on the beaches meant that the British Army needed months to resupply properly and some planned introductions of new equipment were halted while industrial resources concentrated on making good the losses. Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ...


The Dunkirk Spirit

British troops evacuating Dunkirks beaches
British troops evacuating Dunkirks beaches

The successful evacuation of Dunkirk in 1940, and particularly the role of the "little boats" was subsequently exploited very effectively in British propaganda. The "little boats" were private vessels, such as fishing boats, that independently assisted the official evacuation out of patriotic duty. The result was that for many decades after the war the catch-phrase "Dunkirk spirit" stood for an almost romantic belief in the solidarity of the British people in times of adversity. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Dunkirk spirit is a phrase used to describe the tendency of the British public to pull together to overcome times of adversity. ...


Later fighting

The city of Dunkirk was besieged in September 1944 by units of the Second Canadian Division; German units withstood the siege, and as the First Canadian Army moved north into Belgium, the city was "masked" by the Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade, and left to the rear. The German garrison in Dunkirk held out until May 1945, denying the Allies the use of the port facilities. Finally the fortress under command of German Admiral Friedrich Frisius eventually unconditionally surrendered to commander of the Czechoslovak brigade group commander Brigade General Alois Liška on May 9th 1945.[8] The Canadian 2nd Infantry Division was mobilized on 1 September 1939, even before the declaration of war, and the battalions were promptly fleshed out by volunteers. ... The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade was created on 1 September 1943 when Czechoslovak 1st Infantry Brigade converted to armour and redesignated 1st Czechoslovak Independent Armoured Brigade Group (this was often simplified to 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade or abbreviated 1st CSIABG). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Brigade General is a rank used in many armies to denote the lowest rank of general, corresponding to command of a brigade. ...


See also

The United Kingdom, along with its crown colonies like the Indian Empire, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939, after the German invasion of Poland. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R...

References

  • Holmes, Richard, ed. (2001). "France, fall of". The Oxford Companion to Military History, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866209-2.
  • Hooton, E.R (2007). Luftwaffe at War; Blitzkrieg in the West. London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-85780-272-6.
  • Keegan, John. (1989). The Second World War, New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-82359-7.
  • Liddell Hart, B.H. (1970). History of the Second World War, New York: G.P. Putnam.
  • Murray, Williamson and Millett, Allan R. A War to Be Won, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-00163-X.
  • Taylor, A.J.P. and Mayer, S.L., eds. A History Of World War Two. London: Octopus Books, 1974. ISBN 0-70640-399-1.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1994). A World at Arms, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44317-2.
  • Wilmot, Chester. (1952). The Struggle for Europe, Old Saybrook, Conn.: Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1-56852-525-7.
  • Salmaggi, Cesare and Alfredo Pallavisini. "2194 Days of War", New York: Gallery Books. ISBN 0-8317-8885-2
  1. ^ * Taylor, A.J.P. and Mayer, S.L, p59.
  2. ^ E.R Hooton, p74
  3. ^ E.R Hooton, p74
  4. ^ E.R Hooton, p74
  5. ^ A.J.P Taylor & Webbe, p59
  6. ^ A.J.P Taylor & Webbe. p60
  7. ^ A.J.P Taylor & Webbe. p60
  8. ^ (Czech) Czech army page

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