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Encyclopedia > Battle of Debrecen
Battle of Debrecen
Part of World War II

A Turan I tank of the Hungarian 2nd Armoured Division in action near Debrecen, 1944.
Date October 6, 1944October 29, 1944
Location Debrecen / Nyiregyhaza, Hungary
Result Axis victory
Combatants
Germany
Hungary
Soviet Union
Commanders
Johannes Friessner (Heeresgruppe Süd),
Maximilian Fretter-Pico (6.Armee)
Rodion Malinovsky (2nd Ukrainian Front),
I.A. Pliyev (Group Pliyev)
Strength
80,000 260,000
Casualties
11,900 killed,
6,662 missing,
358 tanks,
310 artillery pieces,
600 anti-tank guns,
247 mortars,
1,954 other vehicles
25,000 killed or missing,
2,312 vehicles,
1,157 guns
Eastern Front
Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – FinlandLeningrad and BalticsCrimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Belorussia – Lvov-Sandomierz – BalkansHungary – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPrague
Hungary 1944-1945
DebrecenBudapestBalatonVienna

The Battle of Debrecen was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War II. In October 1944, General Maximilian Fretter-Pico's German Sixth Army and allied Hungarian units encircled and destroyed three corps of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky's Mobile Group Pliyev near Debrecen, Hungary. Mobile Group Pliyev was commanded by Issa Pliyev. Combatants Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total... Image File history File links A Turan I tank of the 2. ... General characteristics Length 5. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Coat of arms of Debrecen Debrecen   (approximate pronunciation: deh-breh-tsen; German: ; Polish: ; Romanian: ; Slovak: ) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... Nyíregyháza is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The 6. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... The Steppe Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Issa Alexandrovich Pliyev (Russian: Исса Александрович Плиев) (November 12, 1903 - 2 February 1979) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (1962), Double Hero of the Soviet Union (4. ... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Benito Mussolini Miklós Horthy Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhem von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... During World War II, Operation Bagration was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Nazis from Belarus which resulted in the destruction of the German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union, Romania Commanders Karl Pfeffer-Wildenbruch Rodion Malinovsky, Fyodor Tolbukhin Strength 180,000 (90,000 for city defense) 500,000+ (170,000 for city assault) Casualties Low estimate: ~ 48,000 killed, ~ 51,000 captured, High estimate: ~ 150,000 killed or captured, Est. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Dietrich (6. ... The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front against Vienna, Austria. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total... The 6. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Coat of arms of Debrecen Debrecen   (approximate pronunciation: deh-breh-tsen; German: ; Polish: ; Romanian: ; Slovak: ) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... Issa Alexandrovich Pliyev (Russian: Исса Александрович Плиев) (November 12, 1903 - 2 February 1979) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (1962), Double Hero of the Soviet Union (4. ...

Contents

Crisis in Hungary

In mid August 1944, Colonel-General (Generaloberst) Johannes Friessner's Army Group South Ukraine was on the brink of collapse. To the north, the Soviet Operation Bagration was completing the destruction of Army Group Centre. Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ...


On 25 August 1944, Germany's former ally, Romania declared war. The subsequent drive of Soviet General Fedor Tolbukhin's 3rd Ukrainian Front into Romania destroyed any semblance of an organised defensive line. Marshal of the Soviet Union Fedor Tolbukhin Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (June 16, 1894 - October 17, 1949) (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Толбухин), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in the rural... The Southwestern Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ...


On 8 September, Bulgaria, another of Germany's former allies, declared war. By this time, Tolbukhin, aided by the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Malinovsky had annihilated thirteen Axis divisions, taking over one-hundred-thousand prisoners. Both Tolbukhin and Malinovsky were promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union. Marshal of the Soviet Union Fedor Tolbukhin Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (June 16, 1894 - October 17, 1949) (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Толбухин), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in the rural... The Steppe Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Marshal of the Soviet Union Fedor Tolbukhin Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (June 16, 1894 - October 17, 1949) (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Толбухин), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in the rural... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ...


The actions of Bulgaria and Romania had opened up a 650 kilometer gap in Friessner's army group. As Friessner desperately struggled to reform a defensive line, news filtered through to Berlin that the Hungarian leader, Admiral Miklós Horthy was preparing to sign a separate peace with the Soviet Union. If this happened, the entire southern front would collapse. Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Duke of Szeged and Otranto (Hungarian: Vitéz* nagybányai Horthy Miklós, Szeged és Otranto hercege; Kenderes, June 18, 1868 – Estoril, February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October...


On 24 September 1944, Friessner's Army Group South Ukraine was redesignated Army Group South. General Fretter-Pico's Sixth Army formed the nucleus of Friessner's force. Seeing that the Hungarian allies were suffering from low morale, Friessner attached the Hungarian Second Army to Fretter-Pico's army. The German-Hungarian force was designated Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico. Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... The 6. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Respite - Plans

As Tolbukhin cleared the remaining resistance in Romania, Malinovsky began to move towards Hungary. Thankfully for Friessner, the Soviet advance slowed on its own. This delay allowed Friessner enough time to establish a weak defensive line based on the Mureş River. Marshal of the Soviet Union Fedor Tolbukhin Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (June 16, 1894 - October 17, 1949) (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Толбухин), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in the rural... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ...


In early September 1944, Malinovsky received orders from STAVKA to advance from Cluj. He was to advance towards Miskolc, Debrecen, and the Tisza River and then on to the flat expanses of the Hungarian Plain. Once on the plain, Malinovsky could exploit his overwhelming advantage in armour. He could destroy Friessner's army group, break through to Budapest, and drive into Czechoslovakia. Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Nickname: Steel City; City of the Open Gates Location of Miskolc in Hungary Coordinates: Country Hungary Region Northern Hungary County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Town since 1365 City since 1909 Urban county since 1970 Mayor Sándor Káli (MSZP) Area    - City 236,68 km² Population    - City (2004) 178... Coat of arms of Debrecen Debrecen   (approximate pronunciation: deh-breh-tsen; German: ; Polish: ; Romanian: ; Slovak: ) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... The Tisza (in Hungarian, Ukrainian: Tysa/Тиса, Russian: Tisa/Тиса, Romanian, Slovak and Serbian: Tisa, German: Theiß, Latin: Tissus, Tisia or Pathissus) is a river, tributary of the Danube and one of the major rivers of Central Europe, passing through Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine... The Great Alföld, Alföld, or Great Hungarian Plain (in Hungarian: Alföld or Nagyalföld, in Slovak Veľká dunajská kotlina, in Romanian Câmpia Tisei, in Serbian/Croatian simply known as Panonski basen, Pannonian Plain) is a plain/basin occupying the southern and eastern part of Hungary... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Friessner, fearing an envelopment of his forces by Malinovsky's 2nd Ukrainian Front and by the 4th Ukrainian Front, flew to the headquarters of the German dictator, Adolf Hitler. He requested the Führer's permission to withdraw his forces to defensive positions along the Tisza River. Friessner argued that this withdrawal would provide him with some freedom of movement to counter the continuing Soviet attacks. Hitler refused him. Instead, he promised additional forces for Friessner's army group. Hitler also ordered Friessner to start a new offensive. The aim of this offensive was the immediate destruction of two of Malinovsky's armies. Friessner, desperate for a workable defensive strategy, was instead ordered by Hitler to destroy the Soviet 27th Army and Soviet 6th Guards Tank Army. In addition, he was ordered retake two vital passes in the Southern Carpathians and cut Malinovsky's lines of communication. The ordered attack was to be launched from Cluj. Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... The Southern Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat...


Malinovsky Attacks - Fresh Plans

On 16 September 1944, Malinovsky launched his own attack. In a stroke of great luck, Friessner had been massing his own troops for his upcoming offensive. As a result, Malinovsky's forces ran into heavy resistance from the start. After a week of fruitless attacks, Malinovsky called off his attack and ordered the exhausted 6th Guards Tank Army, along with Mobile Group Pliyev and Mobile Group Gorshkov, to the area near Oradea. Malinovsky planned to use this heavy, highly mobile armored force as the vanguard of future operations. Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... County Bihor County Status County capital Mayor Petru Filip, Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 111. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat...


On 20 September 1944, Soviet troops captured the Hungarian border town of Arad. This action threw the Hungarian General Staff into a panic. They activated the Hungarian Third Army. This tended to be a force comprised of new recruits and reservists. It was of very limited military value. Arad may refer to: the following places in the Transylvania Arad, Romania, the main city of Arad County. ... The Third Army was a combat formation of the Hungarian Army which saw action during World War II. Commanders Lieutenant General Elemér Gorondy-Novak (1 Mar 1940 - 1 Nov 1941) Lieutenant General Zoltén Decleva (1 Nov 1941 - 1 Dec 1942) Lieutenant General Lajos Csatay (1 Dec 1942 - 12...


At the same time both pro-German and pro-Allied factions in the Hungarian government began maneuvering to take control of the country. Hungarian Regent, Admiral Miklos Horthy's negotiations for an armistice with the Soviets began in earnest. Friessner forced to send several of his desperately needed reinforcement units to Budapest to watch the situation. He did this under the premise of providing the units with a period of rest and refit. Admiral Horthy inspecting the German fleet with Adolf Hitler Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868–February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ...


By the end of September 1944, both Malinovsky and Friessner had received new orders. Malinovsky was now ordered to attack towards Budapest from the salient to the south around Arad. He was to use two of his armies with the support of Mobile Group Pliyev. The remainder of Malinovsky's forces, including the 6th Guards Tank Army and Mobile Group Gorshkov, were to attack from the north, near Oradea, towards Debrecen. The plan was for the two spearheads to link up, encircle the German forces, and annihilate them. Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat...


Meanwhile, Friessner's orders included an attack from Oradea with Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico. He was to slice through the Soviet lines and capture the Carpathian passes. He was to hold the passes until the following spring. Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ...


This meant that both sides were attacking at the same time and in about the same place. Both sides underestimated the forces opposing them.


The Battle Begins

The battle began on 6 October 1944, with Malinovsky's southern pincer attacking near Arad and slicing through the Hungarian Third Army. The Hungarians folded quickly. Many divisions simply disappeared in the assault. The spearhead of the southern Soviet pincer, led by Mobile Group Pliyev, had advanced almost sixty kilometers within the first 24 hours. Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... The Third Army was a combat formation of the Hungarian Army which saw action during World War II. Commanders Lieutenant General Elemér Gorondy-Novak (1 Mar 1940 - 1 Nov 1941) Lieutenant General Zoltén Decleva (1 Nov 1941 - 1 Dec 1942) Lieutenant General Lajos Csatay (1 Dec 1942 - 12...


The attack by the northern Soviet pincer ran into difficulty quickly, slamming headlong into two panzer divisions of the German III Panzer Corps, the 1st Panzer and 23rd Panzer. By the end of the day, the norther pincer had advanced only ten kilometers. III Armeekorps III Armeekorps (mot) III Panzerkorps Gruppe Breith III Panzerkorps III Corps was a corps level formation of the German Heer which saw action in World War II. // III Armeekorps History The III Corps was formed in October 1934 as III. Armeekorps. ... The German 1st Panzer Division () was an armored division in the German Army during World War II. Its divisional insignia was a white oakleaf emblem. ...


Reacting quickly, Fretter-Pico ordered the German 76th Infantry Division into the line near Oradea. This freed up the German 23rd Panzer Division to move south to counter the breakthrough near Arad. The German Panzergrenadier Division Feldherrnhalle, refitting at Mezokövesd, was moved into action to guard potentional crossing points on the Tisza River against the advancing Soviets. Group Eberhardt 60th Infantry Division 60th Motorized Infantry Division Panzergrenadier Division Feldherrnhalle Panzer Division Feldherrnhalle 1 Formed as 60th Infantry Division in late 1939 or early 1940, from Group Eberhardt, a collection of SA units that had fought in Poland. ... MezÅ‘kövesd is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary. ...


By the evening of 7 October 1944, the Soviet southern pincer had advanced further towards the Tisza River. Meanwhile the northern pincer was still stalled near Oradea. In this area the German-Hungarian forces had managed to halt several flanking attempts by the 6th Guards Tank Army.


Realizing that his northern pincer was stuck, Malinovsky decided to turn the southern pincer northwards towards Debrecen in an attempt to pull Axis forces away from Oradea. This action should allow his northern force to break through and crush the German forces between Mobile Group Pliyev and the 6th Guards Tank Army. Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat...


Mobile Group Pliyev's Advance

On 8 October 1944, Mobile Group Pliyev shifted its attack north-eastwards. The mobile group advanced quickly along the major highway between Szolnok to Debrecen. At Hajdúszoboszló, the group's lead units, the 9th Guards Mechanized and the 6th Guards Cavalry Corps, ran into elements of 23rd Panzer Division moving south to halt the southern pincer. Aerial photography: Szolnok - Hungary The Catholic Church The Calvinist Church Szolnok (Romanian: ) is the capital of the county of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, central Hungary. ... Hajdú is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary in present-day eastern Hungary. ...


On 9 October 1944, with overwhelming air support from the Soviet Airforce (VVS), Mobile Group Pliyev took the town. The Germans fell back to Debrecen, and began entrenching to the southeast of the city. The Germans were able to repel several heavy Soviet attacks. The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the airforce of the Soviet Union. ...


Mobile Group Pliyev shifted its attack southwards again, back towards Oradea. But its advance was slowed by a fanatical defence by German and Hungarian forces. However, despite this defence, it was clear that the mobile group would be able to effect a linkup with 6th Guards Tanks Army. This linkup could potentially shatter Fretter-Pico's line.


Confusion Reigns

On 10 October, Fretter-Pico ordered the German 1st Panzer Division to attack to the west. He ordered the German 13th Panzer Division to attack to the east. This action by Fretter-Pico cut off the three corps of Mobile Group Pliyev. Not expecting this, Pliyev had left his flanks relatively lightly defended. The two veteran panzer units quickly effected a linkup near the town of Püspökladány. What at first looked like a crisis point for the Germans under Fretter-Pico had now been turned into a possible disaster for the Soviets under Malinovsky. The German 1st Panzer Division () was an armored division in the German Army during World War II. Its divisional insignia was a white oakleaf emblem. ... 13th Infantry Division 13th Motorized Infantry Division 13th Panzer Division Panzer Division Feldherrnhalle 2 Created in 1934 or 1935 under the cover name Infanterieführer IV, then unveiled as the 13th Infantry Division when the creation of the Wehrmacht was announced. ... Püspökladány is the sixth largest town of Hajdú-Bihar county in North Eastern Hungary with a population of approximately 16,000 people. ...


Malinovsky, realising the danger Mobile Group Pliyev was in, halted his attack in the south and focused all his forces on reaching the trapped mobile group. Fretter-Pico ordered the Feldherrnhalle to Debrecen. The situation on the ground was greatly confused, with neither the Soviets nor the Germans knowing who was surrounding whom.


By 11 October 1944, elements of Pliyev's 4th Guards Cavalry Corps reached the outskirts of Debrecen. Although this corps was cut off from the main Soviet force, Pliyev had managed to avoid encirclement.


Under the 6th Guards Tank Army's ferocious attacks, the front line near Oradea was steadily pushed back.


By 14 October 1944, the line had fallen back 14 kilometers, with the town finally occupied by Malinovsky's forces. Further to the north, a new crisis threatened Fretter-Pico. The 4th Ukrainian Front had finally attacked, falling on Otto Wöhler's German Eighth Army. The Eighth Army was threatening to collapse under the pressure of te Soviet onslaught. The German Eighth Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ... The German Eighth Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ...


On 15 October 1944, Hungarian Regent, Admiral Miklos Horthy, announced that Hungary had accepted an armistice with the USSR. Reacting quickly, German dictator Adolf Hitler ordered Otto Skorzeny to launch Operation Panzerfaust. Admiral Horthy inspecting the German fleet with Adolf Hitler Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868–February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October... Hitler redirects here. ... Otto Skorzeny Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 - July 5, 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... In October 1944, Hitler sent one of his favorite commando leaders, Otto Skorzeny, to Hungary when he received word that the countrys Regent, Miklós Horthy was secretly negotiating his countrys surrender to the looming Red Army. ...


By 16 October 1944, Skorzeny and his SS paratroopers had averted disaster by blackmailing Horthy into resigning and giving control of the government to Ferenc Szálasi, a pro-German leader. Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940 , often rendered Fallschirmjager in English, is the German word for paratrooper. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and...


Malinovsky now linked up with Group Pliyev. Malinovsky ordered the Soviet advance to continue. His aim was to capture Debrecen. Then he would swing north towards Nyíregyháza. If Malinovsky could capture Nyíregyháza, he would sever the German Eighth Army's line of communications. In response to the Soviet attacks, the German-Hungarian forces of Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico fought tenaciously. They turned each village and crossroads into a defensive position. Nyíregyháza (IPA: /ɲireÉŸhazÉ’/; approximate pronunciation: nyee-redy-haa-zah ) is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. ... Nyíregyháza (IPA: /ɲireÉŸhazÉ’/; approximate pronunciation: nyee-redy-haa-zah ) is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. ... The German Eighth Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ...


However, by 22 October 1944, the Soviets had captured Nyíregyháza. The line of communications of Wöhler's Eighth Army was severed. German Colonel-General Friessner had ordered Wöhler to disengage and fall back northwest of Nyíregyháza and attempt to form a defensive line. This move was already in progress when Mobile Group Pliyev cut Wöhler's lines of communications. The German Eighth Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ...


Encirclement

Friessner's Chief of Staff, Major-General Helmuth Grolman proposed a risky plan. Grolman believed that the first encirclement of Mobile Group Pyilev had failed because of the confusion of the German-Hungarian forces and lack of enough forces to effect an encirclement. Grolman argued that the situation had changed and that now such an effort would be possible. Friessner approved the plan. Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ...


The German 23rd Panzer Division and the German 1st Panzer Division, led by the King Tigers of the 503rd Heavy Panzer Detachment, would spearhead the attack to the east. Paul Klatt's 3rd Mountain Division (3.Gebirgs-Division), the 15th Infantry Division, and the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer formed the forces attacking to the west. The Feldherrnhalle, 13th Panzer, and 46th Infantry Divisions would be held back to counter any Soviet breakout attempt. The German 1st Panzer Division () was an armored division in the German Army during World War II. Its divisional insignia was a white oakleaf emblem. ... General characteristics Length: (hull) 7. ... The schwere-Panzer-Abteilung 503 (abbreviated sPzAbt 503) was a German heavy panzer abteilung equipped with Tiger I tanks and Panzer IIIs. ... The German 3rd Mountain Division was raised from the Austrian 5th and 7th Divisions. ... The SS Division Florian Geyer was a Waffen-SS cavalry division, named after Florian Geyer, that saw action on the Eastern Front in areas such as Briansk and Vjasma, amongst others. ... 46th infantry division was involved in the assault of Crimea in 1942. ...


On 23 October 1944, the attack got under way. The attack quickly sliced through the infantry corps defending Mobile Group Pliyev's lines of communication.


At 0200 on 24 October 1944, forces of the 23rd Panzer Division reached Nagykalló. Nagykalló was already occupied by the German 3rd Mountain Division. This completed the encirclement of Mobile Group Pliyev. As the corps of the mobile group launched probing attacks to find an escape route, it quickly became clear that there was no way out. The German-Hungarian forces began closing in on the encircled Soviets. Nagykálló (Yiddish: Kalov, Kaluv, Kalev, Kaliv) is a town in the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye (county) in Hungary. ...


Malinovsky sent Soviet forces north to break through to the mobile group. But these were met by a determined Axis resistance. Friessner had succeeded. Malinovsky's advance soon stalled. Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ...


No Escape

Pliyev realised that the situation was now desperate, and ordered attacks to break the encirclement, but the German-Hungarian lines held. By the evening of the 24 October, Pliyev realised that the only hope of escape was if Malinovsky could break through to him.


Malinovsky launched a major assault on 25 October, only to be halted by a fierce counterattack by the 1st Panzer Division and the 128th Panzergrenadier Regiment from the 23rd Panzer Division. On the same day, Mobile Group Pliyev attempted to breakout through the positions of the 3rd Mountain Division. The mountain troops held their ground against the Soviet armour, inflicting many casualties.


On 26 October, 23rd Panzer recaptured Nyíregyháza. The Soviet forces had carried out widespread atrocities during their occupation, including mass looting, rape and murder of civilians. This steeled the resolve of the German and especially the Hungarian troops. When Malinovsky launched his next assault, he was met by the most ferocious defence yet encountered. Meanwhile, Wöhler began moving his Eighth Army out through the escape route created through Nyíregyháza. By the 28th, Wöhler's army had escaped encirclement, and the circle around Mobile Group Pliyev would not be broken.


On October 29, the suvivors of Pliyev's shattered mobile group destroyed their vehicles and heavy weapons and attempted to reach the Soviet lines on foot. Three tank corps of Malinovsky's front had been annihilated in the fighting. The lightning Soviet assault on Budapest had been halted, and Hungarian troops remained in the war as Germany's ally until the end of the war in Europe. This was the last time that German forces were to defeat a full-strength Soviet force on even terms.


Order of Battle for Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico, October 1944

The 6. ... III Armeekorps III Armeekorps (mot) III Panzerkorps Gruppe Breith III Panzerkorps III Corps was a corps level formation of the German Heer which saw action in World War II. III Armeekorps History The III Corps was formed in October 1934 as III. Armeekorps. ... The German 1st Panzer Division () was an armored division in the German Army during World War II. Its divisional insignia was a white oakleaf emblem. ... The 22. ... Honorary cufftitle worn on the right cuff of all Feldherrnhalle personnel. ... 46th infantry division was involved in the assault of Crimea in 1942. ... 13th Infantry Division 13th Motorized Infantry Division 13th Panzer Division Panzer Division Feldherrnhalle 2 Created in 1934 or 1935 under the cover name Infanterieführer IV, then unveiled as the 13th Infantry Division when the creation of the Wehrmacht was announced. ... The schwere-Panzer-Abteilung 503 (abbreviated sPzAbt 503) was a German heavy panzer abteilung equipped with Tiger I tanks and Panzer IIIs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst...

References

  • Buchner, Alex - Ostfront 1944, 336 pages, ISBN 3-89555-101-5
  • Glantz, David M. - Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front 520 pages, ISBN 0-9717650-9-X
  • Hinze, Dr. Rolf - Mit dem Mut der Verzweifelung, 562 pages
  • Hinze, Dr. Rolf - TO THE BITTER END : The Final Battles of Army Groups A, North Ukraine, Centre-Eastern Front, 1944-45
  • Haupt, Werner - Die 8.Panzer-Division im Zweiten Weltkrieg
  • Pierik, Perry - Hungary 1944-1945. The Forgotten Tragedy
  • Mitcham, Samuel W. Jr - Crumbling Empire. The German Defeat in the East, 1944 336 pages, ISBN 0-275-96856-1

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