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Encyclopedia > Battle of Chattanooga III
Battle of Chattanooga

Conflict: American Civil War
Date: November 2325, 1863
Location: Chattanooga, Tennessee
Outcome: Union victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg
Strength
Military Division of the Mississippi (~80,000) Army of Tennessee (~50,000)
Casualties
5,815 6,670
Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign
ChattanoogaLookout MountainMissionary RidgeRinggold Gap

The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 2325, 1863, in the American Civil War. By defeating the Confederate forces of General Braxton Bragg, Union Army Major General Ulysses S. Grant eliminated the last Confederate control of Tennessee and opened the door to an invasion of the deep South that would lead to the Atlanta Campaign of 1864. The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-four mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Nickname: Scenic City (official), River City, Chatty, ChatTown, Chattavegas, The nooga Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: http://www. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government  â€¢ President  â€¢ Vice President Federal republic George... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans February 4, 1861–May 1... Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The American Civil Wars Battle of Lookout Mountain, also known as The Battle Above the Clouds took place on November 24, 1863 in southeastern Tennessee near Chattanooga. ... The Battle of Missionary Ridge was a major battle of the American Civil War fought on November 25, 1863 in Chattanooga, Tennessee as part of the Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Patrick Cleburne Strength Three Divisions One Division Casualties 507 221 The battle of Ringgold Gap was a battle in the American Civil War, fought in Northwest Georgia. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-four mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February, 1861, to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... State nickname: Volunteer State Official languages English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 2. ... Southern United States. ... Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ...

Contents


Prelude to battle

After their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, the 40,000 men of the Union Army of the Cumberland under Major General William Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee besieged the city, threatening to starve the Union forces into surrender. His pursuit to the city outskirts had been leisurely, giving the Union soldiers time to prepare defenses. Bragg's troops established themselves on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, both of which had excellent views of the city, the river, and the Union's supply lines. Confederate troops launched raids on all supply wagons heading toward Chattanooga, which made it necessary for the Union to find another way to feed their men. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (66,000) Casualties 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1... Union army in the west during the American Civil War, commanded at various times by Generals Robert Anderson, Don Carlos Buell, William S. Rosecrans, and George Thomas. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... William Rosecrans William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ... Nickname: Scenic City (official), River City, Chatty, ChatTown, Chattavegas, The nooga Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: http://www. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Tennessee was formed in November 1862. ... Missionary Ridge is a geographic feature in Chattanooga, Tennessee, site of the Battle of Missionary Ridge, a battle in the American Civil War, fought on November 25, 1863. ... See also: Lookout Mountain, Georgia and Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. ...


The Union government, alarmed by the potential for defeat, sent reinforcements. On October 17, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies, designated the Military Division of the Mississippi; he moved to reinforce Chattanooga and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas. Devising a plan known as the "Cracker Line", Grant's chief engineer, William F. "Baldy" Smith, launched a surprise amphibious landing at Brown's Ferry that opened the Tennessee River by linking up Thomas's Army of the Cumberland with a relief column of 20,000 troops led by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, thus allowing supplies and reinforcements to flow into Chattanooga, greatly increasing the chances for Grant's forces. In response, Bragg ordered Confederate Lieutenant General James Longstreet to force the Federals out of Lookout Valley. The ensuing Battle of Wauhatchie (October 2829, 1863) was one of the war's few battles fought exclusively at night. The Confederates were repulsed and the Cracker Line was secured. October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ... A riverboat passing under the Gay Street Bridge on the Tennessee River The river viewed from the top of Neyland Stadium. ... This article is about Joseph Hooker, the U.S. Civil War Major General. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... Battle of Wauhatchie Conflict American Civil War Date October 28-29, 1863 Place Hamilton County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Wauhatchie, also known as Browns Ferry, was fought October 28–29, 1863, in Hamilton County, Marion County, and Dade County, Tennessee, in the American Civil War. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Bragg weakened his forces by sending Longstreet's corps moving against Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside near Knoxville. When Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman arrived with his four divisions (20,000 men) in mid-November, Grant began offensive operations. Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Eastern view of Knoxville Nickname: The Marble City, K-Town, Big Orange Country, Knox Vegas Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: http://www. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ...


November 23: Initial movements

On November 23, Union forces under Thomas struck out and advanced east to capture a line from Orchard Knob to Bushy Knob, placing them halfway to the summit of Missionary Ridge. The advance was made in broad daylight and met little Confederate resistance. Bragg moved Walker's division (under Brig. Gen. States Rights Gist) from Lookout Mountain to strengthen his right flank. November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ...


November 24: Battle of Lookout Mountain

Battle of Chattanooga

The plan for November 24 was a two-pronged attack—Hooker against the Confederate left, Sherman the right. Hooker's three divisions struck at dawn at Lookout Mountain and found that the defile between the mountain and the river had not been secured. They barreled right through this opening; the assault ended around 3:00 p.m. when ammunition ran low and fog had enveloped the mountain. This action has been called the "Battle Above the Clouds" due to that fog. Bragg withdrew his forces from the southern end of the mountain to a line behind Chattanooga Creek, burning the bridges behind him. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3273x2547, 1093 KB) Summary Drawn by Hal Jespersen in Macromedia Freehand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3273x2547, 1093 KB) Summary Drawn by Hal Jespersen in Macromedia Freehand. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The American Civil Wars Battle of Lookout Mountain, also known as The Battle Above the Clouds took place on November 24, 1863 in southeastern Tennessee near Chattanooga. ...


Sherman crossed the Tennessee River successfully, but his assault was then delayed and the division of Patrick Cleburne was rushed in to reinforce the Confederate right flank. No attack would occur on this flank on the 24th. Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and a resident of the State of Arkansas. ...


November 25: Battle of Missionary Ridge and the aftermath

On November 25, Grant changed his plan and called for a double envelopment by Sherman and Hooker. Thomas was to advance after Sherman reached Missionary Ridge from the north. The Ridge was a formidable defensive position, manned in depth, and Grant knew that a frontal assault against it would be suicidal, unless it could be arranged in support of the flanking attacks by Sherman and Hooker. As the morning progressed, Sherman was unable to break Cleburne's line and Hooker's advance was slowed by the burned bridges on the creek. At 3:30 p.m., Grant was concerned that Bragg was reinforcing his right flank at Sherman's expense. Hence, he ordered Thomas to move forward and try to seize the first of three lines of Confederate entrenchments to his front. The Union soldiers moved forward and captured the first line, but were subjected there to punishing fire from the two remaining Confederate lines up the ridge. Without orders, the Union soldiers continued the attack against the remaining lines. The Union soldiers dashed madly up the ridge, shouting "Chickamauga, Chickamauga!" until they finally overwhelmed and captured the remaining Confederate lines. Bragg had misplaced his artillery on the crest of the ridge, rather than the military crest, and it was unable to provide effective fire. Nonetheless, the Army of the Cumberland's ascent of Missionary Ridge was one of the war's most dramatic events. A Union officer recalled that "little regard to formation was observed. Each battalion assumed a triangular shape, the colors at the apex. ... [a] color-bearer dashes ahead of the line and falls. A comrade grasps the flag. ... He, too, falls. Then another picks it up ... waves it defiantly, and as if bearing a charmed life, he advances steadily towards the top ..." November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Missionary Ridge was a major battle of the American Civil War fought on November 25, 1863 in Chattanooga, Tennessee as part of the Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign. ... Military crest is a term in military science that refers to the shoulder of a hill or ridge rather than its actual crest (highest point). ...


Grant was initially furious that his orders had not been followed exactly. Thomas was taken by surprise as well, knowing that his head would be on the chopping block if the assault failed. But it succeeded. By 4:30 p.m., Bragg's troops had broken and fled in panic.


One of the Confederacy's two major armies was routed. The Union held Chattanooga, the "Gateway to the Lower South." It became the supply and logistics base for Sherman's 1864 Atlanta Campaign. And Grant had won his final battle in the west, prior to receiving command of all Union armies in March 1864. 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ...


References

  • National Park Service battle summary
  • Catton, Bruce, The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War, 1982 ed., American Heritage Publishing, 1960, ISBN 0517385562. (Quotation "[a] color bearer..." p. 439.)

Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 — August 28, 1978) was a journalist and a notable historian of the American Civil War. ...

See also


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