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Encyclopedia > Battle of Blenheim
Battle of Blenheim
Part of the War of the Spanish Succession

The Duke of Marlborough Signing the Despatch at Blenheim. Oil by Robert Alexander Hillingford.
Date 13 August 1704[1]
Location Flag of Germany Blenheim,[2] Bavaria
Result Decisive Allied victory
Combatants
England,

Dutch Republic,
Holy Roman Empire,
Denmark Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... Image File history File links Duke-of-Marlborough-signing-Despatch-Blenheim-Bavaria-1704. ... The Duke of Marlborough Signing the Despatch at Blenheim Robert Alexander Hillingford (1825-1904) was an English painter. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Blindheim (English name: Blenheim) is a municipality in the Bavarian district of Germany, consisting of several villages. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ...

Kingdom of France,

Electorate of Bavaria Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... The borders of modern France closely align with those of the ancient territory of Gaul, inhabited by Celts known as Gauls. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... It has been suggested that Bavaria#Historical_Buildings be merged into this article or section. ...

Commanders
Duke of Marlborough,

Prince Eugène of Savoy Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ...

Duc de Tallard,

Maximilian II Emanuel,
Ferdinand de Marsin Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... MARSIN (Ferdinand, count of), (Liége, February 10, 1656 - Turin, September 9, 1706), Marshal of France. ...

Strength
52,000,
60 guns[3]
56,000,
90 guns
Casualties
4,542 killed,
7,942 wounded
34,190 killed, wouunded, captured or drowned

The Battle of Blenheim (referred to in some countries as the Second Battle of Höchstädt) was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 13 August 1704.[1] King Louis XIV sought to knock Emperor Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, and gain a favourable peace settlement. The dangers to Vienna were considerable: the Elector of Bavaria and Marshal Marsin’s forces in Bavaria threatened from the west, and Marshal Vendôme’s large army in northern Italy posed a serious danger with a potential offensive through the Brenner Pass. Vienna was also under pressure from Rákóczi’s Hungarian revolt from its eastern approaches. Realising the danger, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to alleviate the peril to Vienna by marching his forces south from Bedburg and help maintain Emperor Leopold within the Grand Alliance. Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... Combatants Austria France Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Nicolas Catinat Strength 30,000 25,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Carpi was a serie of manoeuvres in the summer of 1701, and the first battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on July 9, 1701... The Battle of Chieri was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 1, 1701 between France and Austria. ... The Battle of Cremona was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on February 1, 1702 between France and Austria. ... Combatants Austria France Commanders Eugene of Savoy Duc de Vendôme Strength 25,000 30,000 Casualties 2,500 4,000 {{{notes}}} Battle of Luzzara was battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Spain England United Provinces Commanders Francisco de Villadarias George Rooke James, Duke of Ormonde Strength 300 infantry 150 cavalry 50 ships 14,000 infantry Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Cádiz was a siege of the Spanish city of Cádiz in 1702 by an Anglo-Dutch fleet... Combatants France Holy Roman Empire Commanders Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden Strength Casualties The Battle of Friedlingen was fought in 1702 between France and the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Battle of Vigo Bay, 23 October 1702 by Ludolf Bakhuizen, painted c. ... Combatants Dutch Republic France Spain Commanders General Obdam General Slangenburg Duc de Boufflers Duc de Villeroi Strength 10,000 40,000 Casualties 3,400 1,750 The Battle of Ekeren, June 30, 1703 was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Austria France Bavaria Commanders Limburg Styrum Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Claude de Villars Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria Strength 16,000 24,000 Casualties 5,000 dead, wounded and (mainly) prisoners. ... The Battle of Schellenberg was fought on 2 July 1704. ... Combatants France Spain England United Provinces Commanders Comte de Toulouse Victor-Marie dEstrées George Rooke Strength 50 warships 6 frigates (3,577 guns) 24,275 men 53 ships of the line 6 frigates 7 fireships (3,614 guns) 22,543 men Casualties no ships lost 1,600-3... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Hendrik van Nassau-Ouwerkerk Duc de Villeroi Strength 14,000 (initially) 3,000 - 15,000 Casualties 50 - 200 3,000 The Battle of Elixheim, 18 July 1705, also known as the Passage of the Lines of Brabant was a... Combatants France Austria Prussia Commanders Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme Eugene of Savoy Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Strength 30,000 29,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Cassano, fought on August 16, 1705, was a hard fought battle in the Italian theatre of the War of... Combatants France Austria Commanders Duc de Vendôme Reventlow Strength 41,000 19,000 Casualties unknown 6,000 The Battle of Calcinato was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... The Battle of Turin took place on 7 September 1706 west of the city of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Philippists Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Austriacists Britain Portugal United Provinces Commanders Duke of Berwick Marquis de Ruvigny Marquês das Minas Strength 25,000 22,000 Casualties 3,500 dead or wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 12,000 captured The Battle of Almansa, fought on April... Combatants Britain Austria United Provinces Savoy France Spain Commanders Victor Amadeus II of Savoy Prince Eugene of Savoy René de Froulay de Tessé Strength 35,000 15,000 Casualties 10,000 dead or wounded Unknown The Battle of Toulon took place in 1707 in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Eugene of Savoy Louis François, duc de Boufflers Strength 35,000 besiegers + covering force 16,000 + relief force of 110,000 See also Siege of Lille (1667) The Siege of Lille (12 August-10... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... Combatants Spain Austria Britain United Provinces Commanders Francisco de Villadarias Guido Starhemberg Lord Stanhope Strength 22,000 18,000 Casualties 1,000 dead 3,000 captured 400 dead The Battle of Almenara took place on July 27, 1710 in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Spain Austria Britain United Provinces Cataluña Commanders Marquis de Bay Guido Starhemberg Lord Stanhope Strength 20,000 23,000 - 30,000 Casualties 7,000 - 10,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 5,000 captured Unknown, probably 1,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Saragossa (Spanish: Zaragoza) took... Combatants France Spain Britain Commanders Louis Joseph de Vendôme James Stanhope Strength 20,000–24,000 16,000–18,000 (4,000 present) Casualties 1,000 dead 600 dead 3,400 wounded or captured The Battle of Brihuega took place on December 8, 1710 in the War of the... Combatants France Spain Austria United Provinces Portugal Commanders Louis Joseph de Vendôme Guido Starhemberg Strength 20,000 12,000–14,000 Casualties 2,000–3,000 dead or wounded 2,000–3,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Villaviciosa took place on December 10, 1710 in the War... Combatants England Dutch Republic German states France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Claude Villars de Ravignau Strength 85,000 90,000 Casualties 4,080 2,500 killed and wounded 2,500 captured The Siege of Bouchain (9 August - 12 September 1711), following the Passage of the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Siege of Barcelona was a battle at the end of the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), which pitted Archduke Charles (backed by Britain, Austria, and the Netherlands), against Philip V, backed by France and Spain in a contest for Spanish lands. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... MARSIN (Ferdinand, count of), (Liége, February 10, 1656 - Turin, September 9, 1706), Marshal of France. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme (1654 - June 11, 1712), marshal of France, was the son of Louis, 2nd duke of Vendôme, and the great-grandson of Henry IV and Gabrielle dEstrée. ... The Brenner Pass (Italian Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass that creates a link through the Tyrolean Alps along the current border between the nations of Austria and Italy, one of the principal passes of the Alps. ... Francis II Rákóczi Francis II Rákóczi (Borsi, March 27, 1676 - Rodosto, Ottoman Empire, April 8, 1735) was the leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Rákóczis War for Independence (1703–1711) was the first significant freedom fight in Hungary against absolutist Habsburg rule. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Categories: Stub ...


A combination of deception and brilliant administration – designed to conceal his true destination from friend and foe alike – enabled Marlborough to march 250 miles (400km) unhindered from the Low Countries to the River Danube in five weeks. After securing Donauwörth on the Danube, the English Duke sought to engage the Elector's and Marsin's army before Marshal Tallard could bring reinforcements through the Black Forest. However, with the Franco-Bavarian commanders reticent to fight until their numbers were deemed sufficient, the Duke enacted a policy of spoliation in Bavaria designed to force the issue. The tactic proved unsuccessful, but when Tallard arrived to bolster the Elector’s army, and Prince Eugène arrived with reinforcements for the Allies, the two armies finally met on the banks of the Danube in and around the small village of Blindheim. It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of Danube, see Danube (disambiguation). ... Known as Nordschwabens freundliche Mitte (North Swabias Friendly Center), Donauwörth is a city in the German State of Bavaria (Bayern), in the region of Swabia (Schwabenland). ... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ... A map of Germany, showing the Black Forest in red. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Blindheim (English name: Blenheim) is a municipality in the Bavarian district of Germany, consisting of several villages. ...


Blenheim has gone down in history as one of the turning points of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance. Bavaria and Cologne were knocked out of the war, and King Louis’ hopes for a quick victory came to an end. France suffered over 30,000 casualties including the commander-in-chief, Marshal Tallard, who was taken captive to England. Before the 1704 campaign ended, the Allies had taken Landau, and the towns of Trèves and Trarbach on the Moselle in preparation for the following year’s campaign into France itself. Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... “Wien” redirects here. ... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the western bank of the Moselle River. ... Traben-Trarbach is a town and a municipality in the district Bernkastel-Wittlich, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ...

Contents

Background

By 1704 the War of the Spanish Succession was in its fourth year. The previous year had been a year of success for France and her allies, most particularly on the Danube where Marshal Villars and the Elector of Bavaria had created a direct threat to Vienna – the capital of the Holy Roman Empire.[4] Vienna had been saved by the dissension between the two commanders, leading to the brilliant Villars being replaced by the less dynamic Marshal Marsin. Nevertheless, by 1704, the threat was still real; Rákóczi's Hungarian revolt was already threatening the Empire's eastern approaches, and Marshal Vendôme’s forces threatened an invasion from northern Italy.[5] In the Courts of Versailles and Madrid, Vienna’s fall was confidently anticipated which would almost certainly lead to the collapse of the Grand Alliance.[6] The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Marshal Villars of France. ... Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... MARSIN (Ferdinand, count of), (Liége, February 10, 1656 - Turin, September 9, 1706), Marshal of France. ... Francis II Rákóczi Francis II Rákóczi (Borsi, March 27, 1676 - Rodosto, Ottoman Empire, April 8, 1735) was the leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Rákóczis War for Independence (1703–1711) was the first significant freedom fight in Hungary against absolutist Habsburg rule. ... Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme (1654 - June 11, 1712), marshal of France, was the son of Louis, 2nd duke of Vendôme, and the great-grandson of Henry IV and Gabrielle dEstrée. ... The Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


To isolate the Danube from any Allied intervention, Marshal Villeroi’s 46,000 troops were expected to pin the 70,000 Dutch and English troops around Maastricht in the Low Countries, whilst General de Coignes protected Alsace against surprise with a further corps.[4] The only forces immediately available for Vienna’s defence were Prince Louis of Baden's force of 36,000 stationed in the Lines of Stollhofen[7] to watch Marshal Tallard at Strasbourg; there was also a weak force of 10,000 men under Count Styrum observing Ulm. François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, by Alexandre-François Caminade François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi (April 7, 1644 - July 18, 1730), French soldier, came of a noble family which had risen into prominence in the reign of Charles IX. His father Nicolas de Neufville, marquis de... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Louis William, Margrave of Baden called the Türkenlouis or shield of the empire. ... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ... General Hermann Otto II of Limburg Stirum (April 1, 1646 - Donauwörth, July 8, 1704), count of Limburg Stirum and Bronckhorst, sovereign lord zu Gemen, was the son of Adolf Ernst of Limburg Stirum and an imperial army commander. ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube. ...


Both the Imperial Austrian Ambassador in London, Count Wratislaw, and the Duke of Marlborough realised the true implications of the situation on the Danube. The Dutch, however, who clung to Marlborough’s army for their own protection, were against any adventurous military operation as far south as the Danube, and would never willingly permit any major weakening of the forces in the Spanish Netherlands.[8] Marlborough, realising the only way to overcome Dutch obstruction was by the use of secrecy and guile, set out to deceive his Dutch allies by pretending to simply move his troops to the Moselle – a plan approved of by The Hague – but once there, he would slip the Dutch leash and link up with Austrian forces in southern Germany.[8] "My intentions," wrote the Duke from The Hague on 29 April to his governmental confidant, Sidney Godolphin, "are to march with the English to Coblenz and declare that I intend to campaign on the Moselle. But when I come there, to write to the Dutch States that I think it absolutely necessary for the saving of the Empire to march with the troops under my command and to join with those that are in Germany. . . in order to make measures with Prince Lewis of Baden for the speedy reduction of the Elector of Bavaria."[9] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Mosel basin area The Moselle (French Moselle, German Mosel, Luxembourgish Musel, Dutch Moezel, from Latin Mosella, little Meuse) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg and Germany. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (c. ... This article is about the German city Koblenz. ... Mosel basin area The Moselle (French Moselle, German Mosel, Luxembourgish Musel, Dutch Moezel, from Latin Mosella, little Meuse) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg and Germany. ...


Prelude

Protagonists march to the Danube

A scarlet caterpillar, upon which all eyes were at once fixed, began to crawl steadfastly day by day across the map of Europe, dragging the whole war with it.Winston S. Churchill.[10] The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG, OM, CH, FRS (November 30, 1874 - January 24, 1965) was a British politician, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and legislator, Churchill is generally regarded as one...

The Duke of Marlborough's march from Bedburg (near Cologne) to the Danube. It was a truly brilliant feat, covering 250 miles in five weeks with only a tiny loss by the wayside, the result of foresight and superb planning.

Marlborough's march commenced on 19 May from Bedburg, 20 miles north-west of Cologne. The army (assembled by the Duke's brother General Charles Churchill) consisted of 66 squadrons, 31 battalions and 38 guns and mortars totalling 21,000 men (14,000 of whom were British troops).[11] This force was to be augmented en route such that by the time Marlborough reached the Danube, it would number 40,000 (47 battalions, 88 squadrons). While Marlborough led his army, General Overkirk would maintain a defensive position in the Dutch Republic in case Villeroi mounted an attack. In fact, Marlborough calculated that as he marched south, the French commander would be drawn after him.[12] In this assumption Marlborough was correct; Villeroi shadowed the Duke with 30,000 men comprising of 60 squadrons and 42 battalions.[13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1472x1136, 249 KB) Summary The source of this image is from the History Department at the United States Military Academy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1472x1136, 249 KB) Summary The source of this image is from the History Department at the United States Military Academy. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Categories: Stub ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... A Squadron is a grouping of aircraft, naval vessels, armoured fighting vehicles or soldiers. ... In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ... Hendrik van Nassau-Ouwerkerk (The Hague, 16 December 1640 – Roeselare, 18 October 1708), lord of Ouwerkerk and Woudenberg was a Dutch military. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...

The Duke of Marlborough (1650–1722) by Sir Godfrey Kneller. His 250 mile (400 km) march to save Vienna falling into enemy hands was a masterpiece of deception, meticulous planning and organisation.
The Duke of Marlborough (1650–1722) by Sir Godfrey Kneller. His 250 mile (400 km) march to save Vienna falling into enemy hands was a masterpiece of deception, meticulous planning and organisation.

While Allied preparations had progressed, the French were striving to maintain and re-supply Marshal Marsin. Marsin had been operating with the Elector of Bavaria against the Imperial commander, Prince Louis of Baden, and was somewhat isolated from France whose only lines of communication lay through the rocky passes of the Black Forest. However, on 14 May, with considerable skill Marshall Tallard managed to bring 10,000 reinforcements and vast supplies and munitions through the difficult terrain, whilst outmanoeuvring Baron Thüngen, the Imperial general who sought to block his path.[14] Tallard then returned with his own force to the Rhine, once again side-stepping Thüngen's efforts to intercept him. The whole operation was an outstanding military achievement.[15] Image File history File links John_Churchill_Marlborough_porträtterad_av_Adriaen_van_der_Werff_(1659-1722). ... Image File history File links John_Churchill_Marlborough_porträtterad_av_Adriaen_van_der_Werff_(1659-1722). ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... A map of Germany, showing the Black Forest in red. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 26 May, Marlborough reached Coblenz, where the Moselle meets the Rhine. If he intended an attack along the Moselle the Duke must now turn west, but, instead, the following day the army crossed to the right bank of the Rhine, (pausing to add 5,000 waiting Hanoverians and Prussians).[16] "There will be no campaign on the Moselle," wrote Villeroi who had taken up a defensive position on the river, "the English have all gone up into Germany."[17] A second possible objective now occurred to the French – an Allied incursion into Alsace and an attack on the city of Strasbourg. Marlborough skilfully encouraged this apprehension by constructing bridges across the Rhine at Philippsburg, a ruse that not only encouraged Villeroi to come to Tallard's aid in the defence of Alsace, but one that ensured the French plan to march on Vienna remained paralysed by uncertainty.[18] is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German city Koblenz. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) were a German royal dynasty which succeeded the House of Stuart as kings of Great Britain in 1714. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Philippsburg is a small town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. ...


With Villeroi shadowing Marlborough’s every move, Dutch anticipation of an immediate French counter-offensive against their weakened position in the Netherlands thus proved illusory.[19] Encouraged by this sense of security the States-General promptly voted the Duke their full support and agreed to release the Danish contingent of 7 Battalions and 22 squadrons as a reinforcement.[19] The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-Généraux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the Netherlands. ...


Marlborough marched on, reaching the River Neckar at Heidelberg on 7 June.[19] By now the weather had worsened, turning the roads to mud, but the most careful preparations had been made. Key to Marlborough’s success was the cash he brought from England which ensured frequent stockpiles of food and supplies, encouraging local farmers – assured of payment – to bring their wares to the roadside and sell to the quartermaster as the army marched pass.[17] Marlborough crossed the Neckar near the small village of Heilbronn, and the Allies swung away from the Rhine towards the hills of the Swabian Jura and the Danube beyond. At last Marlborough’s destination was established without doubt. Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... A view on the Swabian Alb with its typical hills and a juniper meadow The Albtrauf which forms the western border of the Swabian Alb The Swabian Alb (German: Schwäbische Alb) is a middle mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663–1736) by Jacob van Schuppen. Prince Eugène met Marlborough for the first time in 1704. It was the start of a lifelong personal and professional friendship.
Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663–1736) by Jacob van Schuppen. Prince Eugène met Marlborough for the first time in 1704. It was the start of a lifelong personal and professional friendship.

Image File history File links Prinz-Eugen-von-Savoyen1. ... Image File history File links Prinz-Eugen-von-Savoyen1. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Portrait of Prince Eugene of Savoy. ...

Strategy

On 10 June, the Duke met for the first time the President of the Imperial War Council, Prince Eugène – accompanied by Count Wratislaw – at the village of Mundelsheim, half-way between the Danube and the Rhine.[20] By the 13 June, the Imperial Field Commander, Prince Louis of Baden, had joined them in Gross Heppach.[21] The three generals commanded a force of nearly 110,000 men. It was decided that Eugène would return with 28,000 men to the Lines of Stollhofen on the Rhine to keep an eye on Villeroi and Tallard, and prevent them going to the aid of the Franco-Bavarian army on the Danube. Meanwhile, Marlborough's and Baden's forces would combine, totalling 80,000 men, for the march on the Danube to seek out the Elector and Marsin before they could be reinforced.[22] June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mundelsheim is a wine growing town in the German State of Baden-Württemberg. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Knowing Marlborough's destination, the French Marshals met at Landau in Alsace on 13 June to rapidly construct an action plan to save Bavaria, but the rigidity of the French command system was such that any variations from the original plan had to be sanctioned by Versailles.[23] The Count of Mérode-Westerloo, commander of the Flemish troops in Tallard's army wrote – "One thing is certain: we delayed our march from Alsace for far too long and quite inexplicably."[23] Approval from Louis arrived on 27 June: Tallard was to reinforce Marsin and the Elector on the Danube via the Black Forest, with 40 battalions and 50 squadrons; Villeroi was to pin down the Allies defending the Lines of Stollhofen, or, if the Allies move all their forces to the Danube, he was to join with Marshal Tallard; and General de Coignes with 8,000 men, would protect Alsace. On 1 July Tallard and his army of 35,000 re-crossed the Rhine and began its march.[23] Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... The term Flemings (Dutch: ) denotes the majority population in Flanders (the northern half of Belgium). ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile, on 22 June, Marlborough's forces linked up with Baden's Imperial forces at Launsheim. A distance of 250 miles (400 km) had been covered in five weeks. Thanks to a carefully planned time-table, the effects of wear and tear had been kept to a minimum. Captain Parker described the march discipline – "As we marched through the country of our Allies, commissars were appointed to furnish us with all manner of necessaries for man and horse. . . the soldiers had nothing to do but pitch their tents, boil kettles and lie down to rest."[24] In response to Marlborough's manoeuvres, the Elector and Marsin, conscious of their numerical disadvantage with only 40,000 men, moved their forces to the entrenched camp at Dillingen on the north bank of the Danube; (Marlborough could not attack Dillingen because of a lack of siege guns – he was unable to bring any from the Low Countries and Baden had failed to supply any despite assurances to the contrary).[25] is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dillingen, or Dillingen an der Donau (Dillingen on the Danube) is a town of roughly 18000 inhabitants in Bavaria, Germany. ...

Allied assault on the Schellenberg – taken by coup de main on 2 July – provided the Allies with an excellent river crossing.
Allied assault on the Schellenberg – taken by coup de main on 2 July – provided the Allies with an excellent river crossing.

The Allies, nevertheless, needed a base for provisions and a good river crossing. On 2 July, therefore, Marlborough stormed the key fortress of Schellenberg on the heights above the town of Donauwörth. Count Jean d'Arco had been sent with 12,000 men from the Franco-Bavarian camp to hold the town and grassy hill, but after a ferocious and bloody battle, inflicting enormous casualties on both sides, Schellenberg finally succumbed, forcing Donauwörth to surrender shortly afterwards. The Elector, knowing his position at Dillingen was not now tenable, took up a position behind the strong fortifications of Augsburg.[26] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Battle of Schellenberg was fought on 2 July 1704. ... A Coup de main is a swift attack that relies on speed and surprise to accomplish its objectives in a single blow. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Schellenberg was fought on 2 July 1704. ... Known as Nordschwabens freundliche Mitte (North Swabias Friendly Center), Donauwörth is a city in the German State of Bavaria (Bayern), in the region of Swabia (Schwabenland). ... Jean Baptist, Comte dArco (German Johann Baptist, Graf von Arco) (c. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ...


Tallard’s march, meanwhile, presented a dilemma for Eugène. If the Allies were not to be outnumbered on the Danube, Eugène realised he must either try to cut Tallard off before he could get there, or, he must hasten to reinforce Marlborough.[27] However, if he withdrew from the Rhine to the Danube, Villeroi might also make a move south to link up with the Elector and Marsin. Eugène compromised. Leaving 12,000 troops behind guarding the Lines of Stollhofen, he marched off with the rest of his army to forestall Tallard.[27]


Tallard's progress, though, was proving pitifully slow. The French force had suffered considerably more than Marlborough’s troops on their march; many of his cavalry's horses were suffering from glanders, and the mountain passes were proving tough for the 8,000 wagons of provisions. Local German peasants, angry at French plundering, compounded Tallard's problems, leading Mérode-Westerloo to bemoan – "the enraged peasantry killed several thousand of our men before the army was clear of the Black Forest."[24] Additionally, Tallard had insisted on besieging the little town of Villingen for six days (1622 July), but abandoned the enterprise on discovering the approach of Eugène. Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Villingen-Schwenningen is the largest city of the Schwarzwald-Baar district located in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... (Redirected from 16 July) July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Elector in Augsburg was informed on 14 July that Tallard was on his way through the Black Forest. This good news bolstered the Elector's policy of inaction, encouraging him further to wait for the reinforcements.[28] But this reticence to fight induced Marlborough to undertake a controversial policy of spoliation in Bavaria, burning buildings and crops throughout the rich lands south of the Danube. This had two aims: firstly to put pressure on the Elector to fight or come to terms before Tallard arrived with reinforcements; and secondly, to ruin Bavaria as a base from which the French and Bavarian armies could either attack Vienna, or, pursue the Duke into Franconia if, at some stage, he had to withdraw northwards.[29] But this destruction, coupled with a protracted siege of Rain (916 July), had cause Prince Eugène to lament – ". . . since the Donauwörth action I cannot admire their performances." Later concluding – "If he has to go home without having achieved his objective, he will certainly be ruined."[30] Nevertheless, strategically the Duke had been able to place his numerically stronger forces between the Franco-Bavarian army and Vienna. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franconia (German: Franken) is a historic region in modern Germany, which today forms three administrative regions of the German federal state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... Rain (also: Rain am Lech) is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Final positioning

Manoeuvres before the battle 9–13 August.
Manoeuvres before the battle 913 August.

Marshal Tallard with 34,000 men reached Ulm, joining with the Elector and Marsin in Augsburg on the 5 August (although Tallard was not impressed to find that the Elector had dispersed his army in response to Marlborough's campaign of ravaging the region).[31] Also on the 5 August Eugène reached Höchstädt, riding that same night to meet with Marlborough at Schrobenhausen. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x720, 103 KB) Summary Description  Maneuvers before the Battle of Blenheim, 6-13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x720, 103 KB) Summary Description  Maneuvers before the Battle of Blenheim, 6-13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Höchstädt is a small town in Bavaria, Germany, near the banks of the river Danube. ... Schrobenhausen is a town in the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany. ...


Marlborough knew it was necessary that another crossing point over the Danube would be required in case Donauwörth fell to the enemy. On 7 August, therefore, the first of Baden's 15,000 Imperialist troops (the remainder following two days later) left Marlborough's main force to besiege the heavily defended city of Ingolstadt.[32] Marlborough was not confident Baden could take the city, but with the prospect of the Elector breaking cover and coming to its rescue, both Marlborough and Eugène were relieved to have an excuse to be rid of their irascible, and possibly unreliable, colleague.[33] is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ...


With Eugène at Höchstädt on the north bank of the Danube, and Marlborough at Rain on the south bank, Tallard and the Elector debated their next move. Tallard preferred to bide his time, replenish supplies and allow Marlborough's Danube campaign to flounder in the colder weeks of Autumn; the Elector and Marsin, however, newly reinforced, were keen to push ahead. The French and Bavarian commanders eventually agreed on a plan and decided to attack Eugène's smaller force. On 9 August, the Franco-Bavarian forces began to cross to the north bank of the Danube.[34] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 10 August, Eugène sent an urgent dispatch reporting that he was falling back to Donauwörth – "The enemy have marched. It is almost certain that the whole army is crossing the Danube at Lauingen. . . The plain of Dillingen is crowded with troops. . . Everything, milord, consists in speed and that you put yourself forthwith in movement to join me tomorrow, without which I fear it will be too late." By a series of brilliant marches Marlborough concentrated his forces on Donauwörth and, by noon 11 August, General Churchill's vanguard had reached Eugène (the rest arriving within 12 hours).[35] Marlborough and Eugène then moved their combined forces to Münster, five miles from the French camp. is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lauingen is a town in the district of Dillingen in Bavaria, Germany. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Münster is a town in the district of Donau-Ries in Bavaria in Germany. ...


By 12 August Tallard and the Elector's forces had encamped behind the small river Nebel, near the village of Blindheim. That same day Marlborough and Eugène carried out a reconnaissance of the French position from the church spire at Tapfheim. Tallard’s army consisted of 56,000 men and 90 guns; the army of the Grand Alliance had 52,000 men and 60 guns. The Allied commanders decided to risk everything, and agreed to attack on the following day.[35] is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Blindheim (English name: Blenheim) is a municipality in the Bavarian district of Germany, consisting of several villages. ... Tapfheim is a town in the district of Donau-Ries in Bavaria in Germany. ... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ...


Battle

The battlefield

The battlefield stretched for nearly 4 miles. The extreme right flank of the Franco-Bavarian army was covered by the Danube; to the extreme left flank lay the undulating pine-covered hills of the Swabian Jura. A small stream, the Nebel, (the ground either side of which was soft and marshy and only fordable intermittently), fronted the French line. The French right rested on the village of Blindheim near where the Nebel flowed into the Danube. Between Blindheim and the next village of Oberglau the fields of wheat had been cut to stubble and were now ideal to deploy troops. From Oberglau to the next hamlet of Lutzingen the terrain of ditches, thickets and brambles was potentially difficult ground for the attackers.[36]


Allied planning

At 02:00 on 13 August, 40 squadrons were sent forward towards the enemy, followed at 03:00 by the main Allied force pushing over the Kessel. At 06:00 they reach Schwenningen, two miles from Blindheim where Marlborough and Eugène made their final plans. The Allied commanders agreed that Marlborough would command 36,000 troops and attack Tallard's force of 33,000 on the left (including capturing the village of Blindheim), whilst Eugène, commanding 16,000 men would attack the Elector and Marsin's combined forces of 23,000 troops on the right wing; if this attack was pressed hard the Elector and Marsin would have no troops to send to aid Tallard on their right.[37] Lieutenant-General John Cutts would attack Blindheim in concert with Eugène's attack. With the French flanks busy, Marlborough could cross the Nebel and deliver the fatal blow to the French at their centre. However, Marlborough would have to wait until Eugène was in position before the general engagement could begin. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant-General John Cutts, 1st Baron Cutts of Gowran PC (1661 – January 25, 1707), British soldier and author, came of an Essex family. ...


Initial manoeuvres

The position of the forces at noon, 13 August. Marlborough took control of the left arm of the Allied forces including the attacks on Blindheim and Oberglau, whilst Eugène commanded the right including the attacks on Lutzingen.

Just after 07:00 Marlborough's men approached the Nebel to discern possible crossing points; pontoons were prepared and fascines cut to facilitate its crossing. For Tallard, however, the very last thing he was expecting that morning was to be attacked by the Allies – both he and his colleagues were convinced that Marlborough and Eugène were about to retreat north-eastwards towards Nördlingen.[38] Tallard, in fact, wrote a report to this effect to King Louis that very morning, but hardly had he sent the messenger when the Allied army began to appear opposite his camp. "I could see", wrote Mérode-Westerloo, "the enemy advancing ever closer in nine great columns. . . filling the whole plain from the Danube to the woods on the horizon."[39] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1121x864, 167 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Blenhiem - Situation about noon, 13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1121x864, 167 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Blenhiem - Situation about noon, 13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... For the car body style, see Ponton (automobile). ... A Churchill VIII AVRE carrying a fascine on its front. ... Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany, with a population of almost 20,000. ...


At 08:00 the French artillery on their right wing opened fire, answered by Colonel Blood's batteries. An hour later Tallard, the Elector, and Marsin climbed Blindheim's church tower to finalise their plans; but as the enemy columns grew longer, it was clear they had little time to deploy their forces in an effective battle formation.[40] The French commanders were divided as to how to utilise the Nebel: Tallard's tactic – opposed by Marsin and the Elector who felt it better to close their infantry right up to the stream itself – was to lure the allies across before unleashing their cavalry upon them, causing panic and confusion; while the enemy was struggling in the marshes, they would be caught in crossfire from Blindheim and Oberglau.[40] But this required perfect timing: if the cavalry were sent too late, the enemy might prove impossible to dislodge, wasting the impediment of this natural obstacle.[41] Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ...


The Franco-Bavarian commanders deployed their forces. In the village of Lutzingen, Count Maffei positioned five Bavarian battalions with 16 guns at the village's edge. In the woods to the left of Lutzingen, seven French battalions under the Marquis de Rozel moved into place. Between Lutzingen and Oberglau the Elector placed 27 squadrons of cavalry – Count d'Arco commanded 14 Bavarian squadrons and Count Wolframsdorf had 13 more in support nearby. To their right stood Marsin's 40 French squadrons and 12 battalions. The village of Oberglau was packed with 14 battalions commanded by the Marquis de Blainville (including effective Irish mercenaries known as the 'Wild Geese'). Six batteries of guns were ranged alongside the village.[42] The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ...


On the right of these French and Bavarian positions, Tallard deployed 64 French and Walloon squadrons supported by nine French battalions. In the cornfield next to Blindheim stood three battalions from the Regiment de Roi. Nine battalions occupied the village itself, commanded by the Marquis de Clerambault. A further four battalions stood to the rear and a further 11 were in reserve. These battalions were supported by Hautefille's 12 squadrons of dismounted dragoons.[42]


Allied left and Blindheim

Part of the Battle of Blenheim tapestry at Blenheim Palace by Judocus de Vos. In the background is the village of Blenheim, in the middle ground are the two water mills that Rowe had to take to gain a bridgehead over the Nebel. The foreground shows a British grenadier with a captured French colour.

Eugène was expected to be in position by 11:00, but due to the difficult terrain and enemy fire, progress was slow.[43] Marlborough's anxiety was finally allayed when, just past noon, Colonel Cadogan reported that Eugène's Prussian and Danish infantry were in place – the order for the general advance was given. At 13:00, Lord John Cutts was ordered to attack the village of Blindheim whilst Prince Eugène was requested to assault Lutzingen on the Allied right flank.[44] Image File history File links Battle_of_Blenheim_Tapestry. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Blenheim_Tapestry. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... Part of the Battle of Blenheim tapestry at Blenheim Palace by de Vos. ... Blenheim may refer to: // The Bristol Blenheim, a World War II-era light bomber used primarily by the Royal Air Force Blenheim, New York, a town in Schoharie County, New York, United States Blenheim, New Zealand, a town at the top of the South Island of New Zealand Blenheim, Ontario... William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan (1672 - 1726) was a noted military officer in the army of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


Cutts ordered Brigadier-General Archibald Rowe's British brigade, supported by John Ferguson's British brigade on his left, to attack. The French in the village, supported by dragoons on the flank, opened fire when the British were within 30 yards of the their barricades. Repeated disciplined French volleys in the space of minutes forced the British back towards the Nebel, inflicting heavy casualties including the mortally wounded General Rowe.[45] At this moment, with Cutts’ attack faltering, eight squadrons of elite Gens d'Armes, commanded by the veteran Swiss officer, Beat-Jacques von Zurlauben, fell upon the British troops, cutting at the exposed flank of Rowe’s own regiment. However, Wilkes’ Hessian brigade was nearby, lying in the marshy grass at the water’s edge. Ably assisted by five squadrons of cavalry, Wilkes’ brigade stood firm and repulsed the Gens d'Armes with steady fire, enabling the British and Hessians to launch another attack.[46] The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse. ...


Although they were repulsed once again, these persistent attacks on Blindheim eventually bore fruit, panicking Clérambault into making the worst French error of the day.[47] Without consulting Marshal Tallard, Clérambault ordered his reserve battalions into the village, upsetting the balance of the French position and nullifying the French numerical superiority. "The men were so crowded in upon one another," wrote Mérode-Westerloo, "that they couldn’t even fire – let alone receive or carry out any orders."[47] Marlborough, spotting this error, ordered Cutts to simply contain the enemy within Blindheim; no more than 5,000 Allied soldiers were able to pen in twice the number of French infantry and dragoons who were now helpless to assist Tallard’s cavalry nearby.[48]


Allied right

. . .Prince Eugène and the Imperial troops had been repulsed three times – driven right back to the woods – and had taken a real drubbing. – Mérode-Westerloo.[49]

Memorial for the Battle of Blenheim 1704, Lutzingen, Germany.
Memorial for the Battle of Blenheim 1704, Lutzingen, Germany.

On the Allied right, Eugène's Prussian and Danish forces were desperately fighting the numerically superior forces of the Elector and Marsin. Prince of Anhalt-Dessau led his troops across the Nebel to assault the well-fortified position of Lutzingen. As soon as the infantry crossed the stream, however, they were struck by Maffei's infantry, and salvoes from the Bavarian guns positioned both in front of the village and in enfilade on the wood-line to the right. Despite heavy casualties the Prussians attempted to storm the great battery, whilst the Danes, under Count Scholten, attempted to drive the French infantry out of the copses beyond the village.[50] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (938x1251, 306 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Blenheim Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (938x1251, 306 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Blenheim Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (July 3, 1676 – April 7, 1747), called the Old Dessauer (der alte Dessauer), general field marshal in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and was born at Dessau. ...


With the infantry heavily engaged, Eugène's cavalry picked its way across the Nebel. After initial success, his first line of cavalry, under the Imperial General of Horse, Prince Maximilien of Hanover, were pressed by the second line of Marsin's cavalry, and were forced back across the Nebel in confusion. Nevertheless, the exhausted French were unable to follow up their advantage, and the two cavalry forces tried to regroup and reorder their ranks.[51] But without cavalry support, the Prussian and Danish infantry were also forced to pull back across the Nebel (it was only through the leadership of Eugène and the Prussian Prince, that kept the Imperialist infantry from quitting altogether).[52]


After rallying his troops, Eugène prepared to launch a second attack, led by the second-line squadrons under the Duke of Württemberg-Teck; but they were caught in the murderous cross-fire from the artillery in Lutzingen and Oberglau, and were once again thrown back in disarray. However, the French and Bavarians were almost as disordered as their opponents, and they too were in need of inspiration from their commander, the Elector, who was seen – ". . . riding up and down, and inspiring his men with fresh courage."[53] Anhalt-Dessau’s troops once again stormed Lutzingen and the wooded copse nearby, and were once again repulsed back across the stream.


Centre and Oberglau

. . .they began to pass [the marshes and the Nebel] as fast as the badness of the ground would permit them. – Josias Sanby, Churchill's chaplain.[54]

Marshal Tallard (1652–1728). He should not have allowed Clérambault to shut most of the infantry of the French right wing into Blindheim leaving him short of infantry support when it most mattered.
Marshal Tallard (1652–1728). He should not have allowed Clérambault to shut most of the infantry of the French right wing into Blindheim leaving him short of infantry support when it most mattered.

While these events around Blindheim and Lutzingen were taking place, Marlborough was preparing to cross the Nebel. The centre, commanded by the Duke's brother, General Charles Churchill, consisted of 28 battalions of infantry arranged in two lines: seven battalions in the front line to secure a foothold across the Nebel, and 11 battalions in the rear providing cover from the Allied side of the stream. Between the infantry were placed two lines, 71 squadrons of cavalry. The first line of foot was to pass the stream first and march as far to the other side as could be conveniently done. This line would then form and cover the passage of the horse, leaving gaps in the line of infantry large enough for the cavalry to pass through and take their position in front. Image File history File links Camille_d'Hostun,_duc_de_Tallard. ... Image File history File links Camille_d'Hostun,_duc_de_Tallard. ... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ...


Marlborough ordered the formation forward. Once again Zurlauben's Gens d'Armes charged, looking to rout Lumley's British cavalry who linked Cutts' column facing Blindheim with Churchill's infantry. As these elite French cavalry attacked, they were faced by five British squadrons under Colonel Francis Palmes. To the consternation of the French, the Gens d'Armes were pushed back in terrible confusion.[55] The Elector exclaimed – "What? Is it possible? The gentlemen of France fleeing?" Palmes, however, attempted to follow up his success but was repulsed in some confusion by other French cavalry and musketry fire from the edge of Blindheim.[55] General Henry Lumley (c. ...


Nevertheless, Tallard was alarmed by the repulse of the elite Gens d'Armes and urgently rode across the field to ask Marsin for reinforcements; but on the basis of being hard pressed by Eugène, Marsin refused.[56] While Tallard was in conference, Clérambault was piling more and more infantry into Blindheim. Fatally, the commander-in-chief did nothing to rectify this grave mistake, and soon, all that Tallard had to oppose Churchill’s forces in the centre were nine small battalions of infantry.[56] Zurlauben tried several more times to disrupt the Allies forming on Tallard's side of the stream; his front-line cavalry darting forward down the gentle slope towards the Nebel. But the attack lacked co-ordination, and the Allied infantry’s steady volleys disconcerted the French horsemen.[57] During these skirmishes Zurlauben fell mortally wounded, and died two days later.

Allied attack on Oberglau.
Allied attack on Oberglau.

Churchill’s column encountered further problems. The Danish cavalry, under the Duke of Württemberg (not to be confused with the Duke of Württemberg who fought with Eugène), had made slow work of crossing the Nebel near Oberglau; harassed by Marsin’s infantry near the village, the Danes were driven back across the stream. Count Horn’s Dutch infantry managed to push the French back from the water’s edge, but it was apparent that before Marlborough could launch his main effort against Tallard, Oberglau would have to be secured. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A cherub paints the portrait of Duke Eberhard Ludwig in this 1711 mural by Luca Antonio Colombo in the Ludwigsburg Palace Duke Eberhard Ludwig (18 September 1676 – 31 October 1733) was the tenth duke of Württemberg, from 1692 until 1733. ...


Count Horn directed the Prince of Holstein-Beck to take the village, however, the two Dutch brigades were cut down by the French and Irish troops, capturing and mortally wounding the Prince during the action.[58] The battle was now in the balance. If Holstein-Beck’s Dutch column was destroyed, the Allied army would be split in two; Eugène’s wing would be isolated from Marlborough’s, passing the initiative to the Franco-Bavarian forces now engaged across the whole plain.[59] Seeing the opportunity, Marsin ordered his cavalry to change from facing Eugène, and turn towards their right and the open flank of Churchill’s infantry. Marlborough (who had crossed the Nebel on a makeshift bridge to get a closer view), ordered Hulsen's German battalions to support the Dutch infantry. A Dutch cavalry brigade under Averock was also called forward but soon came under pressure from Marsin’s more numerous squadrons.


Marlborough now requested Eugène to release Count Hendrick Fugger and his Imperial Cuirassier brigade to help repel the French cavalry thrust. Despite his own desperate struggle, the Imperial Prince at once complied, demonstrating the high degree of confidence and mutual co-operation between the two generals.[60] Although the Nebel stream lay between Fugger's and Marsin's squadrons, the French were forced to change front to meet this new threat, thus forestalling the chance for Marsin to strike at Marlborough’s infantry.[61] With support from Colonel Blood's batteries, the Hessian, Hanoverian and Dutch infantry – now commanded by Count Berensdorf – were ordered to push the French and Irish infantry back into Oberglau so that they could not again threaten Churchill’s flank as he moved against Tallard. The fighting was prolonged and costly, but eventually their aims were achieved. During the struggle the French commander in the village, the Marquis de Blainville, was amongst the heavy casualties.[62]


Breakthrough

Breakthrough: Position of the battle at 17:30. The relatively small number of French infantry in the centre were decimated by the Allied guns loaded with 'partridge shot'.
Breakthrough: Position of the battle at 17:30. The relatively small number of French infantry in the centre were decimated by the Allied guns loaded with 'partridge shot'.

The [French] foot remained in the best order I ever saw, till they were cut to pieces almost in rank and file.Lord Orkney.[63] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1111x856, 150 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Blenheim - Penetration, 1730, 13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1111x856, 150 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Blenheim - Penetration, 1730, 13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military... Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney (February 9, 1666 - January 29, 1737) was a British soldier. ...


By 16:00, with the enemy troops besieged in both Blindheim and Oberglau, the Allied centre of 81 squadrons supported by 18 battalions was firmly planted amidst the French line of 64 squadrons and nine battalions of raw recruits. Marlborough sent a message to Eugène who was in the saddle fighting Bavarian cavalry near Lutzingen; if Eugène would just keep Marsin and the Elector occupied, he would now destroy Tallard’s cavalry in the centre.[62]


At about 17:00 the Allied cavalry, supported by the infantry, moved forward. The weary French cavalry exerted themselves once more against the first line – Lumley's English and Scots on the Allied left, and Hompesch's Dutch and German squadrons on the Allied right. Tallard's squadrons, lacking infantry support, were tired and ragged but managed to push the Allied first line back to their infantry. With the battle still not won, Marlborough had to rebuke one of his cavalry officers who was attempting to leave the field – "Sir, you are under a mistake, the enemy lies that way. . ."[63] However, the second Allied line under von Bulow and the Count of Ost-Friese was then ordered forward, and, driving through the centre, the Allies finally put Tallard's cavalry to rout. The remaining nine French infantry battalions fought with desperate valour, trying to form square.[63] But it was futile. Mérode-Westerloo later wrote – "[They] died to a man where they stood, stationed right out in the open plain – supported by nobody."[63]

Pursuit. Marshal Tallard was amongst the captured. Courteously, Marlborough offered him the use of his own carriage, which Tallard accepted. In the scramble to escape, up to 3,000 French and Bavarian troops are thought to have drowned in the Danube.

The majority of Tallard's retreating troops headed for Höchstädt but most did not make the safety of the town, plunging instead into the Danube where upwards of 3,000 French horsemen drowned; others were cut down by the pursuing cavalry. After a final rally behind his camp's tents, shouting entreaties to stand and fight, Marshal Tallard was caught up in the rout and pushed towards Sondersheim.[64] Surrounded by a squadron of Hessian troops, Tallard surrendered to Lieutenant-Colonel de Boinenburg, the Prince of Hesse's aide-de-camp and sent under escort to Marlborough.[65] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x853, 148 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Blenhiem - Explotation, 13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military [1... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x853, 148 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Blenhiem - Explotation, 13 August 1704 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military [1... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Höchstädt is a small town in Bavaria, Germany, near the banks of the river Danube. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ...


Fall of Blindheim

. . .our men fought in and through the fire. . . until many on both sides were burned to death. – Private Deane, 1st Regiment Foot Guards.[66] The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. ...


With Tallard's army in retreat the Allies once again attacked the Bavarian stronghold at Lutzingen. This time, though, the Prussians were able to storm the Bavarian guns, and despite the gun crews fighting fiercely, they were cut down without mercy.[67] Additionally, beyond the village the Danes defeated the French infantry in a desperate hand-to-hand bayonet struggle. The Elector and Marsin decided the battle was lost and, like the remnants of Tallard's army, fled the battlefield (albeit in better order than Tallard's men since Eugène’s forces were too tired to pursue). Blindheim on their right, was left to fend for themselves.


The French infantry fought tenaciously to hold on to their position in Blindheim but Clérambault's insistence on confining his huge force in the village was to seal his fate that day.[68] Realising his tactical mistake had contributed to Tallard's defeat in the centre, Clérambault deserted Blindheim and the 27 battalions defending the village, and, whilst attempting to cross the Danube, drowned in the fast flowing river.

Diorama of the battle in the Höchstädt museum. In the middle ground the Allied cavalry are breaking through, pushing Tallard's squadrons from the battlefield. The foreground depicts the fierce fighting in and around Blindheim.

Marlborough now had to turn his attention from the fleeing enemy to direct Churchill to detach more infantry to storm the village. Earl Orkney's infantry, Hamilton's British brigade and St Paul's Hanoverians moved across to the cottages. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting gradually forced the French towards the village centre, in and around the walled churchyard. Hay and Ross's dismounted dragoons were also sent, but suffered under a counter-charge delivered by the regiments of Artois and Provence. Colonel Belville’s Hanoverians were fed into the battle to steady the resolve of the dragoons, and once more went into the attack. The Allied progress was slow and hard, and like the defenders, they suffered many casualties.[69] Image File history File linksMetadata Battle_of_Blenheim_Diorama. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Battle_of_Blenheim_Diorama. ... A diorama is any of the two display devices mentioned below. ... Höchstädt is a small town in Bavaria, Germany, near the banks of the river Danube. ... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ... Blindheim (English name: Blenheim) is a municipality in the Bavarian district of Germany, consisting of several villages. ... George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney (February 9, 1666 - January 29, 1737) was a British soldier. ...


Many of the cottages were now burning, obscuring the field of fire and driving the defenders out of their positions. Hearing the din of battle in Blindheim, Tallard sent a message to Marlborough offering to order the garrison to withdraw from the field. The Duke, although visibly agitated by the suggestion calmly replied – "Inform M. Tallard that, in the position in which he is now, he has no command."[70] After being thrown back no fewer than three times, the Earl of Orkney tried a different tactic and offered the defenders a temporary cease-fire to allow the wounded to be dragged out of the burning cottages. This lull in the fighting gave Orkney a chance to persuade the Marquis de Blanzac – who had taken charge in Clérambault's absence – to end the needless sacrifice of his men. Reluctantly, the French commander accepted the inevitability of defeat and by 21:00, some 10,000 of France's best infantry had laid down their arms.[71]


During these events Marlborough was still in the saddle conducting the pursuit of the broken enemy. Pausing for a moment he scribbled a note on the back of an old tavern bill addressed to his wife, Sarah: "I have no time to say more but to beg you will give my duty to the Queen, and let her know her army has had a glorious victory."[72] Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, c. ...


Aftermath

French losses were immense: some 30,000 killed, wounded and missing.[73] Moreover, the myth of French invincibility had been destroyed and Louis’ hopes of an early and victorious peace had been wrenched from his grasp.[73] Mérode-Westerloo summarised the case against Tallard’s army: "The French lost this battle for a wide variety of reasons. For one thing they had too good an opinion of their own ability. . . Another point was their faulty field dispositions, and in addition there was rampant indiscipline and inexperience displayed. . . It took all these faults to lose so celebrated a battle."[74] But it was a hard fought contest, leading Prince Eugène to observe – "I have not a squadron or battalion which did not charge four times at least."[75] Nevertheless, Marlborough and Eugène, working indivisibly together, had saved the Habsburg Empire and thereby preserved the Grand Alliance from collapse.[73] Munich, Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Ulm and all remaining territory of Bavaria soon fell to the Allies. By the Treaty of Ilbersheim, signed 7 November 1704, Bavaria was placed under Austrian military rule, allowing the Habsburgs to utilise its resources for the rest of the conflict.[76] For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube. ... The Treaty of Ilbersheim was signed on November 7, 1704, after the Battle of Blenheim. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


The remnants of the Elector of Bavaria's and Marshal Marsin's wing limped back to Strasbourg, losing another 7,000 men through desertion.[77] Despite being offered the chance to remain as ruler of Bavaria (under strict terms of an alliance with Austria), the Elector left his country and family in order to continue the war against the Allies from the Spanish Netherlands where he still held the post of governor-general. Their commander-in-chief that day, Marshal Tallard – who, unlike his subordinates, had not been ransomed or exchanged – was taken to England and imprisoned in Nottingham until his release in 1711.[78] Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... MARSIN (Ferdinand, count of), (Liége, February 10, 1656 - Turin, September 9, 1706), Marshal of France. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Camille dHostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652-1728) was a French military commander. ... Nottingham is a city, unitary authority, and county town of Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands of England. ...


The 1704 campaign lasted considerably longer than usual as the Allies sought to wring out maximum advantage. Realising that France was too powerful to be forced to make peace by a single victory, however, Eugène, Marlborough and Baden met to plan their next moves. For the following year the Duke proposed a campaign along the valley of the River Moselle to carry the war deep into France. This required the capture of the major fortress of Landau which guarded the Rhine, and the towns of Trèves and Trarbach on the Moselle itself.[78] Trèves was taken on 26 October and Landau fell on 23 November to the Margrave of Baden and Prince Eugène; with the fall of Trarbach on 20 December, the campaign season for 1704 came to an end. Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the western bank of the Moselle River. ... Traben-Trarbach is a town and a municipality in the district Bernkastel-Wittlich, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marlborough returned to England on 14 December (O.S) to the acclamation of Queen Anne and the country. In the first days of January the 34 French standards and the 128 colours that were taken during the battle were borne in procession to Westminster Hall. But there was still more to come. In February 1705, Queen Anne granted him the Park of Woodstock and promised a sum of £240,000 to build a suitable house as a gift from a grateful crown in recognition of his victory – a victory which British historian Sir Edward Creasy considered one of the pivotal battles in history, writing – "Had it not been for Blenheim, all Europe might at this day suffer under the effect of French conquests resembling those of Alexander in extent and those of the Romans in durability."[79] is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy (1812 - 1878), historian, was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and called to the Bar in 1837. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Cultural references

The poem After Blenheim, written by Robert Southey, tells about children finding the skull of one of the "... many thousand men, said he, Were slain in that great victory" [80] Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b All dates in the article are New Style (unless otherwise stated). The Old Style calendar as used in England differed by eleven days after 1700. Thus, the Battle of Blenheim is 13 August N.S or 2 August O.S.
  2. ^ The village of Blindheim (Blenheim in English) lies on the Danube River, 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Donauwörth in Bavaria, southern Germany.
  3. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.154 states 66 guns
  4. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.124
  5. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.285
  6. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.125
  7. ^ The Lines of Stollhofen are a military chain of posts designed for the defence of the Rhine Valley. The lines range 20 miles between Stollhofen, a small village on the Rhine, to the Black forest. The barrier was designed to stop the French marching down the Rhine from Strasbourg.
  8. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.127
  9. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.18
  10. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.136
  11. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.134. At the start of the campaign an English squadron consisted of 150 mounted men; a battalion numbered 700-foot soldiers. Falkner p.116 states 600 men in a battalion.
  12. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.19
  13. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.129. Barnett states 45 squadrons and 36 battalions.
  14. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.20. Falkner states 8,000
  15. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.20. Although Chandler p.131 states that many men were lost on the return journey through desertion.
  16. ^ Tincey: Blenheim 1704: The Duke of Marlborough’s Masterpiece, p.31
  17. ^ a b Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.22
  18. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p. 89
  19. ^ a b c Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.129
  20. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.23
  21. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.25. Eugène had doubts about Baden's reliability, for he was a close friend of the Elector of Bavaria. It was even suspected that Baden was secretly corresponding with his old comrade.
  22. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.132
  23. ^ a b c Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.133
  24. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.131
  25. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.26
  26. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.40
  27. ^ a b Henderson: Prince Eugen of Savoy, p.103
  28. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.139
  29. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.41
  30. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.215
  31. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.44
  32. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.221. If Ingolstadt could be captured, it would give the allies control of the Danube all the way up to Passau. A successful siege also promised glory to Baden independent of Marlborough.
  33. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.221. There was some evidence that his political reliability was suspect.
  34. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.47. Falkner states that both these events occurred on the 6 August.
  35. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.141
  36. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.106
  37. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.57
  38. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.108
  39. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.109
  40. ^ a b Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.58
  41. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.240
  42. ^ a b Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.61
  43. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.63
  44. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.66
  45. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.67
  46. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.68
  47. ^ a b Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.145
  48. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.70
  49. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.270
  50. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.71
  51. ^ Tincey: Blenheim 1704: The Duke of Marlborough’s Masterpiece, p.67
  52. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.268
  53. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.73
  54. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.258
  55. ^ a b Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.76
  56. ^ a b Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.77
  57. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.78
  58. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.264
  59. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.80. Tallard later recorded – "At this moment I saw the hope of victory."
  60. ^ Chandler: A Guide to the Battlefields of Europe, p.161
  61. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.81
  62. ^ a b Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.82
  63. ^ a b c d Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.86
  64. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.90
  65. ^ Tincey: Blenheim 1704: The Duke of Marlborough’s Masterpiece, p.85
  66. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.294
  67. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.91
  68. ^ Spencer: Blenheim: Battle for Europe, p.291
  69. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.95
  70. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.97
  71. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.98
  72. ^ Barnett: Marlborough, p.121
  73. ^ a b c Barnett: Marlborough, p.122
  74. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.149
  75. ^ Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p.103
  76. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, p.293
  77. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.149
  78. ^ a b Tincey: Blenheim 1704: The Duke of Marlborough’s Masterpiece, p.88
  79. ^ Edward Shepherd Creasy, The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World 1851
  80. ^ Southey, Robert. After Blenheim.

Blindheim (English name: Blenheim) is a municipality in the Bavarian district of Germany, consisting of several villages. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Known as Nordschwabens freundliche Mitte (North Swabias Friendly Center), Donauwörth is a city in the German State of Bavaria (Bayern), in the region of Swabia (Schwabenland). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo is a book written by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy and published in 1851. ... Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ...

References

  • Barnett, Correlli. Marlborough. Wordsworth Editions Limited, (1999). ISBN 1-84022-200-X
  • Chandler, David G. A Guide to the Battlefields of Europe. Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1998. ISBN 1-85326-694-9
  • Chandler, David G. Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd, 2003. ISBN 1-86227-195-X
  • Falkner, James. Blenheim 1704: Marlborough's Greatest Victory. Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2004. ISBN 1-84415-050-X
  • Henderson, Nicholas: Prince Eugen of Savoy. Weidenfield & Nicolson, (1966)
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman, (1999). ISBN 0-582-05629-2
  • Spencer, Charles. Blenheim: Battle for Europe. Phoenix, 2005. ISBN 0-304-36704-4
  • Tincey, John. Blenheim 1704:The Duke of Marlborough's Masterpiece. Osprey Publishing Ltd, 2004. ISBN 1-84176-771-9

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Blenheim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5181 words)
The Battle of Blenheim (referred to in some countries as the Battle of Höchstädt) was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 13 August 1704.
At the battle, the forces of the Grand Alliance of England, Austria and the United Provinces were commanded by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan.
British historian Sir Edward Creasy considered the battle of Blenheim to be one of the pivotal battles in history.
Blenheim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (182 words)
Blenheim, New York is a town in Schoharie County, New York.
Blenheim, South Carolina is a town famous for its extremely spicy Blenheim ginger ale.
The Battle of Blenheim was fought in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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