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Encyclopedia > Battle of Berlin
Battle of Berlin
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

Front lines 1 May 1945.
Date April 16May 2, 1945
Location Berlin, Germany
Result Decisive Soviet victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Flag of Germany Germany
Commanders
1st Belorussian Front

Flag of the Soviet Union Georgiy Zhukov

2nd Belorussian Front Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... The 2nd Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ...


Flag of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky

1st Ukrainian Front
Flag of the Soviet Union Ivan Konev Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskiy (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish: Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... The 1st Ukrainian Front was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Unions Red Army during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Russian: ) (28 December [O.S. 16 December] 1897 – May 21, 1973), was a Soviet military commander, who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, liberated much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany...

Army Group Vistula

Flag of Germany Gotthard Heinrici then Flag of Germany Kurt von Tippelskirch[1]

Army Group Centre The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Gotthard Heinrici. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Kurt von Tippelskirch (October 9, 1891 - May 10, 1957) was a general in the German Army during World War II. // Kurt von Tippelskirch was born on 9th October, 1891 in Berlin (Charlottenburg). ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ...


Flag of Germany Ferdinand Schörner

Berlin Defence Area РImage File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Ferdinand Sch̦rner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ...


Flag of Germany Hellmuth Reymann then Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ...


Flag of Germany Helmuth Weidling #[2] Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ...

Strength
Total strength
2,500,000 soldiers,
6,250 tanks,
7,500 aircraft,
41,600 artillery pieces.[3][4]
For the investment and assault on the Berlin Defence Area about 1,500,000 soldiers.[5]
Total strength
766,750 soldiers,
1,519 AFVs,
9,303 artillery pieces[6][7]
In the Berlin Defence Area approximately 45,000 soldiers, supplemented by the police force, Hitler Youth, and 40,000 Volkssturm.[5][8]
Casualties and losses
Archival research
81,116 dead or missing (including 2,825 Polish)
280,251 sick or wounded
Total casualties 361,367 men
1,997 tanks,
2,108 artillery pieces,
917 aircraft[9]
Initial Soviet estimate
458,080 killed,
479,298 captured[10]

The Battle of Berlin was one of the final battles[11] of the European Theatre of World War II. In what was known to the Soviets as the "Berlin Offensive Operation", two massive Soviet army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fortification or town with armed forces to prevent entry or escape. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... With torn picture of his Führer beside his clenched fist, a dead Bataillionsführer (general) of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city hall, Leipzig, Germany. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Finland[1][2][3] Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6] Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Leonid Govorov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties and losses Wehrmacht (est. ... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Case Blue (German: ) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Josef Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko Strength... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown The Baltic Offensive, also formally referred to as the Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation[1][2][3][4] as it was called by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes the battle between... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schorner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin-Brest Offensive is covered in the... Budapest Offensiv, together with other Soviet Balkan offensivesm is covered by the green area in the south. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Prussian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Pomeranian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 Eastern Front Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – Finland – Leningrad and Baltics – Crimea and Caucasus – Moscow – 1st Rzhev-Vyazma – 2nd Kharkov – Blue – Stalingrad – Velikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk – 2nd Smolensk – Dnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hubes Pocket – Baltic – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – Balkans (Iassy-Kishinev) – Balkans... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Rudolf von Bünau Wilhelm Bittrich Fyodor Tolbukhin Vladimir Stoychev Strength One army (understrength) Local irregulars,total 28,000 Four armies (full strength),total 400,000 Casualties and losses 19,000 18,000 The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... The Battle of the Oder-Neisse was one of the last pitched battles of World War II. It was fought over four days, from April 16 until April 19, 1945, within the larger context of the Battle of Berlin. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Georgy Zhukov Strength 100,000 men 512 Tanks 344 artillery pieces 400 Anti-aircraft guns 1,000,000 men 3,155 Tanks 16,934 artillery pieces Casualties 12,000 Killed 33,000 Killed The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... The Battle of Berlin was decided outside the city during the initial phases of the battle. ... Combatants Third Reich Soviet Union Commanders Theodor Busse Ivan Konev Strength 80,000 280,000 Casualties 30,000 killed 25,000 Captured up to 10,000 civilian dead 20,000 killed The Battle of Halbe lasted from April 24 to May 1, 1945. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Soviet redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


The battle of Berlin lasted from late April 1945 until early May and was one of the bloodiest battles in history. Before the battle was over, German dictator Adolf Hitler and many of his followers committed suicide. The city's defenders surrendered on May 2. However, fighting continued to the north-west, west and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on May 8 (May 9 in the USSR) as German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets. The following is a list of the most lethal battles in world history. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Background

Starting on January 12, 1945, the Red Army began the Vistula-Oder offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw — a three-day operation on a broad front which incorporated four army Fronts. On the fourth day, the Red Army broke out and started moving west, up to thirty to forty kilometres per day. They took the Baltic states, Gdańsk, East Prussia, and Poznań, drawing up on a line sixty kilometres east of Berlin, along the Oder River. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... A Front (фронт) was a major military organization in the Soviet Army, roughly equivalent to an army or army group in British or American military terminology. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ...


The newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, attempted a counter-attack but failed by February 24. The Red Army then drove on to Pomerania. The Red Army cleared the right bank of the Oder River, thereby reaching into Silesia. The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ... Himmler redirects here. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pommern redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ...


In the south the Battle of Budapest raged. Three German attempts to relieve the encircled Hungarian capital city failed. Budapest fell to the Soviets on February 13. Again the Germans counter-attacked, Adolf Hitler insisting on the impossible task of regaining the Danube River. By March 16, the Germans' Lake Balaton Offensive had failed. Within twenty-four hours, the Red Army's counter-attack took back everything the Germans had gained in ten days. On March 30, the Soviets entered Austria and, during the Vienna Offensive, they captured Vienna on April 13. Combatants  Germany Hungary  Soviet Union Romania Commanders Pfeffer-Wildenbruch Iván Hindy Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Strength 180,000 (90,000 for city defense) 500,000+ (170,000 for city assault) Casualties 99,000-150,000 dead and captured, 40,000 civilian dead 70,000-160,000 dead 240,056... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Hungary Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Josef Dietrich (6th SS Panzer Army) Fyodor Tolbukhin (3rd Ukrainian Front) Strength 140,000 900 AFVs 465,000 Casualties 14,818 32,899 Launched in great secrecy on 6 March 1945, the Lake Balaton Offensive was the last major German offensive launched during... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Rudolf von Bünau Wilhelm Bittrich Fyodor Tolbukhin Vladimir Stoychev Strength One army (understrength) Local irregulars,total 28,000 Four armies (full strength),total 400,000 Casualties and losses 19,000 18,000 The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By this time, it was clear that the final defeat of the Third Reich was only a few weeks away. The Wehrmacht had, at most, eight percent of the fuel it needed to operate effectively, and both the production and the quality of fighter aircraft and tanks deteriorated from their heights in 1944.[12] However, it was also known that the fighting would be as fierce as at any other time in the war. The Germans fought bitterly, because of national pride, the Allied insistence on unconditional surrender, and to buy time for the German people to flee from the Red Army. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


Adolf Hitler decided to remain in the city, against the wishes of his advisers. On April 12, Hitler heard the news that the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had died. This briefly raised false hopes in the Führerbunker that there might yet be a falling out among the Allies, and that Berlin would be saved at the last moment as had happened once before when Berlin was threatened (see The miracle of the House of Brandenburg). is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... FDR redirects here. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... The miracle of the House of Brandenburg refers to the death of Russias Empress Elizabeth at the beginning of 1762. ...


The Western Allies had tentative plans to drop paratroopers to occupy Berlin in case of a sudden German collapse. Those plans had been drawn up out of memory of the sudden unexpected collapse at the end of World War I, so that important prisoners and documents could be captured rather than lost.[13] No offensive was planned to seize the city by a ground operation were made.[14] U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower saw no need to suffer casualties in attacking a city that would be in the Soviet sphere of influence after the war.[12] General Eisenhower also worried about western troops colliding with Soviet troops with many casualties from friendly fire. Since the Red Army, at the time the decision was made in late March, were much closer to Berlin than the Western armies that battle was left to the Soviets.[15] The major Western Allied contribution to the battle was the strategic bombing of Berlin during 1945. During 1945 USAAF launched a number of very large daytime raids on Berlin and for 36 nights in succession scores of RAF Mosquitos bombed the German capital, ending on the night of 20/21 April 1945 just before the Soviets entered the city. The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... This article is about strategic bombing raids on Berlin. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... RAF redirects here. ... The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ...


Preparations

The Soviet offensive into central Germany — what later became East Germany — had two objectives. Stalin did not believe the Western Allies would hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone, so he began the offensive on a broad front and moved rapidly to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken. Another consideration was that Berlin itself held useful post-war strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb programme.[16] This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ...


On 6 March, Hitler appointed Lieutenant General Helmuth Reymann as the commander of the Berlin Defence Area replacing Lieutenant General Bruno Ritter von Hauenschild. is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Helmuth Reymann was a German Army officer and the third to the last German commander of the Berlin Defense Area during the final assault by Soviet forces on the city of Berlin. ... Bruno Ritter von Hauenschild was born Bruno Hauenschild on 9 June 1896 in Würzburg and he died 10 March 1953 in Munich. ...


On 20 March, General Gotthard Heinrici was appointed Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula replacing Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Heinrici was one of the best defensive tacticians in the German army. He immediately started to lay defensive plans. Heinrici correctly assessed that the main Soviet thrust would be made over the Oder River and along the main east-west Autobahn. He decided not to try to defend the banks of the Oder with anything more than a light skirmishing screen. Instead, Heinrici arranged for engineers to fortify the Seelow Heights which overlooked the Oder River at the point where the Autobahn crossed it. This was some 17 kilometers west of the Oder and 90 kilometers east of Berlin. Heinrici thinned out the line in other areas to increase the manpower available to defend the heights. German engineers turned the Oder's flood plain, already saturated by the spring thaw, into a swamp by releasing the waters in a reservoir upstream. Behind this the engineers built three belts of defensive emplacements. These emplacements reached back towards the outskirts of Berlin (the lines nearer to Berlin were called the Wotan position). These lines consisted of anti-tank ditches, anti-tank gun emplacements, and an extensive network of trenches and bunkers.[17][18] is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gotthard Heinrici. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ... Himmler redirects here. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... Skirmishers are infantry soldiers who are stationed ahead or to the sides of a larger body of friendly troops. ... A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... The Seelow Heights were the scene of the bloodiest battle on German soil during the Second World War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... For other meanings of Odin and Wotan see Odin (disambiguation) Odin (Old Norse Óðinn, Swedish Oden) is usually considered the supreme god of Germanic and Norse mythology. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... A gas main being laid in a trench. ... A bunker is a defensive warfare fortification to protect oneself. ...


On 9 April, Königsberg in East Prussia finally fell to the Red Army. This freed up Marshal Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front to move west to the east bank of the Oder river. During the first two weeks of April the Red Army performed their fastest Front redeployment of the war. Marshal Georgy Zhukov concentrated his 1st Belorussian Front which had been deployed along the Oder river from Frankfurt in the south to the Baltic, into an area in front of the Seelow Heights. The 2nd Belorussian Front moved into the positions being vacated by the 1st Belorussian Front north of the Seelow Heights. While this redeployment was in progress, gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of General Dietrich von Saucken's German II Army, which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig, managed to escape into the Vistula Delta. To the south, Marshal Konev shifted the main weight of the 1st Ukrainian Front out of Upper Silesia north-west to the Neisse River.[19] The three Soviet Fronts had altogether 2.5 million men (including 78,556 soldiers of the 1st Polish Army), 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces and mortars, 3,255 truck-mounted Katyusha rocket launchers (nicknamed 'Stalin's Pipe Organs'), and 95,383 motor vehicles, many manufactured in the USA.[19] is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: КОНСТАНТИН КОНСТАНТИНОВИЧ РОКОССОВСКИЙ, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 - August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister, was born in the town of Velikie Luki near Pskov in northern Russia, the son of a Polish railway... The 2nd Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... The Seelow Heights were the scene of the bloodiest battle on German soil during the Second World War. ... Dietrich von Saucken (1892–1990) was a General in the German Army (Wehrmacht) during World War II. He was born in East Prussia in 1892 and personified all the aristocratic Prussian militarists who despised the braune Bande of Nazis. ... The German Second Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Koniev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 - May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... The 1st Ukrainian Front was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Unions Red Army during the Second World War. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Åšlůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... The Lusatian Neisse (German Lausitzer Neiße, Polish Nysa Łużycka, Czech Lužická Nisa) is a river in the Czech Republic (54 km) and on Polish-German border (198 km), in total 252 km long. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... BM-13 Katyusha RS-132 rockets mounted underneath the wing of LaGG-3 fighter Damage caused to a German tank Pz Kpfw 38(t) by direct hit of RS-132 The 82mm BM-8 and 132mm BM-13 Katyusha rocket launchers were built and fielded by the Soviet Union in...


Battle of the Oder-Neisse

Main article: Battle of the Oder-Neisse

The sector in which most of the fighting in the overall battle took place was the Seelow Heights, the last major defensive line outside Berlin. The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the last pitched battles of World War II. Fought over four days from April 16 until April 19, 1945, it required a commitment of almost one million Red Army troops and more than 20,000 tanks and artillery pieces were in action to break through the "Gates to Berlin" which was defended by about 100,000 German soldiers and 1,200 tanks and guns[citation needed]. The Battle of the Oder-Neisse was one of the last pitched battles of World War II. It was fought over four days, from April 16 until April 19, 1945, within the larger context of the Battle of Berlin. ... The Seelow Heights were the scene of the bloodiest battle on German soil during the Second World War. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Georgy Zhukov Strength 100,000 men 512 Tanks 344 artillery pieces 400 Anti-aircraft guns 1,000,000 men 3,155 Tanks 16,934 artillery pieces Casualties 12,000 Killed 33,000 Killed The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the... A pitched battle is a battle where both sides choose to fight at a chosen location and time and where either side has the option to disengage either before the battle starts, or shortly after the first armed exchanges. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On April 19, the fourth day, the 1st Belorussian Front broke through the final line of the Seelow Heights and nothing but broken German formations lay between them and Berlin. The 1st Ukrainian Front, having captured Forst the day before, was fanning out into open country. One powerful thrust by Gordov's 3rd Guards Army and Rybalko's 3rd and Lelyushenko's 4th guards tank armies were heading north east towards Berlin while other armies headed west towards a section of United States Army front line south west of Berlin on the Elbe. In doing so, the Soviet forces were driving a wedge between the German Army Group Vistula in the north and Army Group Centre in the south. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Forst (Sorbian Baršć) is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Soviet Third Guards Army was a field army of the Red Army that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II, notably in 1945. ... Marshal of the Armoured Troops Pavel Semjonovich Rybalko (23 October 1892 – 28 August 1948) (Russian: Павел Семенович Рыбалко) was a commander of armoured troops in the Red Army during and following World War II. // Pavel Rybalko served in the Russian and then the Soviet Army from 1914. ... Dmitri Danilovich Lelyushenko (Дмитрий Данилович Лелюшенко in Russian) (November 2 [O.S. October 20] 1901–?) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (1959), twice the Hero of the Soviet Union (April 7, 1940 and April 5, 1945), Hero of Czechoslovakia (May 30, 1970). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ...


By the end of 19 April the German eastern front line north of Frankfurt around Seelow and to the south around Forst had ceased to exist. These breakthroughs allowed the two Soviet fronts to envelop the German IX Army in a large pocket west of Frankfurt. Attempts by the IX Army to break out to the west would result in the Battle of Halbe.[20][21] The cost to the Soviet forces had been very high between 1 April and 19 April, with over 2,807 tanks lost,[22] including at least 727 at the Seelow Heights. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Combatants Third Reich Soviet Union Commanders Theodor Busse Ivan Konev Strength 80,000 280,000 Casualties 30,000 killed 25,000 Captured up to 10,000 civilian dead 20,000 killed The Battle of Halbe lasted from April 24 to May 1, 1945. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Encirclement of Berlin

March 20, 1945, photo of Adolf Hitler meeting with the Hitler Youth before the battle
March 20, 1945, photo of Adolf Hitler meeting with the Hitler Youth before the battle [23]

On 20 April, Hitler's birthday, Soviet artillery of 1st Belorussian Front began to shell the centre of Berlin and did not stop until the city surrendered. After the war the Soviets claimed that the weight of explosives delivered by their artillery during the battle was greater than the tonnage dropped by the Western Allied bombers on the city. 1st Belorussian Front advanced towards the east and north-east of the City. Image File history File links 19450420_Hitler_65bd_awards_HJ_Iron_Cross. ... Image File history File links 19450420_Hitler_65bd_awards_HJ_Iron_Cross. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1st Ukrainian Front had pushed through the last formations of the northern wing of Army Group Centre and had passed north of Juterbog well over halfway to the American front lines on the river Elbe at Magdeburg. To the north between Stettin and Schwedt, 2nd Belorussian Front attacked the northern flank of Army Group Vistula, held by Hasso von Manteuffel's III Panzer Army.[24][21] Jüterbog (2002 pop. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... This article is about the German city. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Schwedt (or Schwedt/Oder) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... The German Third Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. The Third Panzer Army was a constituent of Army Group Centre and fought in the Battle of Moscow in late 1941 and early 1942. ...


On 21 April, the Bogdanov's 2nd Guards Tank Army advanced nearly 50 km north of Berlin and then attacked south west of Werneuchen. Other Soviet units reached the outer defence ring. The Soviet plan was to encircle Berlin first and then envelop the IX Army.[25] is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Tank Army was formed in January - February, 1943 on the basis of the 3rd Reserve Army of the Bryansk Front. ... Werneuchen is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, in the district of Barnim northeast of Berlin within the metropolitan area. ...


The command of the V Corps trapped with the IX Army north of Forst, passed from IV Panzer Army to the IX Army. The corps was still holding onto Cottbus. When the old southern flank of IV Panzer Army had some local successes counter attacking north against 1st Ukrainian Front, Hitler gave orders which showed that his grasp of military reality had gone. He ordered IX Army to hold Cottbus and set up a front facing west. Then they were to attack into the Soviet columns advancing north. This would allow them to form the northern pincer which would meet with the IV Panzer Army coming from the south and envelop the 1st Ukrainian Front before destroying it. They were to anticipate an attack south by the III Panzer Army and to be ready to be the southern arm of a pincer attack which would envelop 1st Belorussian Front which would be destroyed by SS-General Felix Steiner's Army Detachment advancing from north of Berlin. Later in the day, when Steiner made it plain that he did not have the divisions to do this, Heinrici made it clear to Hitler's staff that unless the IX Army retreated immediately it was about to be enveloped by the Soviets. He stressed it was already too late for it to move north-west to Berlin and would have to retreat west. Heinrici went on to say that if Hitler did not allow it to move west he would ask to be relieved of his command.[26] There are communes that have the name Forst in Germany Forst (Unterfranken) Forst, Baden Forst, Mittelfranken Forst, Eifel Forst, Hunsrück Forst, Lausitz Forst, Bavaria Forst an der Weinstraße Forst, Odenwald in Switzerland Forst, Switzerland, in the Canton of Bern Other Forst, Algund, a commune in South Tyrol This... Cottbus (Lower Sorbian: Chóśebuz, Polish: Chociebuż) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the River Spree. ... The German Third Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. The Third Panzer Army was a constituent of Army Group Centre and fought in the Battle of Moscow in late 1941 and early 1942. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Army Detachment Steiner (Armeeabteilung Steiner), was a temporary military unit, something more than a corps but less than an army, created on paper by German dictator Adolf Hitler on 21 April 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, and placed under the command of SS Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner. ...


On April 22, at his afternoon situation conference Hitler fell into a tearful rage when he realised that his plans of the day before were not going to be realised. He declared that the war was lost, he blamed the generals and announced that he would stay on in Berlin until the end and then kill himself. In an attempt to coax Hitler out of his rage, General Alfred Jodl speculated that the XII Army, under the command of General Walther Wenck, that was facing the Americans, could move to Berlin because the Americans, already on the Elbe River, were unlikely to move further east. Hitler immediately grasped the idea and within hours Wenck was ordered to disengage from the Americans and move the XII Army north-east to support Berlin. It was then realised that, if the IX Army moved west, it could link up with the XII Army. In the evening Heinrici was given permission to make the link up.[27] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Walther Wenck (September 18, 1900 - May 1, 1982) was a General in the German Army during the World War II. He commanded the 12th Army which he ordered to surrender to the United States in order to avoid capture by the Soviets. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


Away from the map room in the Berlin Führerbunker with its imaginary attacks of phantom divisions, the Soviets were getting on with winning the war. 2nd Belorussian Front had established a bridgehead on the east bank of the Oder over 15 km deep and was heavily engaged with the III Panzer Army. The IX Army had lost Cottbus and was being pressed from the east. A Soviet tank spearhead was on the Havel river to the east of Berlin and another had at one point penetrated the inner defensive ring of Berlin.[28] This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... Cottbus (Lower Sorbian: Chóśebuz, Polish: Chociebuż) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the River Spree. ... For other uses, see Havel (disambiguation). ...


A Soviet war correspondent gave this account, in the zealous style of World War Two Russian journalism, of an important event that day—the capital was now within range of field artillery.

On the walls of the houses we saw Goebbel's appeals, hurriedly scrawled in white paint: 'Every German will defend his capital. We shall stop the Red hordes at the walls of our Berlin.' Just try and stop them!
Steel pillboxes, barricades, mines, traps, suicide squads with grenades clutched in their hands—all are swept aside before the tidal wave.
Drizzling rain began to fall. Near Bisdorf I saw batteries preparing to open fire.
'What are the targets?' I asked the battery commander.
Centre of Berlin, Spree bridges, and the northern and Stettin railway stations,' he answered.
Then came the tremendous words of command: 'Open fire at the capital of Fascist Germany.'
I noted the time. It was exactly 8:30 a.m. on 22 April. Ninety-six shells fell in the centre of Berlin in the course of a few minutes.[29]

On 23 April, the Soviet 1st Belorussian Front and 1st Ukrainian Front continued to tighten the encirclement, including severing the last link that the German IX Army had with the city. Elements of 1st Ukrainian Front continued to move westward and started to engage the German XII Army moving towards Berlin. On this same day, Hitler appointed General Helmuth Weidling as the commander of the Berlin Defence Area replacing Lieutenant General Reymann. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ...


By April 24 elements of 1st Belorussian Front and 1st Ukrainian Front had completed the encirclement of the city.[30] is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The next day, 25 April, the Soviet investment of Berlin was consolidated with leading Soviet units probing and penetrating the S-Bahn defensive ring. By the end of the 25 April there was no prospect that the German defence of the city could do anything but temporarily delay the capture of the city by the Soviets as the decisive stages of the battle had already been fought and lost by the Germans outside the city.[31] is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fortification or town with armed forces to prevent entry or escape. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Battle in Berlin

Main article: Battle in Berlin

The forces available to Weidling for the city's defence included several severely depleted Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, in all about 45,000 men. These divisions were supplemented by the police force, boys in the compulsory Hitler Youth, and the Volkssturm. Many of the 40,000 elderly men of the Volkssturm had been in the army as young men and some were veterans of World War I. The commander of the central district, SS Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke, who had been appointed to this position by Hitler, had over 2,000 men under his command.[5][32] The Battle of Berlin was decided outside the city during the initial phases of the battle. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... The military use of children refers to children being placed in harms way in military actions, the desire being to protect a location or provide propaganda. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... With torn picture of his Führer beside his clenched fist, a dead Bataillionsführer (general) of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city hall, Leipzig, Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Brigadeführer was an SS rank that was used in Nazi Germany between the years of 1932 and 1945. ... Wilhelm Mohnke, 1944 SS-Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke (March 15, 1911 - August 6, 2001) was one of Hitlers last remaining generals. ...

Soviet Katyusha multiple rocket launchers fire in Berlin, April 1945. This example is a BM-13N, 132 mm rocket launcher mounted on a Lend-Lease U.S. Studebaker truck.
Soviet Katyusha multiple rocket launchers fire in Berlin, April 1945. This example is a BM-13N, 132 mm rocket launcher mounted on a Lend-Lease U.S. Studebaker truck.

Weidling organized the defences into eight sectors designated 'A' through to 'H' each one commanded by a colonel or a general, but most had no combat experience.[5] To the west of the city was the XX Infantry Division. To the north of the city was the IX Parachute Division. To the north-east of the city was the Panzer Division Müncheberg. To the south-east of the city and to the east of Tempelhof Airport was the XI SS Panzergrenadier Division Nordland. The reserve, XVIII Panzergrenadier Division, was in Berlin's central district.[33] Image File history File links Russian_artillery_fire_in_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Russian_artillery_fire_in_Berlin. ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. ... 20th Infantry Division 20th Motorized Infantry Division 20th Panzergrenadier Division The German 20th Infantry Division was established in 1934 under the cover name Reichswehrdienststelle Hamburg, and did not assume its bona-fide designation until the creation of the Wehrmacht was announced in October 1935. ... The German 9th Parachute Division was one of the final parachute divisions to be raised by Germany during World War II. The division was destroyed during the Battle of Berlin in April 1945. ... Panzer-Division Müncheberg was a German panzer division which saw action on the Eastern Front around Berlin during World War II. // Formation The Müncheberg began forming on 8 March 1945 in Müncheberg, Germany. ... Tempelhof Central Airport, a. ... Kampfverband Waräger Germanische-Freiwilligen-Division SS-Panzergrenadier-Division 11 (Germanische) 11. ... German 18th Infantry Division (September 1939 – November 1940) Redesignated German 18th Motorised Infantry Division (November 1940 – June 1943) Redesignated German 18th Panzergrenadier Division (June 1943 – May 1945) // German 18th Infantry Division Commander: Lieutenant-General Friedrich Karl Cranz 1 September 1939 - 1 November 1940 From Sepember 1939 until May 1940 the...


Berlin's fate was sealed, because the decisive stages of the battle were fought outside the city, but the resistance inside continued.[31] On 23 April Berzarin's 5th Shock Army and Katukov's 1st Guards Tank Army assaulted Berlin from the south east and after overcoming a counter attack by the German LVI Panzer Corps had by the evening of the 24 April reached the Berlin S-Bahn ring railway on the north side of the Teltow Canal. During the same period, of all the German forces ordered to reinforce the inner defences of the city by Hitler, only a small contingent of French SS volunteers under the command of Brigadeführer Gustav Krukenberg arrived in Berlin.[34] is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikolai Erastovich Berzarin (Russian Николай Эрастович Берзарин) (born April 1, 1904 in St. ... Marshal of the Armored Troops Mikhail Efimovich Katukov (September 17, 1900 - June 8, 1979) (Russian: Михаил Ефимович Катуков) served as a commander of armored troops in the Red Army during and following World War II. He is viewed as one of the most talented Soviet armor commanders. ... The Soviet First Guards Tank Army was a Soviet armoured formation that fought as part of the Red Army on the Eastern Front during World War II. The army was commanded throughout most of the war by Mikhail Katukov. ... LVI Panzer Corps was a tank corps in the German Army during World War II. In 1942, as part of Army Group Centers 3rd Panzer Army, the LVI Panzer Corps was used to fight Soviet partisans on the Eastern Front. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlins S-Bahn network The Berlin S-Bahn is a metro system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn. ... Teltow is a town in the Potsdam-Mittelmark district, in Brandenburg, Germany. ...


On 25 April, Krukenberg was appointed as the commander of Defence Sector C, the sector under the most pressure from the Soviet assault on the city[35] is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The location of Neukölln
The location of Neukölln

On 26 April German General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling was appointed commander of the Berlin Defence Area.[36] Chuikov's 8th Guards Army and the 1st Guards Tank Army fought their way through the southern suburbs and attacked Tempelhof Airport, just inside the S-Bahn defensive ring, where they met stiff resistance from the Müncheberg Division.[37] But by the 27 April the two understrength Müncheberg Norland divisions defending the south east, now facing five Soviet armies, – from east to west they were the 5th Shock Army, the 8th Guards Army, the 1st Guards Tank Army and Rybalko's 3rd Guards Tank Army (part of the 1st Ukrainian Front), were forced back towards the centre taking up new defensive positions around Hermannplatz and Krukenberg informed General Hans Krebs Chief of the General Staff of (OKH) that within 24 hours the Nordland would have to fall back to the centre sector Z (for Zentrum).[38] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x643, 47 KB) Summary Author: Felix Hahn Source: Based on Water map of Berlin Description: Map of Berlin and its districts. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x643, 47 KB) Summary Author: Felix Hahn Source: Based on Water map of Berlin Description: Map of Berlin and its districts. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, two times Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. ... The Soviet 8th Guards Army was an army of the Soviet Unions Red Army, disbanded finally in the early 1990s. ... Tempelhof Central Airport, a. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal of the Armoured Troops Pavel Semjonovich Rybalko (1892 – 1948) (Russian: Павел Семенович Рыбалко) was a commander of armoured troops in the Red Army during and following World War II. // Pavel Rybalko served in the Russian and then the Sovied Army from 1914. ... General of Infantry Hans Krebs (4 March 1898, Helmstedt - d. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... The German General Staff, (Großer Generalstab, literally, Great General Staff) was an institution whose rise and development gave the German military a decided advantage over its adversaries. ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ...

Soviet soldiers storming the Berlin U-Bahn

The Soviet advance to the city centre was along these main axes: from the south east, along the Frankfurter Allee (ending and stopped at the Alexanderplatz); from the south along Sonnen Allee ending north of the Belle Alliance Platz, from the south ending near the Potsdamer Platz and from the north ending near the Reichstag.[39] The Reichstag, the Moltke bridge, Alexanderplatz, and the Havel bridges at Spandau were the places where the fighting was heaviest, with house-to-house and hand-to-hand combat. The foreign contingents of the SS fought particularly hard, because they were ideologically motivated and they believed that they would not live if captured.[40] Image File history File links Soviet_soldier_metro. ... Image File history File links Soviet_soldier_metro. ... Train leaving Nollendorfplatz, one of the original stations of the Berlin U-Bahn The Berlin (, English: ) is a major part of the public transport system of the German capital, Berlin. ... Alexanderplatz from the Fernsehturm   is a large open square and public transport hub in Berlin city centre, near the river Spree and the Berliner Dom, at . Berliners often call it simply Alex. ... The Reichstag building. ... Codex Manesse: a picture of mêlée at a tournament (from the French, IPA: .) generally refers to disorganized close combat involving a group of fighters. ...


Battle for the Reichstag

In the early hours of the 29 April the Soviet 3rd Shock Army crossed the Moltke bridge and started to fan out into the surrounding streets and buildings. The initial assaults on buildings, including the Ministry of the Interior, were hampered by the lack of supporting artillery. It was not until the damaged bridges were repaired that artillery could be moved up in support.[41] At 04:00 hours, in the Führerbunker, Hitler signed his last will and testament and, shortly afterwards, married Eva Braun.[42][43] At dawn the Soviets pressed on with their assault in the south east. After very heavy fighting they managed to capture the Gestapo headquarters on Prinz-Albrechtstrasse, but a Waffen SS counter-attack forced the Soviets to withdraw from the building.[44] To the south west the 8th Guards Army attacked north across the Landwehr canal into the Tiergarten.[45] is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Abgeordneten Haus von Berlin Martin-Gropius-Bau Niederkirchnerstraße, formerly Prinz-Albrecht-Straße, is a street in Berlin, the capital of Germany. ...

Flak tower (anti-aircraft blockhouse) in Berlin Zoo, after the battle. In the foreground two destroyed IS-2 tanks can be seen
Flak tower (anti-aircraft blockhouse) in Berlin Zoo, after the battle. In the foreground two destroyed IS-2 tanks can be seen

By the next day, 30 April, the Soviets had solved their bridging problems and with artillery support at 06:00 they launched an attack on the Reichstag, but because of German entrenchments and support from 88 mm guns two kilometres away on the Berlin Zoo flak tower it was not until that evening that the Soviets were able to enter the building. The Reichstag had not been in use since 1934 when it burned and the insides resembled a rubble heap more than a government building. The German troops inside had made excellent use of this and lay heavily entrenched waiting. Fierce room-to-room fighting ensued and it was not until two days later that the Red Army controlled the building entirely. The famous photo of the two soldiers planting the flag on the roof of the building is a re-enactment photo taken the day after the building was taken.[46] However another flag was planted earlier by two different soldiers during the fight itself which was immediately flown to Moscow. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x620, 129 KB)Anti-aircraft bunker in Berlin ZOO, May 1945. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x620, 129 KB)Anti-aircraft bunker in Berlin ZOO, May 1945. ... One of six Flak towers built during World War II in Vienna. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A 19th-century-era block house in Fort York, Toronto In military science, a blockhouse is a small, isolated fort in the form of a single building. ... The Zoologischer Garten Berlin (zoological garden Berlin) is one of the biggest zoos in Germany and the one with the largest number of species of the world. ... The Iosef Stalin tank, named after Joseph Stalin, was a heavy tank developed by the Soviet Union during World War II. It is sometimes transliterated Iosif Stalin, from the Russian, Иосиф Сталин. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... German 88 mm guns were used in anti-aircraft and anti-tank roles. ... The Zoologischer Garten Berlin (zoological garden Berlin) is one of the biggest zoos in Germany and the one with the largest number of species of the world. ... One of six Flak towers built during World War II in Vienna. ...


Battle for the centre

During the morning of 30 April, Weidling informed Hitler in person that the defenders would probably exhaust their ammunition through the night. Hitler gave him permission to attempt a breakout through the encircling Red Army lines. That afternoon, Hitler and Braun committed suicide. Their bodies were cremated not far from the bunker. In accordance to Hitler's last will and testament, Admiral Karl Dönitz became the "President of Germany" (Reichspräsident) in the new Flensburg government, and Joseph Goebbels became the new Chancellor of Germany (Reichskanzler). is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ... The Flensburg government refers to the short-lived administration that attempted to rule Germany in May 1945 following the suicides of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels and the Fall of Berlin. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ...


As the perimeter shrank and the surviving defenders fell back, they became concentrated into a small area in the city centre. By now there were about 10,000 German soldiers in the city centre, which was being assaulted from all sides. One of the other main thrusts was along Wilhelmstrasse on which the Air Ministry, built of reinforced concrete, was pounded by large concentrations of Soviet artillery. The remaining German Tiger tanks of the Hermann von Salza battalion took up positions in the east of the Tiergarten to defend the centre against Kutznetsov's 3rd Shock Army (which although heavily engaged around the Reichstag was also flanking the area by advancing through the northern Tiergarten) and the 8th Guards Army advancing through the south of the Tiergarten. These Soviet forces had effectively cut the sausage shaped area held by the Germans in half and made any escape attempt to the west for German troops in the centre much more difficult.[47] Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... Hermann of Salza (c. ...


At about 04:00 on 1 May, Krebs talked to General Chuikov, commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army, informing him of Hitler's death and a willingness to negotiate a city wide surrender. However, they could not agree on terms because of Soviet insistence on unconditional surrender and Kreb's claim that he lacked authorisation to agree to that.[48] In the afternoon Goebbels (who was against surrender) and his family killed themselves. Goebbels's suicide removed the last impediment preventing Weidling's being able to accept the terms of unconditional surrender of his garrison, but he chose to delay the surrender until the next morning to give some time until dark for the planned breakout.[49] is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Breakout and surrender

General Helmut Weidling (left) among captured German generals on May 2, 1945
Hitlerjugend prisoners of war in the streets of Berlin, 1945
Hitlerjugend prisoners of war in the streets of Berlin, 1945

On the night of 1/2 May, most of the remnants of the Berlin garrison attempted to break out of the city centre in three different directions. Only those that went west through the Tiergarten and crossed the Charlottenbrücke (a bridge over the Havel) into Spandau succeeded in breaching Soviet lines. However, only a handful of those who survived the initial breakout made it to the lines of the Western Allies — most were either killed or captured by the Soviets.[50][51] Image File history File links 346_big. ... Image File history File links 346_big. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The German Nazi party established the Hitler Youth (in German: Hitler-Jugend or HJ) in 1926. ... For other uses, see Havel (disambiguation). ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States...


Early in the morning of 2 May, the Soviets captured the Reich Chancellery. The military historian Antony Beevor points out that as most of the German combat troops had left the area in the breakouts the night before, the resistance must have been far less than it had been inside the Reichstag.[52] is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ...


General Weidling surrendered with his staff at 06:00 hours. He was taken to see General Vasily Chuikov at 08:23. Weidling agreed to order the city's defenders to surrender to the Soviets. Under General Chuikov's and Vasily Sokolovsky's direction, Weidling put his order to surrender in writing.[53][54] Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, two times Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. ... Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Василий Данилович Соколовский) (July 21, 1897 - May 10, 1968), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno, near Białystok in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). ...


The 350-strong garrison of the Zoo flak tower finally left the building. There was sporadic fighting in a few isolated buildings where some SS still refused to surrender. The Soviets simply reduced such buildings to rubble. Beevor suggests that most Germans, both soldiers and civilians, were grateful to receive food issued at Red Army soup kitchens. The Soviets went house to house and rounded up anyone in a uniform including firemen and railway-men and marched them all eastward as prisoners of war.[55]


Battle outside Berlin

At some point on 28 April or 29 April, General Gotthard Heinrici, Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula, was relieved of his command after disobeying Hitler's direct orders to hold Berlin at all costs and never order a retreat. As a result, Heinrici was replaced by General Kurt Student. General Kurt von Tippelskirch was named as Heinrici's interim replacement until Student could arrive and assume control.[56][57][58] There remains some confusion as to who was actually in command as some references say that Student was captured by the British and never arrived.[36] Regardless of whether von Tippelskirch or Student was in command of Army Group Vistula, the rapidly deteriorating situation that the Germans faced meant that Army Group Vistula coordination of the armies under its nominal command during the last few days of the war was of little significance. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gotthard Heinrici. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Kurt Arthur Benno Student ( May 12, 1890 – July 1, 1978) German Luftwaffe Ace in World War I. Luftwaffe Paratrooper General during World War II. After the war Student was charged with war crimes that took place in Crete. ... Kurt von Tippelskirch (October 9, 1891 - May 10, 1957) was a general in the German Army during World War II. // Kurt von Tippelskirch was born on 9th October, 1891 in Berlin (Charlottenburg). ...


On the evening of 29 April, Krebs contacted General Alfred Jodl (Supreme Army Command) by radio: "Request immediate report. Firstly of the whereabouts of Wenck's spearheads. Secondly of time intended to attack. Thirdly of the location of the IX Army. Fourthly of the precise place in which the IX Army will break through. Fifthly of the whereabouts of General Rudolf Holste's spearhead."[53] is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... Rudolf Holste was a German officer during World War I and World War II. He was born on 9 April 1897 in Hessisch Oldendorf. ...


In the early morning of 30 April, Jodl replied to Krebs: "Firstly, Wenck's spearhead bogged down south of Schwielow Lake. Secondly, XII Army therefore unable to continue attack on Berlin. Thirdly, bulk of IX Army surrounded. Fourthly, Holste's Corps on the defensive."[53] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rudolf Holste was a German officer during World War I and World War II. He was born on 9 April 1897 in Hessisch Oldendorf. ... XLI Panzer Corps was a tank corps in the German Army during World War II. The XLI Panzer Corps fought at Bely, in the anti-partisan operations aat Nikitinka, Yartsevo, Vyazma, and Dukhovshchina. ...


Battle north of Berlin

While the 1st Belorussian Front and the 1st Ukrainian Front encircled Berlin, and started the battle for the city itself, Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front started his offensive to the north of Berlin. On the 20 April between Stettin and Schwedt, Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front attacked the northern flank of Army Group Vistula, held by the III Panzer Army.[21] By 22 April, the 2nd Belorussian Front had established a bridgehead on the east bank of the Oder that was over 15 km deep and was heavily engaged with the III Panzer Army[28] is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Schwedt (or Schwedt/Oder) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany. ... The German Third Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. The Third Panzer Army was a constituent of Army Group Centre and fought in the Battle of Moscow in late 1941 and early 1942. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 25 April, the 2nd Belorussian Front broke through III Panzer Army's line around the bridgehead south of Stettin and crossed the Randowbruch Swamp. They were now free to move west towards Montgomery's British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund.[59] is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. // Normandy Commanded by General (later Field Marshal) Sir Bernard Montgomery, it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ...


The German III Panzer Army and the German XXI Army situated to the north of Berlin retreated westwards under relentless pressure from Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front, and was eventually pushed into a pocket 20 miles (32 km) wide that stretched from the Elbe to the coast. To their west was the British 21st Army Group (which on May 1 broke out of its Elbe bridgehead and had raced to the coast capturing Wismar and Lübeck), to their east Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front and to the south was the Ninth United States Army which had penetrated as far east as Ludwigslust and Schwerin.[60] is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wismar is a small port and Hanseatic League town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... The Ninth United States Army was one of the main U.S. Army combat commands used during the campaign in northwest Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... Map of Germany showing Ludwigslust Ludwigslust is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, 40 km south of Schwerin. ... Capital Schwerin Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 1161  - Partitioned to Schwerin     and Sch-Wittenburg   1279  - Partitioned to create     Sch-Boizenburg   1323  - Inherited Tecklenburg 1328  - Sch-Schwerin comital line     extinct   1344  - Sch-Wburg-Bburg extinct 1349  - Comital line extinct; sold     to Mecklenburg-Schwerin   1358 Capital Schwerin Government...


Battle south of Berlin

See also: Battle of Halbe

The successes of the 1st Ukrainian Front during the first nine days of the battle meant that by 25 April, they were in occupying large swaths of the area south and south west of Berlin. Their spearheads had met elements of the 1st Belorussian Front west of Berlin, completing the investment of the city. Combatants Third Reich Soviet Union Commanders Theodor Busse Ivan Konev Strength 80,000 280,000 Casualties 30,000 killed 25,000 Captured up to 10,000 civilian dead 20,000 killed The Battle of Halbe lasted from April 24 to May 1, 1945. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fortification or town with armed forces to prevent entry or escape. ...


On the 25th the 1st Ukrainian Front's 58th Guards Division of the 5th Guards Army made contact with the US 69th Infantry Division of the First Army near Torgau, on the Elbe River.[59] Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, was the date Soviet and American troops met at the River Elbe, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of the Second World War in Europe. ... The 69th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. World War II Activated: 15 May 1943. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


These manoeuvres had broken the German forces south of Berlin into three parts. The German IX army was surrounded in the Halbe pocket. Wenck's XII Army, obeying Hitler's command of the 22 April, was attempting to force its way into Berlin from the south west but met stiff resistance from units of the 1st Ukrainian Front in the area of Potsdam. Schörner's Army Group Centre was forced to withdraw from the Battle of Berlin, along its lines of communications towards Czechoslovakia. Combatants  Nazi Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Theodor Busse Ivan Konev Strength 80,000 280,000 Casualties More than 30,000 killed 25,000 captured up to 10,000 civilian dead About 20,000 killed The Battle of Halbe lasted from April 24 to May 1, 1945[1]. It was fought... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ...


Between 24 April and 1 May, the German IX Army fought a desperate action to break out of the pocket in an attempt to link up with the German XII Army. Hitler assumed that after a successful breakout from the pocket, that the IX Army could combine forces with the XII Army and they would be able to relieve Berlin.[61] However there is no evidence to suggest that Generals Heinrici, Busse or Wenck thought that this was even remotely strategically feasible, but Hitler's agreement to allow the IX Army to break through Soviet lines did provide a window of opportunity through which sizable numbers of German troops were able to escape west and surrender to the United States Army.[62] is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Twelfth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ...


At dawn on 28 April, the youth divisions Clausewitz, Scharnhorst and Theodor Körner, attacked from the south west toward the direction of Berlin. They were part of Wenck's XX Corps and were made up of men from the officer training schools, making them some of the best units the Germans had in reserve. They covered a distance of about 24 kilometres (15 miles), before being halted at the tip of Lake Schwielow, south-west of Potsdam and still 32 kilometres (20 miles) from Berlin.[63] is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 28 April, General Hans Krebs, Chief German General Staff, made his last telephone call from the Führerbunker. He called General Wilhelm Keitel at the new Supreme Command Headquarters in Fuerstenberg. Krebs told Keitel that, if relief did not arrive within 48 hours, all would be lost. Under pressure, Keitel promised to exert the utmost pressure on Generals Wenck and Busse in their attempts to relieve Berlin.[citation needed] is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General of Infantry Hans Krebs (4 March 1898, Helmstedt - d. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... The German General Staff, (Großer Generalstab, literally, Great General Staff) was an institution whose rise and development gave the German military a decided advantage over its adversaries. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ...


On the night of 28 April, General Wenck reported to the German Supreme Army Command in Fuerstenberg that his XII Army had been forced back along the entire front. According to Wenck, no attack on Berlin was now possible. This was even more so as support from the IX Army could no longer be expected at this point.[53] is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


About 25,000 German soldiers of the IX Army along with several thousand civilians succeeded in reaching the lines of the XII Army after breaking out of the Halbe pocket. The casualties on both sides were very high. About 20,000 soldiers of the Red Army also died trying to stop the breakout; most are buried at a cemetery next to the Mark-Zossen road. These are the known dead, but the remains of more who died in the battle are found every year so the total of those who died will never be known. Nobody knows how many civilians died but it could have been as high as 10,000.[24]


Having failed to break through to Berlin, Wenck's XII army made a fighting retreat back towards the Elbe and American lines after providing the IX Army survivors with surplus transport.[64][58] By 6 May many German Army units and individuals had crossed the Elbe and surrendered to the US Ninth Army. Meanwhile, the XII's bridgehead with its headquarters in the park of Schönhausen, had come under under heavy Soviet artillery bombardment and had been compressed into an area eight by two kilometres (five by one and a quarter miles)[65] is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The US Ninth Army was one of the main US combat commands used during the campaign in northwest Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... The Schönhausen is a special sexual position, only used in Germany or Holland, that is usually used by particularly adventurous gay couples. ...


Surrender

On the night of 2/3 May, General Hasso von Manteuffel, commander of the III Panzer Army along with General Kurt von Tippelskirch, commander of the XXI Army, surrendered to the US Army.[58] Von Saucken's II Army, that had been fighting north east of Berlin in the Vistula Delta, surrendered to the Soviets on 9 May.[60] Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... Kurt von Tippelskirch (October 9, 1891 - May 10, 1957) was a general in the German Army during World War II. // Kurt von Tippelskirch was born on 9th October, 1891 in Berlin (Charlottenburg). ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the morning of 7 May, the perimeter of Wenck's XII Army's bridgehead began to collapse. Wenck crossed the Elbe under small arms fire that afternoon and surrendered to the American Ninth Army.[65] Those who did not cross the Elbe surrendered to the Soviets. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aftermath

c1,100,000 Soviet personnel were awarded the medal for the capture of Berlin from 9th June 1945.
c1,100,000 Soviet personnel were awarded the medal for the capture of Berlin from 9th June 1945.
A devastated street in the city centre, 3 July 1945
A devastated street in the city centre, 3 July 1945
Volkssturm prisoners captured by 1st Belorussian front, Berlin, 1945
Volkssturm prisoners captured by 1st Belorussian front, Berlin, 1945

According to Grigoriy Krivosheev's work based on declassified archival data, Soviet forces sustained 20,000–25,000 dead in the city,[citation needed] and 81,116 for the entire operation,[6] which included the Battles of Seelow Heights and the Halbe; some earlier Western estimates are much higher.[66] Another 280,251 were reported wounded or sick during the operational period. Included in that total are Polish forces, which lost 2,825 killed or missing and 6,067 wounded in the operation.[67] The operation also cost the Soviets about 2,000 armored vehicles, though the number of irrevocable losses (write-offs) is not known. Initial Soviet estimates based on kill claims placed German losses at 458,080 killed and 479,298 captured. The number of civilian casualties is unknown.[68] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 652 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 644 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Scene of destruction in a Berlin street just off the Unter den Linden, 3 July 1945 Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 652 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 644 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Scene of destruction in a Berlin street just off the Unter den Linden, 3 July 1945 Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... With torn picture of his Führer beside his clenched fist, a dead Bataillionsführer (general) of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city hall, Leipzig, Germany. ... Grigoriy Fedotovich Krivosheyev (Russian: ) (b. ...


The Red Army made a major effort to feed the residents of the city.[69] However, in many areas of the city, vengeful Soviet troops (often rear echelon units[70]) looted, raped an estimated 100,000 women and murdered civilians for several weeks (see Red Army atrocities).[71] In the preceding months, as the Red Army began its offensives into Germany proper, STAVKA recognized the potential for lapses in discipline involving vengeful troops and had been able to check such behavior to a certain extent. Marshal Konev, in a January 27 order near the conclusion of the Vistula-Oder Offensive supplied a long list of commanders to be reassigned to penal battalions for looting, drunkenness, and excesses against civilians.[72] The initial chaos in the aftermath of Berlin, however, was far too widespread to be deterred or controlled. Some Soviet officers resorted to punishing or even shooting offending troops on the spot in the streets.[73] After the summer of 1945, Soviet authorities regained discipline over their troops, and Soviet soldiers caught raping were usually officially punished to various degrees.[74] However, Berlin had been suffering food shortages for many months, caused by Allied strategic bombing and exacerbated by the final military assault on the city.[75] Despite serious Soviet efforts to supply food and rebuild the city,[76] starvation remained a problem. Almost all the transport in and out of the city had been rendered inoperative, and bombed-out sewers had contaminated the city's water supplies. In June of 1945, one month after the surrender, when the Americans arrived in their sector of Berlin they found that average calorie intake of Berliners was low as they were getting only 64 percent of a 1,240-calorie daily ration.[77] Varying degrees of rape particularly in the Soviet occupation zone, became ways through which some women managed to secure the necessities of day-to-day life.[78][79] Some rapes continued until the winter of 1947–48, when the Soviet occupation authorities finally eliminated the problem by confining the Soviet troops to strictly guarded posts and camps.[80] Red Army atrocities refers to the systemic commission of crimes by Soviet military personnel in Eastern Europe in late 1944 and early 1945, particularly murder and rape. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Koniev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 - May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Penal battalion, penal company, etc. ...


See also

The Battle of Breslau, otherwise known as the Siege of Breslau was a four months long siege of the city of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) in Lower Silesia, Germany. ... The German Instrument of Surrender, 1945 refers to the legal instrument of World War II in which the High Command of Nazi Germany surrendered simultaneously to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force and to the Soviet High command. ... Towards the end of World War II, the German leadership had not accepted defeat, but had begun to realize that a considerable attack on the Reich was inevitable. ... The Leonidas Squadron was formaly know as 5th Staffel of Kampfgeschwader 200 and had originally been formed to fly the Fieseler Fi 103 Re Reichenberg (Selbstopfer), a manned version of the V-1 flying bomb that never got beyond the experimental stage. ... A 1945 U.S. Army map showing the possible extent of the National Redoubt The National Redoubt was the English term used to describe the possibility that Adolf Hitler and armed forces of Nazi Germany would make a last stand in the alpine areas of Austria, Bavaria and northern Italy... The Race to Berlin refers to the competition of Allied generals during the final months of World War II to enter Berlin first. ...

References

  • Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5
  • Dollinger, Hans. The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047
  • Krivosheev, G. F. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century, Greenhill Books, 1997, ISBN 1-85367-280-7
  • Naimark, Norman M. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949, Cambridge: Belknap, 1995, ISBN 0-674-78405-7
  • Ziemke, Earl F. Battle For Berlin: End Of The Third Reich, NY: Ballantine Books, London: Macdomald & Co, 1969.

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ...

Further reading

Marta Hillers (1911–2001) was a German journalist and the author of the autobiographical Eine Frau in Berlin, her diary from 20 April to 22 June 1945 in Berlin during the Battle of Berlin. ... A Woman in Berlin is a published diary written anonymously. ... Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Heinrici was replaced by General Kurt Student on 28 April. General Kurt von Tippelskirch was named as Heinrici's interim replacement until Student could arrive and assume control. Student was captured by the British and never arrived.
  2. ^ Weidling replaced Oberstleutnant Ernst Kaether as commander of Berlin who only held the post for one day having taken command from Reymann.
  3. ^ Ziemke References p. 71
  4. ^ Murray, Williamson and Allan R. Millet. A War to be Won: Fighting the Second World War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000 p. 482 ISBN 0-674-00680-1
  5. ^ a b c d Beevor References p. 287 for the 45,000 soldiers and 40,000 Volkssturm.
  6. ^ a b Glantz, David M., and Jonathan House. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. (Lawrence, Kansas: UP of Kansas, 1995. ISBN-0700608990 p. 373)
  7. ^ Initial Soviet planning estimates had placed the total strength at 1 million men, but this was an overestimate (Glantz, When Titans Clashed. p. 258)
  8. ^ A large number of the 45,000 were troops of the LVI Panzer Corps that were at the start of the battle part of the German IX Army on the Seelow Heights
  9. ^ "Grif sekretnosti sniat': poteri Vooruzhennykh Sil SSSR v voynakh, boevykh deystviyakh i voennykh konfliktakh", pod oshchey redaktsiey G. F. Krivosheeva, Moskva: Voennoe izd-vo, 1993, ISBN 5203014000. pp. 219–220.
  10. ^ Glantz, When Titans Clashed. p. 271
  11. ^ The last major battle was the Prague Offensive on May 6May 11, 1945, when the Soviet Army with the help of Polish, Romanian, and Czechoslovak forces defeated the parts of Army Group Centre which continued to resist in Czechoslovakia. The operation involved about 3,000,000 personnel from both sides. The last actual battle in Europe was the Georgian Uprising of Texel (April 5May 20, 1945). See The end of World War II in Europe for details on these final days of the war.
  12. ^ a b MFA Productions LLC; The Battle for Berlin January - May 1945
  13. ^ Operation Eclipse http://www.armyhistory.org/armyhistorical.aspx?pgID=1017&id=139&exCompID=177
  14. ^ Beevor References p. 194
  15. ^ p.135, The Last Battle, by Cornelius Ryan
  16. ^ Beevor, see References Preface xxxiv, and pp. 138,325
  17. ^ Ziemke see References page 76
  18. ^ Zuljan, Ralph Battle for the Seelow Heights - Part II Originally published in "World War II" at Suite101.com on May 1, 1999. Revised edition published in "Articles On War" at OnWar.com on July 1, 2003.
  19. ^ a b Ziemke see References page 71
  20. ^ Beevor see References pp. 217–233
  21. ^ a b c Ziemke see References page 84
  22. ^ World War II Axis Military History Day-by-Day: April 20 April 1945
  23. ^ see German Magazine "Der Spiegel": (translation): "Hitler decorates child soldiers: This photo belongs to the most well known pieces of modern historiographical photography. Published numerous times, unfortunately it is also very often false dated. Allegedly Hitler is awarding the teenagers the iron cross on his birthday april 20 1945. This seems a typical case of repeated plagiarism: a false date is published in one source - several authors repeat the mistake, which gets a notable dynamic. The true date is the march 20 1945, unambiguously accounted by the German Newsreel (Die Deutsche Wochenschau) from march 22 1945, where the scene was published first time."
  24. ^ a b Beevor References p. 337
  25. ^ Ziemke References p. 88
  26. ^ Ziemke see References pp. 87–88
  27. ^ Ziemke see References page 89
  28. ^ a b Ziemke see References page 92
  29. ^ [from The Mammoth Book of Eye-witness History, edited by Jon E. Lewis, Carrol and Graf 1st ed., p. 465]
  30. ^ Ziemke see References pp. 92–94
  31. ^ a b Ziemke References p. 111
  32. ^ The Soviets later estimated the number as 180,000, but this was from the number of prisoners that they took, and included many unarmed men in uniform, such as railway officials and members of the Reich Labour Service. (Beevor References p. 287)
  33. ^ Map of the Battle of Berlin April 26-28, 1945 This map is copied from Ziemke, Earl F. Battle For Berlin: End Of The Third Reich p. 93 (see References)
  34. ^ Beevor References pp. 259,297
  35. ^ Beevor References pp. 291–292,302
  36. ^ a b Dollinger References p. 228
  37. ^ Beevor References pp. 259,297
  38. ^ Beevor References pp. 259,297 303,304
  39. ^ Beevor References pp. Beevor References p. 340
  40. ^ Beevor References pp. 257,258
  41. ^ Beevor, references p.349
  42. ^ Beevor References p. 343
  43. ^ 60 Years On - Hitlers last days: "Hitler's will and marriage" on the website of MI5 citing Trevor Roper (an WWII MI5 agent) The Last Days of Hitler records the marriage as taking place after Hitler had dictated the last will and testament.
  44. ^ Beevor, references p.351
  45. ^ Beevor, references pp.352-353
  46. ^ Iconic Red Army Reichstag Photo Faked, Spiegel Online.
  47. ^ Beevor, references pp.356,357
  48. ^ Dollinger (p.239) states 3am, and Beevor (p.367) 4am, for Krebs' meeting with Chuikov
  49. ^ Beevor references pp. 380–381
  50. ^ Beevor, references p.383–389
  51. ^ Ziemke, references pp.125,126
  52. ^ Beevor, References p.388
  53. ^ a b c d Dollinger References p. 239
  54. ^ Beevor References, p.386
  55. ^ Beevor References, pp.388–393,409
  56. ^ Beevor, references p. 338
  57. ^ Exton, Brett. Some of the prisoners held at Special Camp 11: Generaloberst Gotthard Heinrici
  58. ^ a b c Ziemke, references p. 128
  59. ^ a b Ziemke see References page 94
  60. ^ a b Ziemke see References p. 129
  61. ^ Le Tissier, Tony; Slaughter at Halbe; ISBN 0-7509-3689-4. p.89–90
  62. ^ Beevor, References p. 330
  63. ^ Ziemke References p. 119
  64. ^ Beevor, References p. 395
  65. ^ a b Beevor, References p. 397
  66. ^ Battles & Campaigns: Battle of Berlin, 1945
  67. ^ Krivosheev, Grif sekretnosti, pp. 219–220.
  68. ^ Glantz. When Titans Clashed, p. 271
  69. ^ Beevor References p.409
  70. ^ Beevor References Preface xxxv, pp. 326–327
  71. ^ Beevor, Antony; "They raped every German female from eight to 80" May 1, The Guardian, 2002
  72. ^ Duffy, Christopher. Red Storm on the Reich. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1993) p. 275.
  73. ^ Grossman, Atina. "A Question of Silence: The Rape of German Women by Occupation Soldiers." October, Vol. 72 (Spring, 1995), pp. 42–63.
  74. ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949. Cambridge: Belknap, 1995 p. 92 ISBN 0-674-78405-7
  75. ^ Kuby, Erich. The Russians and Berlin. (New York: Balantine, 1969)
  76. ^ White, Osmar. Conquerors' Road: An Eyewitness Report of Germany 1945. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  77. ^ Ziemke, Earl F. (1904–1905). "U.S. Army in the occupation of Germany 1944–1946" ([dead link]Scholar search). US Army. 
  78. ^ Ziemke, References pp. 149,153
  79. ^ Grossman, Atina. "A Question of Silence: The Rape of German Women by Occupation Soldiers." October, Vol. 72 (Spring, 1995), pp. 42–63. In the year following the end of the war in Europe, most of the abortions that were granted were for the reason of rape by Soviet troops, though some women also claimed rape by American and French soldiers and foreign workers. According to Grossman, there were no abortion claims resulting from of rape by Germans. This would suggest that to some extent the claim of rape was an easy way to get an abortion approved by the medical commission.
  80. ^ Naimark. The Russians in Germany, p. 79
  81. ^ Time line Eastern Europe 1945:6 May 1945 www.worldwar-2.net
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Battle of Berlin (air) (2406 words)
The term Battle of Berlin is sometimes restricted to the bombing campaign of the Royal Air Force on Berlin and other cities between the night of November 18, 1943 and March 1944.
During the battle of Berlin, the British lost 1,047 bombers, with a further 1,682 damaged, culminating in the raid on Nuremberg on March 30, 1944, when 94 bombers were shot down and 71 damaged, out of 795 aircraft.
There were many other raids on Berlin by the RAF and the USAAF Eighth Air Force in the strategic bombing campaign of 1940–1945 and this is reflected in the RAF battle honour which is for bombardment of Berlin by aircraft of Bomber Command 1940–1945.
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