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Encyclopedia > Battle of Bassorah
Battle of Bassorah
Part of the First Islamic civil war
Date 656
Location Basra, Iraq
Result 1st Major Muslim Civil War-Caliphate victory
Combatants
Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs
Commanders
Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr
Strength
About 10,000 About 10,000
Casualties
About 5,000 About 5,000
Civil Wars of the Early Caliphates
Ridda warsFirst Fitna – Ibn al-Zubair's revolt – Kharijite RevoltSecond FitnaBerber RevoltZaidi RevoltAbassid Revolt
First Fitna
BassorahSiffinKarbala

The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces allied to Ali (Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law) and forces allied to Aisha (widow of Muhammad, and she is called the Mother of the Faithful) who wanted justice for the perpotrators of the assassination of the previous caliph Uthmaan. The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ... Zayd ibn Ali (d. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE) [1] [2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ...

Contents

History

Prelude

Main article: Siege of Uthman

In 656 AD Uthman ibn Affan was besieged in his own house, surrounded by rebels that were wrathful with Uthman's caliphate. The rebels refused to provide Uthman with food or water, and kept him imprisoned, hoping to force his abdication. Uthman was murdered despite Ali ibn Abi Taleb having sent his two sons, Hasan and Husayn, with troops to defend Uthman. This is a sub-article of Uthman. ... Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


Ali was offered the caliphate by a large number of Muslims of Madina after Uthman's death. He is reported to have refused the caliphate at first but later he, upon their insistence, accepted the caliphate.


These events displeased Aisha and a large number of most significant Sahaba of Muhammad. They evidently believed that Ali was wrong to occupy himself in other tasks before finding Uthman's murderer. They challenged Ali's caliphate under the claim that Ali had been unsuccessful in finding Uthman's murderer, claiming Qisas for Uthman. Also, Ali was never to be blamed for Uthman's death, since he did the best he could, even sending both of his sons, to defend the embattled caliph Uthman. The Heroes of the Lance are a group of fictional Heroes who appear in the Dragonlance series of novels. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Massing support

Aisha was returning to Medina from Mecca after Hajj, but turned back when she heard the news of Uthman's assassination and the accession of Ali to the caliphate. Aisha's two brothers-in-law Talha and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, who were considered to be two of the most significant Sahaba of Muhammad, also arrived in Mecca. Uthman's governor in Mecca was Abd-Allah ibn Umayr al-Hadrami. Marwan ibn al-Hakam and other members of Banu Umayya, Uthman's clan, were staying as his guests. All of them held a meeting. The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج; Persian: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... The murder of Uthman ibn Affan had become Talhahs tryst with destiny. ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... The Heroes of the Lance are a group of fictional Heroes who appear in the Dragonlance series of novels. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


Aisha got Talha's and Zubayr's support despite them having already given their oath of allegiance to Ali. Both had been previously nominated for the caliphate by Umar, the second caliph, before his death; but Uthman was appointed for the caliphate in priority to them. Aisha also managed to enlist the support of the powerful clan of Banu Umayyah, to whom Uthman had belonged. The ex-governors of Uthman, who had been displaced by Ali, also joined her. Yala, the ex-governor of Yemen, had carried off to Mecca a large sum of treasure when he was displaced. He gave over to Aisha sixty thousand dinars, along with six hundred camels; one of which was a very large and well-bred, valued at 200 gold pieces. It was named Al-Askar and was especially presented for Aisha's personal transportation. For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Makkah IPA: (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah IPA: ; Arabic: ) is a holy Islamic city in Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein A hyperinflation banknote of 50 billion dinara (1993) A 5,000 dinar bill of the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1992) The dinar is the currency unit of various countries, most of them Arabic-speaking or once part...


Having completed her preparations for the battle, Aisha unsuccessfully tried to convince one of the previous wives of Muhammad, Umm Salama, to side with her. Umm Salama instead tried, and almost succeeded in convincing Aisha to abandon her plan; but Zubayr's son Ibn Zubair persuaded her to proceed. Aisha had also tried to persuade another of Muhammad's previous wives, Hafsa bint Umar, to follow her; but Hafsa's brother Ibn Umar stopped her from doing so. Aisha mounted on a litter on the camel al-Askar, and marched from Mecca at the head of 1,000 men. On her right was Talha, and on her left Zubayr. Hind bint Abi Umayya (c. ... Look up Abdullah on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Abdullah (or Abd Allah) means servant of Allah in Arabic. ... Hafsa bint Umar (Arabic: حفصة بنت عمر) was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ... Ibn Umar was the son of the 2nd Caliph Umar ibn Khattab. ...


The other widows of Muhammad residing in Mecca accompanied her a little way and then returned. As they parted the company gave vent to their feelings and wept bitterly at the louring outlook; "there was no such weeping, before or after, as then; so that day was called The Day of Tears.".[1] On their way many more joined them, and their numbers swelled to 3,000.


A month after the death of Uthman, and during the march of the Meccan troops, queries began to arise if either Talha or Zubayr would appoint himself as Caliph, in the event of a victory. Thus, the position of the Imamat (leadership) of prayers, which was correlated to the Islamic caliphate, was disputed among the troops. But Aisha, seeking to cease the strife, resolved that neither Talha nor Zubayr should lead the prayer, and Zubayr's son Abdullah Ibn Zubair should lead the prayers instead. And so it was later given out that the choice of the future Caliph, in case of victory of the Meccan troops, should be left to the men of Medina. Imamah (Shia doctrine) Imamah (Shia twelver doctrine) Imamah (Shia Ismaili doctrine) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The ex-governor of Kufa named Sa'id, who had previously sworn allegiance to the Meccan party, distrusted the motives of the rebel leaders, and he at the last moment withdrew with his troops, and returned back to Mecca. As the remaining cavalcade swept by Sa'id, shouting that they were on their way to destroy the murderers of Uthman, Sa'id cried out, "Whither way? the objects of your vengeance (meaning Talha and Zubayr) are on their camels' humps before your eyes. Slay them both and return to your homes!" Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


Ali receives news

When rumours of the defection first reached Medina, Ali refused to move against the malcontents so long as no overt act of rebellion threatened the unity of the Islamic nation. But shortly after, news arrived of the design on Basra. At first, Ali thought that the insurgents had not made Kufa, with its greater Bedouin population, their object. Ibn Abbas, however, pointed out that Basra was really the more dangerous, because fewer of the leading chiefs were there, able to curb the people and repress rebellion. This article is about the city of Basra. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the... Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ...


Ali admitted this; and alarmed, gave orders that the column destined for Syria should march instead to Nejd, hoping thereby to intercept the insurgents on their way to Basra. A column of 900 men was got together, at the head of which Ali marched hastily in pursuit of the insurgents; but on striking the Mecca road he found that they had already passed. Not being equipped for further advance, he halted there. Messengers were sent to Kufa, Egypt, and elsewhere, demanding reinforcements; and for these the Caliph waited before he went forward. Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ...


Basra

According to prominent Sunni scholar and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ali had employed Jats to guard Basra treasury during the Battle of Jamal. Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari AD 838-AD 923 (Father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري, ), was an author from Persia, one of the earlies, most prominent and... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

"Jats were the guards of the Baitul Mal at al-Basra during the time of both Uthman's and Ali's caliphate."

[2] Bayt al-mal is an Arabic term that is translated as House of money. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The rebel army reached Basra, and encamped close by. Messages were exchanged, and Uthman ibn Hanif, the governor of Basra, aware that the cry of vengeance on the regicides really covered designs against his chief Ali ibn Abi Taleb, called an assembly to try the temper of the people. Finding from the uproar that the strangers had a strong party in the city, he put on his armour, and, followed by the larger portion of the citizens, went forth to meet the enemy, who, on their side, was joined from the town by all the malcontents. A parley ensued. Talha, Zubair, and Aisha all three declaimed against the murderers of Uthman and demanded justice. This article is about the city of Basra. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...


The other side were equally loud in their protestations against Aisha and her attack upon their city. They said it was a shame and a slight on the legacy and memory of Muhammad for her to forego the sanctity of the Hijab, and the proprieties of Umm el-Mu'minin ("Mother of the Faithful.") Ali had been elected and saluted caliph; and now Talha and Zubayr were violating the allegiance which they had been among the very first to swear it. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Veils as articles of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, are intended to cover some part of the head or face. ...


Both protested that the oath had been forced upon them. On this point the controversy turned; and from words they fell to blows. Night interposed, but fighting was resumed the following day; and with so serious a loss to Basra that a truce was called and agreement come to, on the understanding that the facts should be ascertained from Medina. If force had really been put upon Zubayr and Talha to take the oath, then Uthman ibn Hanif, the governor, would retire and leave the city in their hands. This article is about the city of Basra. ...


Dogs of Haw'ab

According to Shia sources, on the way to Basra in Iraq, the rebel army received news that Ali had come out of Madina in their pursuit. They decided to leave the main road and proceed to Basra through a different route. When they passed through the valley of Haw'ab, the dogs of the village surrounded Ayesha's camel, barking loudly. She was immediately worried and asked for the name of the place. When she was told it was Haw'ab, she was shocked and she cried, "Alas! Alas! I am the wretched woman of Haw'ab. The prophet of Allah had already warned me against this."


She was reminded of what Umm Salama hade told her: Hind bint Abi Umayya (c. ...

"I also remind you that you and I were with the prophet of Allah and he said to us: 'Which one of you will be the rider of the trained camel, at whom the dogs of Haw'ab will bark, and she will have deviated from the right path?' We said: 'We seek refuge from Allah and his prophet from that'. He touched your back and said: 'Don't be that one, O Humayra.'" Aisha said: "I remember that."

Aisha remembered the warning of Prophet Muhammad, and she cried and said: "Take me back! Take me back!" But Talha and Zubair brought fifty men and bribed them to testify in front of her that this place was not the plain of Haw'ab.


Some historians consider those fifty men to be the first ones who gave a falsified group testimony in the history of Islam.[3]


Envoy to Medina

An envoy accredited by both sides was deputed to Medina. He arrived there while and forthwith proclaimed his mission before the assembled City. The people at first were silent. At last, one declared that both Talha and Zubayr had done homage under compulsion, whereupon a great tumult arose; and the envoy, having seen and heard enough to prove diversity of view, at once took leave.


When the news of these things reached the caliph Ali ibn Abi Taleb, who was with his army in Najd, he addressed a letter to his Basra governor Uthman ibn Hanif. "There was no compulsion," he wrote, "on either Talha or Zubayr; neither of these my adversaries was constrained otherwise than by the will of the majority. By the Lord! if their object be to make me abdicate, they are without excuse; if it be any other thing, I am ready to consider it."


So when the envoy returned from Medina, and when upon his report the insurgents called on Uthman ibn Hanif to evacuate the City according to agreement, he produced the caliph's letter and refused. But the insurgents had already obtained a footing within the city. Arming themselves, they repaired to the Mosque for evening service, and, the night being dark and stormy, were not perceived until they had overpowered the bodyguard, entered the adjoining palace, and made a prisoner of the governor Uthman ibn Hanif.


Conquest of Basra

On the following day, a severe conflict raged throughout the city, which ended in the discomfiture of Ali's party, and so the government passed into the hands of Talha and Zubayr.


They took seventy of the governor's officers who were in charge of the public treasury as prisoners. They brought them to Aisha who ordered that they be put to death. The life of the Basra governor Uthman ibn Hanif was spared though. Set at liberty, his head and beard were shaven, and his eyelashes and moustaches clipped; and in this sorry plight the ousted governor made the best of his way back to Ali.


Talha and Zubayr now made a proclamation that every citizen who had engaged in the attack on Uthman, the deceased Caliph, should be brought forth and executed. The order was carried out, and great numbers were put to death. It is reported that there were 400 men and that they were the first Muslims whose heads were cut off whilst they were patient.


The insurgents communicated tidings of their success to Syria, where Muawiya I ruled. Aisha also wrote letters to Kufa, Medina, and Yemen, dissuading the people from their allegiance to Ali, and stirring them up to avenge the death of Uthman. Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ...


Meanwhile the Citizens of Basra swore allegiance to Talha and Zubayr conjointly. To avoid appearance of rivalry, prayers were conducted alternately by a son of each.


Talha proclaimed an expedition against Ali, but no one responded to the call, and so his spirits fell. Thus some weeks passed, till the City was aroused by the announcement that Ali was in full march upon it, with an army on his side.


Hasan and Kufa

Finding that the insurgent troops, with Aisha, Zubayr, and Talha had already passed, Ali halted for a while on the road to Basra, waiting to strengthen his army, for although joined on his march by certain loyal tribes, he still felt too weak for immediate action.


To Kufa he addressed a special summons, inhabited as it was by many veterans on whose loyalty he might reasonably depend; and he added force to the call by promising that Kufa should be his seat of government.

"See," he wrote, "have not I chosen your city before all other cities for my own? Unto you do I look for succour, if happly peace and unity should again prevail as it behoveth, among brethren in the faith."

But the summons was at the first unheeded. The City was made up of many factions; and from some of these the message of Aisha, demanding revenge for Uthman's blood, had already found response. Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...


Abu Musa, its governor, was unequal to the emergency. Loyal to the memory of the murdered Caliph, he yet sought to allay the ferment by a neutral course, and urged the citizens to join neither party, but remain at home. A second deputation meeting with no better success, Ali bethought him of sending his elder son Hasan, in Company with Ammar ibn Yasir, the former governor of Kufa, to urge his cause. “Ammar” redirects here. ...


Al-Hasan bin 'Ali was at the top of the pulpit and Ammar was below Al-Hasan. We all gathered before him. I heard Ammar saying,

"Aisha has moved to Al-Busra. By Allah! She is the wife of your prophet in this world and in the Hereafter. But Allah has put you to test whether you obey him (Allah) or her (Aisha)."[4]

The appeal of Hasan, grandson of Muhammad, had at last the desired effect. A tumult arose, and Abu Musa, unable to maintain his weak neutrality, was deposed. The Arab tribes rallied around the loyalists. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ...


Soon 10,000 men, partly by land, partly by river, set out to join the Caliph, who, advancing slowly, awaited their arrival. Thus reinforced, Ali was able at last to take the field effectively, and march on the rebellious city.


Negotiations

Basra itself was not wholly hostile, and scores of the citizens came out to join the camp of Ali. The insurgent army, which still nearly equalled that of the Caliph, now marched forth with Talha and Zubair at their head, and Aisha herself seated in a well-fenced litter of the camel al-Askar. This article is about the city of Basra. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... The murder of Uthman ibn Affan had become Talhahs tryst with destiny. ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ...


But Ali's thoughts were for peace if possible. The cry of Talha and Az-Zubeir was for vengeance against the murderers of Uthman; and against these, Ali as yet did not deny that justice should be dealt. But he was obliged to temporise. He had in his army great numbers of the very men who had risen against Uthman; and he felt that to inflict punishment on them, as his adversaries required, would for the present be impossible. Holding these views, he halted, still some little way from Basra, and sent forward Al-Ka'ka' (who with other leaders of renown had joined him from Kufa) to expostulate with Talha and Zubair. For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...

"Ye have slain 600 men of Al-Basra," said Al-Ka'ka' to them, "for the blood of Uthman; and lo! to avenge their blood, 6000 more have started up. Where is this internecine war to stop? It is peace and repose that Islam needeth now. Give that, and again the majesty of law shall be set up, and the guilty brought to justice."

As he spoke, Zubair, Talha and Aisha returned word that if these really were the sentiments of Ali, they were ready to submit. After several days spent in such negotiations, Ali, glad at the prospect of a bloodless compromise, advanced.


The recruited besiegers of Uthman in Ali's army

Ali's army recruited from the Bedawi settlements and comprised a great number of notorious besiegers of Uthman. Afraid of bringing these into contact with the heated army of his opponents, still breathing out fire and slaughter against them, Ali commanded that; none who had shared in the attack on Uthman should for the present accompany him in his advance. These in their turn, with Al-Ashtar at their head, became alarmed. For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...


Talha's troops, sworn to their destruction, were double their number, if peace were patched up, no hope remained. Reasoning thus, they held a secret conclave, and came to the conclusion that their only safety lay in precipitating hostilities, and thus forcing Ali's hand to crush their enemies. Accordingly they remained behind, but with the resolve that at the right moment they would advance and throw themselves upon the enemy.


Further negotiations

The army of Al Basra, numbering some 10,000 men, remained encamped on the outskirts of the city. Ali's force, advancing unopposed, halted within sight; and negotiations for peace went on, evidently substantial and sincere. Ali himself approached on horseback and Talha with Zubair rode forth to confer with him.


"Wherefore have ye risen against me" said Ali; "did ye not swear homage to me?" "Yea" replied Talha "but with the sword over our necks; and now our demand is that justice be executed against the murderers of Uthman." Ali replied that he no less than they held the murderers of Uthman to be guilty; he even cursed them in no measured terms, but added that for their punishment they must bide their time.


Zubair on his side was softened by certain words of Prophet Muhammad towards him which Ali recalled to his mind, and bound himself by an oath that he would not fight. Then they all retired. Both armies, understanding that negotiations were in progress, went to rest that night in security such as they had not felt for many weeks.


Surprise attack

Towards morning, a sudden shock changed the scene. The besiegers of Uthman, during the night, carried their design into execution. Led by them, squadrons of Bedawi lances bore down, while yet dark, upon the Basra tents. In a moment all was confusion. Each camp believed that it had been attacked by the other; and the dawn found both armies drawn up, as the conspirators desired, in mortal combat against each other. In vain Ali endeavoured to hold back his men. The sense of treachery embittered the conflict. It was a strange engagement,—the first in which Muslims had crossed swords with Muslims. It resembled a battle of the old Arab times, only that for tribal rivalry were now substituted for other issues.


Clans were broken up, and it became in some measure a contest between the two rival cities; "The Beni Ar-Rabi'a of Al-Kufa fought against the Beni Ar-Rabi'a of Al-Basra, the Beni Modar of the one against the Beni Modar of the other," and so on, with the various tribes, and even with families, one part arrayed against the other. The Kufa ranks were urged on by the besiegers of Uthman, who felt that unless Ali conquered, they were all doomed men. The fierceness and obstinacy of the battle can be only thus accounted for. One of the combatants tells us that "when the opposing sides came together breast to breast, with a furious shock, the noise was like that of washermen at the riverside."


The attitude of the leaders was in marked contrast with the bitter struggle of the ranks. Zubair, half-hearted since his interview with Ali, left the battlefield according to his promise, and was killed in an adjoining valley. A man named Amr ibn Jarmouz had followed Zubair and murdered him while he performed Salat. Amr ibn Jarmouz is the man that killed the famous Muslim Sahaba General Zubayr ibn al-Awwam shortly after the Battle of the Camel, while Zubayr was praying [1]. References ^ anwary-islam. ...


End of the battle

Marwan ibn al-Hakam shot his own general[5] Talha who became disabled in the leg by the shot, and carried into Basra, where he died. Bereft of their leaders, the insurgent troops gave way. They were falling back upon the city, when they passed by the camel of Aisha. Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... The murder of Uthman ibn Affan had become Talhahs tryst with destiny. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ...


Attacked fiercely from all around, she from within her litter, held the Quran and cried out,— "Slay the murderers of 'Othman." The words ran through the retiring ranks, that "the Mother of the Faithful was in peril," and they stayed their flight to rescue her. Long the conflict raged around the camel. One after another warriors rushed to seize her standard; one after another they were cut down.


Of Quraish, 70 perished by the bridle. At last, Ali, perceiving that her camel was the rallying-point of the enemy, sent one of his captains to hamstring, and thus disable it. With a loud cry the animal fell to the ground. The struggle ceased and the insurgents retired into the city. Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ...


The litter, bristling with arrows like a hedgehog, was taken down, and, by desire of Ali, placed in a retired spot, where Aisha's brother Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr pitched a tent for her. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Walid al-Tartushi (أبو بكر محمد بن الوليد الطرطوش) (born 451 AH, died 520 AH) Was born in Muslim Spain and travelled as far as Baghdad. ...


As he drew aside the curtain, she screamed at the unknown intrusion;— he said "Are thine own people, then become strange unto thee?", she exclaimed, "it is my brother!", and agreed to be led into the tent. The lady had escaped without a wound.


Losses in the battle

The carnage in the ill-starred Battle of Camel (for so it came to be called) was very great. The field was covered with 10,000 bodies in equal proportion on either side; and this, notwithstanding that the victory was not followed up. Ali had given orders that no fugitive should be pursued, nor any wounded soldier slain nor plunder seized, nor the privacy of any house invaded.


Later a great trench was dug, and into it the dead were lowered, friends and foes alike. Ali, encamped for three days without the city, himself performed the funeral service. It was a new experience to bury the dead slain in battle not against the infidels, but believer fighting against believer, brother against brother. Instead of cursing the memory of his enemies, Ali spoke hopefully of the future state of such as had entered the field, on whatever side. When they brought him the sword of Zubair he cursed the man who took his life; and calling to mind the feats displayed by the man that wielded it in the early battles of Islam, exclaimed:—"Many a time hath this sword driven care and sorrow from the Prophet's brow."


The Muslims might well mourn the memory both of Talha and Zubair, remembering how on the field of Uhud the Talha had saved the life of Muhammad at the peril of his own; and how often the Zubair had carried confusion into the ranks of the idolaters of Mecca. Their fall, and that of many of the Companions, was a loss to the Ummah itself, because it left the Quraish seriously weak in the struggle yet to be fought out between them and those Arab tribes responsible for all the misunderstanding and Uthman's murder. view of Mt. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


The booty

The bearing of 'Ali was generous towards his fallen foe. Having entered the city, he divided the contents of the treasury amongst the troops which had fought on his side, promising them a still larger reward "when the Lord should have delivered Syria (Muawiyah I) into his hands."


But otherwise he treated friends and foes alike, and buried in oblivion animosities of the past. Marwan I and the adherents of the house of Banu Umayyad fled to their homes, or else found refuge in Syria and Muawiyah I. All that remained in the city swore fealty to Ali. The only class dissatisfied was that of the slaves and rabble, who murmured at having no share in the treasure, nor any chance of plunder. These, gathering into marauding bands, occasioned much disquietude to the Caliph, and hastened his departure from the city, with the view of checking the mischief they were bent on.


Aisha retires to Medina

Ali approached Aisha and scolded her for leading the rebellion against him over false grounds since Aisha did not bear the responsibility or the duty of pursuing the murderers of Uthman. He threatened to annul the marriage between her and the Prophet since she and the Prophet's other wives bore the title as "the Prophet's spouse in this life and also in the life to come". Although the death of a partner would annul a marriage in the Prophet's case this was not so and his wives were still technically married to him. Upon hearing this Aisha agreed to surrendering and returning to Mecca. [6]. Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ...


Participants

Fought together with Ali

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Harith ibn Rabi was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ... Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (631–658) was the son of Islams first caliph, Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umais. ... Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shi’ah Imam and the fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ...

Fought together with A'isha

Aisha bint Abu Bakr, Ayşe, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha (Arabic: ‎ `āisha, she who lives) was a wife of Muhammad. ... Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ... Muhammad ibn Talhah was, according to a Sunni source, the son of the prominent Muslim general Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah and Hammanah bint Jahsh. ... Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was the eight Sunni Caliph, an Umayyad, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ...

Others involved

Abdullah ibn Umar(Arabic: عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (ca. ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ... Hind bint Abi Umayya, also called as Umm Salama (Mother of Salama) (Arabic: أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Jatt is a caste of Sikhs who live in Punjab. ...

Unclasified

  • Abdullah bin Aamir Hadhrami of Makkah[7]
  • Ya'la bin Umayya[7]
  • Abdullah bin Aamir bin Kurayz of Basra[7]
  • Saeed bin Aas[7]
  • Mughira bin Shaaba[7]

See also

  • Jatts in Islamic History
Preceded by
Conquest of Mecca
Muslim battles
Year: 655 CE
Succeeded by
Battle of Siffin

Jatt is a caste of Sikhs who live in Punjab. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims on the 10th day of Ramadan in the year 630 January AD ( 8 AH) [1] . In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Medina... Events November 15 - Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats the pagan Mercian king Penda in the Battle of Winwaed Empress Saimei ascends to the throne of Japan. ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna...

References

  1. ^ William Muir [1]
  2. ^ (Dr. Mohammad Ishaque in Journal of Pakistan Historical Society Vol 3 Part1)
  3. ^ al-Tabari, Ibn al-Athir, and al-Mada'ini who wrote on the events of the year 36 AH. See also "The Great Sedition" -- "al-Fitna al-Kubra", by Taha Husain) [2]
  4. ^ Sahih Bukhari 088.220
  5. ^ anwary-islam.com
  6. ^ Source: Majlisi's Bahar-al-Anwar
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Restatement of History of Islam The Battle of Basra on Al-Islam.org, http://www.ismaili.net/Source/myflag/04islamic.html
  8. ^ http://www.islam4theworld.com/Sahabah/talhah_bn_ubaydullah_R.htm
  9. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatts#Jat.27s_In_Islamic_History

Sir William Muir (April 27, 1819–1905), was a Scottish Orientalist. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... Izz ad-Dīn Hassan Karam pour Athīr (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... Taha Husain was an Islamic scholar who studied in the al-Azhar University [1]. // Education is As Indispensable As Water and Air [1] The Memory of Abu El Alaa 1915 [1] Selected Poetical Texts of the Greek Drama 1924 [1] Ibn Khalduns Philosophy 1925 [1] Dramas by a Group... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims CE 570 to 661 is a book written by Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy, in which most of the history of Islam is retold in the Shia persepective. ... Al-Islam. ...

External links

Shia view

  • Was Ayesha seeking Qisas for the blood of Uthman?
  • Agitation Against Uthman
  • Restatement of History of Islam hosted by al-Islam.org [3]
  • "THE ROLE OF AISHA IN THE HISTORY OF ISLAM by Sayyid Murtada Askari"

A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims CE 570 to 661 is a book written by Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy, in which most of the history of Islam is retold in the Shia persepective. ... Al-Islam. ...

Critical of Islam

  • The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall by William Muir [4]

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