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Encyclopedia > Battle of Baltimore
Battle of Baltimore
Part of the War of 1812

Battle Monument, Baltimore
Date September 12September 15, 1814
Location Baltimore, Maryland
Result Decisive American victory
Combatants

Great Britain

United States of America
Commanders
Robert Ross
Alexander Cochrane
Arthur Brooke
Samuel Smith
John Stricker
George Armistead
Strength
5,000 2,000 (Baltimore defenses)
1,000 (Fort McHenry garrison)
Casualties
46 dead, 300 wounded 310 killed or wounded
Chesapeake campaign
Craney IslandSt. MichaelsBladensburgWashingtonAlexandria - Caulk's FieldNorth PointBaltimore

In the Battle of Baltimore, one of the turning points in the War of 1812, American forces warded off a combined British land and sea invasion of the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland. The American defense of Baltimore’s Fort McHenry in this battle inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem which would become the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Combatants United States Native Americans Great Britain, Canadian provincial forces First Nations Peoples Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels: 14 •Indigenous... Image File history File links From the Maryland Historical Society web site, [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... Robert Ross (1766 - September 12, 1814) was a British military officer who participated in the Napoleonic War and the War of 1812. ... Admiral Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) Cochrane (April 23, 1758 – January 26, 1832) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Arthur Broke, or Brooke (d. ... Samuel Smith Samuel Smith (July 27, 1752 - April 22, 1839) was a United States Senator and Representative from Maryland, as well as a former mayor of Baltimore, Maryland, and a general in the Maryland Militia. ... George Armistead (April 10, 1780 - April 25, 1818) born in Newmarket,Caroline County, Virginia is noted for being the Commander of Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. ... Battle of Craney Island - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders George Cockburn Derry Benson Strength Casualties 29 None {{{notes}}} The Battle of St. ... The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the razing of Washington, D.C., by British forces during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders James Alexander Gordon John Rodgers Strength 6 warships unknown Casualties 7 killed 35 wounded unknown The Raid on Alexandria was a British victory during the War of 1812, which gained much plunder at little cost, but did not affect the overall outcome of the... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Sir Peter Parker Philip Reed Casualties 29 None The Battle of Caulk’s Field occurred during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross† Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker Strength 4,500 3,000 Casualties 46 killed 273 wounded 163 killed and wounded over 200 captured The Battle of North Point was fought on September 12, 1814. ... Combatants United States Native Americans Great Britain, Canadian provincial forces First Nations Peoples Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels: 14 •Indigenous... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. ... Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer, an author, and an amateur poet who wrote the words to... Nicholson took the copy Key had given him to a printer, who published it as a broadside on 17 September, 1814 under the title Defense of Fort McHenry, with a note explaining the circumstances of its writing. ...

Contents

Background

On August 24, 1814, the British Army had overrun confused American defenders at the Battle of Bladensburg and marched into the nation’s capital of Washington, D.C.. After burning and looting major public buildings there and forcing President James Madison to flee to Brookeville, Maryland, they turned their attention north to Baltimore, where they hoped to strike a knockout blow against the demoralized Americans. Baltimore was a busy port and was thought by the British to harbor many of the privateers who were raiding British shipping. The British planned a combined operation, with Major General Robert Ross launching a land attack at North Point, and Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane laying siege to Fort McHenry, which was the point defensive installation in Baltimore Harbor. August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the razing of Washington, D.C., by British forces during the War of 1812. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... Brookeville is a town located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... Robert Ross (1766 - September 12, 1814) was a British military officer who participated in the Napoleonic War and the War of 1812. ... Admiral Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) Cochrane (April 23, 1758 – January 26, 1832) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Inner Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States, is an historic seaport, tourist attraction, and iconic landmark of the city. ...


Battle

North Point

The British army of 5,000 landed as planned, marched toward Baltimore and first met heavy resistance at the Battle of North Point, where Ross was killed on September 12. Colonel Arthur Brooke assumed command in Ross’s stead, pushed the American defenders back, and advanced to within two miles (3 km) of the city. The city’s defenses were under the command of Major General Samuel Smith, an officer of the Maryland Militia and also a United States Senator. Baltimore had been well fortified, with excellent supplies and some 15,000 troops. Brooke knew that the success of his attack depended upon receiving reinforcements and assistance from the Royal Navy. He therefore halted his advance and awaited the results of the sea campaign. Combatants Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross† Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker Strength 4,500 3,000 Casualties 46 killed 273 wounded 163 killed and wounded over 200 captured The Battle of North Point was fought on September 12, 1814. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Arthur Broke, or Brooke (d. ... Samuel Smith Samuel Smith (July 27, 1752 - April 22, 1839) was a U.S. Senator and Representative from Maryland, as well as a former mayor of Baltimore, Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Fort McHenry

JOHN BULL and the BALTIMOREANS (1814) by William Charles, a cartoon praising the stiff resistance in Baltimore
JOHN BULL and the BALTIMOREANS (1814) by William Charles, a cartoon praising the stiff resistance in Baltimore

At Fort McHenry, some 1,000 soldiers under the command of Major George Armistead awaited the British naval bombardment. Their defense was augmented by the sinking of a line of American merchant ships at the adjacent entrance to Baltimore Harbor in order to further thwart the passage of British ships. The attack began on the morning of September 13, as the British fleet of some nineteen ships began pounding the fort with rockets (from rocket vessel HMS Erebus) and mortar shells (from bomb vessels HMS Terror, HMS Volcano, HMS Meteor, HMS Devastation, and HMS Aetna). After an initial exchange of fire, the British fleet withdrew to just beyond the range of Fort McHenry’s cannons and continued to bombard the American redoubts for the next 25 hours. Although 1,800 to 2,000 cannonballs were launched at the fort, damage was minimal. [citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x857, 282 KB) John Bull and the Baltimoreans (1814) By William Charles (1776-1820) Source: HarpWeek Explore History Web site (accessed October 23, 2006 http://loc. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x857, 282 KB) John Bull and the Baltimoreans (1814) By William Charles (1776-1820) Source: HarpWeek Explore History Web site (accessed October 23, 2006 http://loc. ... Bruin become Mediator or Negotiation for Peace c. ... George Armistead (April 10, 1780 - April 25, 1818) born in Newmarket,Caroline County, Virginia is noted for being the Commander of Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... A ship firing Congreve rockets A rocket vessel was a ship equipped with rockets as a weapon. ... HMS Erebus was a Royal Navy rocket vessel built in 1807, converted to an 18-gun sloop in 1808, to a fire ship in 1809, and to a 24-gun sixth-rate in 1810. ... Bomb vessels attacking Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore A bomb ketch, bomb vessel, bomb ship, or simply bomb was a type of wooden sailing naval ship. ... HMS Terror in the Arctic HMS Terror was a bomb vessel designed by Sir Henry Peake and constructed by the Royal Navy in the Davy shipyard in Topsham, Devon. ... HMS Volcano was one of the Royal Navy bomb vessels involved in the attack on Fort McHenry in the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812. ... Several ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Meteor after the meteor, a space object. ... HMS Devastation was an 8-gun Royal Navy bomb vessel purchased in 1804 and sold in 1816. ... HMS Aetna was one of the Royal Navy bomb vessels involved in the attack on Fort McHenry in the Battle of Baltimore and the bombardment of Fort Washington, Maryland in 1814, during the War of 1812. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ...


After nightfall, Cochrane ordered a landing to be made by small boats to the shore just west of the fort, away from the harbor opening on which the fort’s defense was concentrated. He hoped that the landing party might slip past Fort McHenry and draw Smith’s army away from the main British land assault on the city’s eastern border. Operating in darkness and in foul weather, the diversionary attack failed. On the morning of September 14, the oversized American flag, which had been made the year before by local flagmaker Mary Pickersgill, flew over Fort McHenry, and Cochrane and Brooke knew that victory had eluded them. September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... The Star Spangled Banner Flag is the garrison flag that flew over Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor during the naval portion of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812. ... Mary Young Pickersgill Mary Young Pickersgill (1776 - 1857), is the flag-maker of the banner hoisted over Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. ...


Aftermath

An American lawyer, Francis Scott Key, was on a mercy mission for the release of Dr. William Beanes, a prisoner of the British. Key showed the British letters from wounded British officers praising the care they recived from Dr. Beanes. The British agreed to release Beanes, but Key and Beanes had to stay with the British until the attack on Baltimore was over. Key watched the proceedings from a truce ship in the Patapsco River. On the morning of the 14th, Key saw the Star-Spangled Banner waving above Ft. McHenry. Inspired, he began jotting down verses on the back of a letter he was carrying. He composed the words to an old British drinking song, "To Anacereon in Heaven." When Key reached Baltimore, his poem was printed on pamphlets by the Baltimore American. His poem was orignally called "The Defense of Ft. McHenry." The song eventually became known as "The Star-Spangled Banner." Congress made it the National Anthem in 1931. The Patapsco is a river in central and coastal Maryland. ... Nicholson took the copy Key had given him to a printer, who published it as a broadside on 17 September, 1814 under the title Defense of Fort McHenry, with a note explaining the circumstances of its writing. ...


Colonel Brooke’s troops withdrew, and Admiral Cochrane’s fleet sailed off to regroup before his next assault on America at the Battle of New Orleans. Armistead was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel. Much weakened by the arduous preparations for the battle, he died at age 38, only three years after the battle. Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Edward Pakenham† John Lambert Alexander Cochrane Andrew Jackson Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New Orleans, also known as the Battle of Chalmette...


The battle is commemorated in the Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine Fort McHenry Located in Baltimore, Maryland, Fort McHenry is best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from the British navy. ...


External link


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