FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle of Badajoz (1812)
Siege of Badajoz
Part of the Peninsular War
Date March 16-April 6, 1812
Location Badajoz, Spain
Result Anglo-Portuguese victory
Combatants
United Kingdom,
Portugal
First French Empire
Commanders
Earl of Wellington General Philippon
Strength
25,000 regulars 5,000 regulars
Casualties
5,000 dead or wounded 1,500 dead or wounded
Peninsular War, 1810–1814
FuengirolaBarrosaFuentes de OnoroAlbueraBadajozSalamancaVitoriaPyrenees – Maya – Roncesvalles – SoraurenNivelle – Nive – OrthezToulouse

In the Battle of Badajoz (March 16-April 6, 1812) an Anglo-Portuguese army under Earl of Wellington, besieged Badajoz, Spain and forced the surrender of the French garrison. The siege was one of the bloodiest in the Napoleonic Wars and was considered a costly victory by the British, with some 3,000 Allied soldiers killed in a few short hours of intense fighting as the siege drew to an end. Combatants Spain United Kingdom Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought on the Iberian Peninsula by an alliance of Spain, Portugal, and Britain against the Napoleonic French Empire. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (76th in leap years). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Badajoz (formerly Badajos), the capital of the Spanish province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, is situated close to the Portuguese frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Combatants Spain United Kingdom Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought on the Iberian Peninsula by an alliance of Spain, Portugal, and Britain against the Napoleonic French Empire. ... Battle of Fuengirola was one of the battles of the Peninsular War. ... The Battle of Barrosa took place on March 5, 1811 between Anglo-Spanish and French forces as part of the Peninsular war. ... // In the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro (May 3 - 5, 1811) the British army under Sir Arthur Wellesley checked an attempt by French troops under Marshall André Masséna to relieve the besieged city of Almeida. ... Combatants Spain Portugal Britain France Duchy of Warsaw Commanders William Beresford Joaquin Blake Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 10,000 British 10,000 Portuguese 13,000 Spanish 38 guns 23,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 40 guns Casualties 5,916 dead or wounded[2] 5,936 dead or wounded... The Battle of Salamanca was fought among the Arapiles hills near Salamanca in Spain on July 22, 1812, and resulted in an Anglo-Portuguese tactical victory under Lord Wellington against the French under marshal Marmont. ... Combatants France Britain Spain Portugal Commanders Jean-Baptiste Jourdan Joseph Bonaparte Arthur Wellesley Strength 58,000 78,000 Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded 2,000 captured 4,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Vitoria was fought on June 21, 1813 during the Peninsular War, between 78,000 British... Combatants France Britain Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 1,300 dead and 8,600 wounded 2,700 captured 4,500 dead or wounded A large-scale offensive launched[1] on 25 July 1813 by Marshal Soult from the Pyrenees region... The Battle of Sorauren was fought in late July of 1813 between French forces and the combined forces of Great Britain and Portugal. ... Combatants France Britain, Spain, Portugal Commanders Marshal Soult Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington Strength 60,000 80,000 Casualties 4,351 2,450 The Battle of Nivelle (November 10, 1813) took place in front of the River Nivelle near the end of the Peninsular War (1808-1814). ... The Battle of Orthez was fought on February 27, 1814, between the First French Empire and the forces of the Allies. ... The battle of Toulouse, fought on April 10, 1814, was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, although its official classification is disputed as the battle occurred four days after Napoleons surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (76th in leap years). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Motto  2(French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen 3 United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital London Largest conurbation (population) Greater London Urban Area Official languages English4 Government and Parliamentary democracy  -  Monarch Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation  -  Acts of Union... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Badajoz (formerly Badajos), the capital of the Spanish province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, is situated close to the Portuguese frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl...


Siege

After capturing the frontier towns of Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo in earlier sieges, the Anglo-Portuguese army moved on to Badajoz to capture the town and secure the lines of communication back to Lisbon, the primary base of operations for the allied army. Badajoz was garrisoned by some 5,000 French soldiers under General Phillippon, the town commander, and possessed much stronger fortifications than either Almeida or Ciudad Rodrigo. With a strong curtain wall covered by numerous strongpoints and bastions, Badajoz had already faced two unsuccessful sieges and was well prepared for a third attempt, with the walls strengthened and some areas around the curtain wall flooded or mined with high explosives. Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Beira Interior Norte  - District or A.R. Guarda Mayor António Ribeiro  - Party PSD Area 518. ... Ciudad Rodrigo is a small town in Salamanca province in western Spain Its position as a fortified town on the main road from Portugal to Salamanca made it militarily important in the middle years of the Peninsular War. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...


The allied army, some 25,000 strong, outnumbered the French garrison by around five to one and after encircling the town, began to lay siege by preparing trenches, parallels and earthworks to protect the heavy siege artillery, work made difficult by prolonged and torrential rainfalls. As the earthworks were prepared, the French made several raids to try and destroy the lines advancing toward the curtain wall, but were repeatedly fended off by British marksmen and counter-attacks by line infantry. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... A marksman (also designated marksman) is a profession which is mostly to be found in military context. ...


With the arrival of heavy 18lb and 24lb howitzers, the allies began an intense bombardment of the towns defences whilst one of the defensive bastions was seized by redcoats from General Thomas Picton's 3rd Division. The capture of the bastion allowed more extensive siege earthworks to be dug and soon a maze of trenches were creeping up to the high stone walls as the cannons continued to blast away at the stonework. By April 5 two breaches had been made in the curtain wall and the soldiers readied themselves to storm Badajoz. The order to attack was delayed for 24 hours to allow another breach to be made in the wall. News began to filter to the allies that Marshal Soult was marching to relieve the town and an order was given to launch the attack at 22:00 on the 6th of April. Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ... Sir Thomas Picton (August, 1758 – June 18, 1815) was a Welsh military leader who fought in a number of campaigns for Great Britain, and rose to the rank of lieutenant general. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1769 – November 26, 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of France in 1804. ...


The French garrison were well aware of what was to come and mined the large breaches in the walls and prepared for the imminent assault.


Storming of the city

Siege of Badajoz
Siege of Badajoz

With three large gaps in the curtain wall and with Marshal Soult marching to the town's aid, Wellington ordered his regiments to storm the town at 22:00 on the 6th and the troops made their way forward with scaling ladders and various tools. The first men to assault the breach were the men of the Forlorn Hope, who would lead the main attack by the 4th Division and Craufurd's Light Division while diversionary attacks were to be made to the north and the east by Portuguese and British soldiers of the 5th Division and Picton's 3rd Division. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 370 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2212 × 3582 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 370 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2212 × 3582 pixel, file size: 1. ... Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, which should be translated as lost troop although in Dutch it can also mean lost hope. The Dutch phrase fortutiously sounding like a accurate statement of the units future in English. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Just as the Forlorn Hope were beginning their attack, a French sentry was alerted and raised the alarm. Within seconds the ramparts were filled with French soldiers, who poured a lethal hail of musket fire into the troops at the base of the breach. The British and Portuguese surged forward en-masse and raced up to the wall, facing a murderous barrage of musket fire, complemented by grenades, stones, barrels of gunpowder with crude fuses and even bales of burning hay. Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, which should be translated as lost troop although in Dutch it can also mean lost hope. The Dutch phrase fortutiously sounding like a accurate statement of the units future in English. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... A hand grenade is a hand-held bomb, made to be thrown by a soldier. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blackpowder. ...


The furious barrage devastated the British soldiers at the wall and the breach soon began to fill with dead and wounded, whom the storming troops had to struggle over. Despite the carnage the redcoats bravely continued to surge forward in great numbers, only to be mown down by endless volleys and shrapnel from grenades and bombs. In just under two hours, some 2,000 men had been killed or badly wounded at the main breach, while countless more men of the 3rd Division were shot down as they made their diversionary assault. General Picton himself was wounded as he climbed a ladder to try and reach the top of the wall. Everywhere they attacked, the allied soldiers were being halted and the carnage was so immense that Wellington was just about to call a halt to the assault when the soldiers finally got a foothold on the curtain wall.


Picton's 3rd Division finally managed to reach the top of the wall and simultaneously link up with men of the 5th Division, who were also making their way into the town. Once they had a foothold, the British and Portuguese soldiers were at an advantage from sheer numbers and began to drive the French back. Seeing that he could no longer hold out, General Philippon withdrew from Badajoz to the neighboring outwork of San Cristobal; he however shortly surrendered after the town had fallen.


Results

With success came mass looting and disorder as the redcoats turned to drink and it was some 72 hours before order was completely restored. The wanton sacking of Badajoz has been noted by many historians as a particularly atrocious conduct committed by the British Army: many homes were broken into, property vandalized or stolen, Spanish civilians of all ages and backgrounds killed or raped, and many officers were also shot by the men they were trying to bring to order. Among the Spanish civilians that managed to survive there were Juana Maria de los Delores de Leon, future wife of General Harry Smith, and her sister. (The city of Ladysmith, the site of another famous siege, would be named after Juana Maria Smith). Juana Maria de los Delores de Leon Smith (d. ... Lieutenant-General Harry George Wakelyn Smith (28 June 1787-12 October 1860) was a notable English soldier and military commander of the early 19th century. ... Ladysmith is the name of several places: Ladysmith, British Columbia, Canada Ladysmith, Wisconsin, United States Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Ladismith, Western Cape, South Africa Ladysmith, New South Wales, Australia Ladysmith can also refer to: Siege of Ladysmith, 1900 Ladysmith Black Mambazo, a South African choral group Category: ...


When dawn finally came on the 7th of April, it revealed the horror of the slaughter all around the curtain wall. Bodies were piled high and blood flowed like rivers in the ditches and trenches. When he saw the destruction and slaughter, Wellington wept bitterly and cursed the British Parliament for granting him so few resources and soldiers. The assault and the earlier skirmishes had left the allies with some 4,800 casualties. The elite Light Division had suffered badly, losing some 40% of their fighting strength. The siege was however, over, and Wellington had secured the Portuguese–Spanish frontier and could now move against Marshal Marmont at Salamanca. The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Salamanca: Plaza Mayor Towers of the Old and New Cathedrals Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Salamanca Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community(region) of Castile-Leon(Castilla y León). ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m