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Encyclopedia > Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
Part of the War of the Third Coalition

Napoléon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard.
Date December 2, 1805
Location Austerlitz, Moravia
Result Decisive French victory,
effective end of the Third Coalition
Combatants
Flag of France French Empire Flag of Russia Russian Empire
Flag of Austrian Empire Austrian Empire
Commanders
Flag of France Napoleon I Flag of Russia Alexander I
Flag of Austrian Empire Francis II
Strength
65,000[1] 73,000[2]
Casualties
1,305 dead,
6,940 wounded,
573 captured,
1 standard lost[3]
15,000 dead or wounded,
12,000 captured,
180 guns lost,
50 standards lost[3]

The Battle of Austerlitz (Bitva u Slavkova) also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's greatest victories, effectively destroying the Third Coalition against the French Empire. On December 2, 1805 (November 20, Old Style), French troops, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russo-Austrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I, after nearly nine hours of difficult fighting in many sectors. The battle took place at Austerlitz (Slavkov u Brna) about 20 km (12 miles) east of Brno (Brünn) in Moravia. The battle is often regarded as a tactical masterpiece. Combatants Austria Russia United Kingdom Naples and Sicily Portugal Sweden France Batavia Italy Etruria Spain Bavaria Württemberg Commanders Francis II Karl Mack von Leiberich Archduke Charles Alexander I Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Horatio Nelson† Napoleon I André Masséna Pierre-Charles Villeneuve The War of the Third Coalition was a... Image File history File links Bataille dAusterlitz, par Category:François Pascal Simon Gérard File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Austerlitz ... Portrait of the Empress Josephine, by François Gérard François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 - 11 January 1837) was a French painter born in Rome, where his father occupied a post in the house of the French ambassador. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Slavkov u Brna (-Czech; German: Austerlitz) is a town in the Czech Republic, in the South Moravian Region. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Combatants Austria Russia United Kingdom Naples and Sicily Portugal Sweden France Batavia Italy Etruria Spain Bavaria Württemberg Commanders Francis II Karl Mack von Leiberich Archduke Charles Alexander I Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Horatio Nelson† Napoleon I André Masséna Pierre-Charles Villeneuve The War of the Third Coalition was a... The battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle of the War of the Third Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 22 July 1805 off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain between a British fleet commanded by Vice Admiral Robert Calder and a French fleet commanded by Admiral Pierre Charles... Combatants First French Empire, Kingdom of Bavaria Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mack von Liebereich # Strength 235,000 (including 25,000 Bavarians)[1] 72,000[2] Casualties 2,000[3] 60,000[2] The Ulm Campaign was a series of French and Bavarian military maneuvers and battles in 1805, during... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders André Masséna Archduke Charles of Austria Strength 37,000 50,000 Casualties about 4,000 killed or wounded about 3,000 killed or wounded, 8,000 captured The Battle of Caldiero took place on October 30, 1805. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Russian Empire Commanders Marshal Murat Jean Lannes Kienmayer Pyotr Bagration Strength Around 10,000 soldiers 6,700 soldiers Casualties Under 1,000 total Russian Empire: 300 K.I.A. or W.I.A. <700 P.O.W. Austrian Empire: 1,000 K.I.A... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland First French Empire Commanders Sir Richard Strachan Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley Strength 4 ships of the line, 2 frigates 4 ships of the line The Battle of Cape Ortegal was fought on 3 November 1805 between a British squadron and a French... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Russian Empire Commanders Édouard Mortier Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Strength about 8,000 about 24,000 The Battle of Dürenstein (also known as the Battle of Dürrenstein or Battle of Dürnstein) was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire, Russian Empire Commanders Joachim Murat Petr Bagration Strength about 20,600 about 7,300 Casualties about 1,200 2,402 The Battle of Schöngrabern (also known as the Battle of Hollabrunn) was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Etruria Polish Legions Switzerland Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily Commanders Jean Reynier Roger de Damas Strength 6,000 11,000 Casualties 500 killed or wounded 3,000 killed or wounded The Battle of Campo Tenese was a battle on 10 March... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maida. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Generally, a battle is an instance of combat in warfare between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... Slavkov u Brna (-Czech; German: Austerlitz) is a town in the Czech Republic, in the South Moravian Region. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ...


The French victory at Austerlitz effectively brought the Third Coalition to an end. On December 26, 1805, Austria and France signed the Treaty of Pressburg, which took the former out of the war, reinforced the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville, made Austria cede land to Napoleon's German allies, and imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs. Russian troops were allowed to head back to home soil. Victory at Austerlitz also permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and the rest of Europe. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II kept Francis I of Austria as his only official title. These achievements, however, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent. Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 - October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9, 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and Louis, Count Cobentzel, respectively. ... Look up Indemnity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire United Kingdom Sweden Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Sicily First French Empire: - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Etruria - Confederation of the Rhine - Swiss Confederation - Polish insurgents Kingdom of Spain Commanders Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Count...

Contents

Prologue

Europe had been in turmoil since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. After five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition in 1797. A Second Coalition was formed in 1798, but this to was defeated by 1801, leaving Britain the only opponent of the new French Consulate. In March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace. However, many problems persisted between the two sides, making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. The British government resented having to turn over most of the colonial conquests it had made since 1793. Napoleon was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta.[4] The tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent an expeditionary force to crush the Haitian Revolution.[5] In May 1803, Britain declared war on France. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow...


The Third Coalition

In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition. British Prime Minister William Pitt spent 1804 and 1805 in a flurry of diplomatic activity geared towards forming a new coalition against France. Mutual suspicion between the British and the Russians eased in the face of several French political mistakes, and by April of 1805 the two had signed a treaty of alliance.[6] Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France and keen on revenge, Austria also joined the coalition a few months later.[7] William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


La Grande Armée

Prior to the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled the Army of England, an invasion force meant to strike at the British Isles, around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France. Although they never set foot on British soil, Napoleon's troops received careful and invaluable training for any possible military operation. Boredom among the troops occasionally set in, but Napoleon paid many visits and conducted lavish parades in order to boost morale.[8] This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


The men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon would later call La Grande Armée (English: The Great Army). At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units containing about 36 to 40 cannon each and capable of independent action until other corps could arrive to the rescue.[9] A single corps (properly situated in a strong defensive position) could survive at least a day without support, giving La Grande Armée countless strategic and tactical options on every campaign. On top of these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of 22,000 organized into two cuirassier divisions, four mounted dragoon divisions, and two divisions of dismounted dragoons and light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery pieces.[9] By 1805, the Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000,[10] well equipped, well trained, and led by competent officers. La Grande Armée (French for the Great Army or the Grand Army) first entered the annals of history when, in 1805, Napoleon I renamed the army that he had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel for the proposed invasion of Britain and re-deployed it East... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... French cuirassier armour, 1854 Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... French dragoon, 1745. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Russian army

The Russian army in 1805 had many characteristics of ancien régime organization: there was no permanent formation above the regimental level, senior officers were largely recruited from aristocratic circles, and the Russian soldier, in line with 18th-century practice, was regularly beaten and punished to instill discipline. Furthermore, many lower-level officers were poorly trained and had difficulty getting their men to perform the sometimes complex manoeuvres required in a battle. Nevertheless, the Russians did have a fine artillery arm manned by soldiers who regularly fought hard to prevent their pieces from falling into enemy hands.[11] Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ...


Austrian army

Archduke Charles, brother of the Austrian Emperor, had started to reform the Austrian army in 1801 by taking away power from the Hofkriegsrat, the military-political council responsible for decision-making in the Austrian armed forces.[12] Charles was Austria's best field commander,[13] but he was unpopular with the royal court and lost much influence when, against his advice, Austria decided to go to war with France. Karl Mack became the new main commander in Austria's army, instituting reforms on the infantry on the eve of war that called for a regiment to be composed of four battalions of four companies rather than the older three battalions of six companies. The sudden change came with no corresponding officer training, and as a result these new units were not led as well as they could have been.[14] The Austrian cavalry was regarded as the best in Europe, but the detachment of many cavalry units to various infantry formations weakened its hitting power compared to its massed French counterpart.[14] Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (de: Erzherzog Karl von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, also known as Karl von Österreich-Teschen) (September 5, 1771–April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747–1792) and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792). ... Karl Mack (1752—1828) was an Austrian general during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ...


Preliminary moves

Napoleon takes the surrender of the unfortunate General Mack and the Austrian army at Ulm. Painting by Charles Thévenin.
Napoleon takes the surrender of the unfortunate General Mack and the Austrian army at Ulm. Painting by Charles Thévenin.

In August 1805, Napoleon, Emperor of the French since May of the previous year, turned his army's sights from the English Channel to the Rhine in order to deal with the new Austrian and Russian threats. On September 25, after great secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000[15] French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 260 km (160 miles).[16] Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Bavaria. Napoleon hoped to swing his forces northward and perform a wheeling movement that would find the French at the Austrian rear. The Ulm Maneuver was well-executed and on October 20 Mack and 23,000 Austrian troops surrendered at Ulm, bringing the total number of Austrian prisoners in the campaign to 60,000.[16] Although the spectacular victory was soured by the defeat of the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar the following day, French success on land continued as Vienna fell in November, replete with 100,000 muskets, 500 cannon, and the intact bridges across the Danube.[17] Image File history File links Napoleon_ulm. ... Image File history File links Napoleon_ulm. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Karl Mack (1752—1828) was an Austrian general during the Napoleonic Wars. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Combatants First French Empire, Kingdom of Bavaria Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mack von Liebereich # Strength 235,000 (including 25,000 Bavarians)[1] 72,000[2] Casualties 2,000[3] 60,000[2] The Ulm Campaign was a series of French and Bavarian military maneuvers and battles in 1805, during... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg...


Meanwhile, the late arrival of Russian troops under Kutuzov prevented them from saving the Austrian field armies, so the Russians withdrew to the northeast to await reinforcements and to link up with surviving Austrian units. The French followed but soon found themselves in an unenviable strategic position: Prussian intentions were unknown and could be hostile, the Russian and Austrian armies now converged together, and to add to the frustration, Napoleon's lines of communication were extremely long and required strong garrisons to keep them open. Napoleon realized that the only meaningful way to capitalize on the success at Ulm was to force the Allies to battle and defeat them.[18] Fortunately for him, the Russian Tsar was eager to fight. Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: ) (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ...


Battle

Napoleon with his troops on the eve of battle. Painting by Lejeune.
Napoleon with his troops on the eve of battle. Painting by Lejeune.
See also: Order of Battle at the Austerlitz campaign

Napoleon could muster some 75,000 men and 157 guns for the impending battle, but about 7,000 troops under Davout were still far to the south in the direction of Vienna.[19] The Allies had about 73,000 soldiers, seventy percent of them Russian, and 318 guns.[19] Image File history File links La bataille dAusterlitz, par Lejeune File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Austerlitz ... Image File history File links La bataille dAusterlitz, par Lejeune File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Austerlitz ... The Battle of the Pyramids, 1808. ... This is the complete order of battle for the French and Third Coalition armies during the Battle of Austerlitz. ... Davout, Marshal of France Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 – June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, duc dAuerstädt, prince dEckmühl, and a marshal of France. ...


Battlefield

The northern part of the battlefield was dominated by the 700-foot (210-meter) Santon hill and the 850-foot (260-meter) Zuran hill, both overlooking the vital Olmutz-Brno road that ran across a west-east axis. To the west of these two hills was the village of Bellowitz, and between them the Bosenitz Stream went south to link up with the Goldbach Stream, the latter flowing astride the villages of Kobelnitz, Sokolnitz, and Telnitz. The centerpiece of the entire area were the Pratzen Heights, a gently sloped hill about 35 to 40 feet (11–12 m) in height. An aide noted that the Emperor repeatedly told his Marshals, "Gentlemen, examine this ground carefully, it is going to be a battlefield; you will have a part to play upon it".[20] A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ...


Allied plans and dispositions

Allied (red) and French (blue) deployments at 1800 hours on December 1, 1805.

An Allied council met on December 1 to discuss proposals for the battle. Most of the Allied strategists had two fundamental ideas in mind: making contact with the enemy and securing the southern flank that led to Vienna. Although the Tsar and his immediate entourage pushed hard for a battle, Emperor Francis of Austria was in a more cautious mood, and he was seconded by Kutuzov, the main Russian commander.[21] The pressure to fight from the Russian nobles and the Austrian commanders, however, was too strong, and the Allies adopted Austrian Chief of Staff Weyrother's plan.[21] This called for a main drive against the French right flank, which the Allies noticed was lightly guarded, and diversionary attacks against the French left. The Allies deployed most of their troops into four columns that would attack the French right. The Russian Imperial Guard was held in reserve while Russian troops under Bagration guarded the Allied right. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x668, 118 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Austerlitz, Situation at 1800, 1 December 1805 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x668, 118 KB) Summary Description  Battle of Austerlitz, Situation at 1800, 1 December 1805 Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Leib Guard (Russian: , from German leib, meaning body) collectively distinguished military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. ... Prince Pyotr Bagration (Пётр Иванович Багратион) (1765 - September 12, 1812), a descendant of the Georgian Royal family of the Bagrations, served as a Russian general. ...


French plans and dispositions

Days before any actual fighting, Napoleon had given an impression to the Allies that his army was in a weak state and that he desired a negotiated peace.[22] In reality, he was hoping that they would attack, and to encourage them on this mission he deliberately weakened his right flank.[23] On November 28, Napoleon met with his marshals at Imperial Headquarters and they informed him of their qualms and fears about the upcoming battle, even suggesting a retreat, but he shrugged off their complaints and went to work.[24] Napoleon's plan envisioned that the Allies would throw so many troops to envelop his right flank that their center would be severely weakened. He then counted on a massive French thrust, to be conducted by 16,000 troops of Soult's IV Corps, through the center to cripple the Allied army. Meanwhile, to support his weak right flank, Napoleon ordered Davout's III Corps to force march all the way from Vienna and join General Legrand's men, who held the extreme southern flank that would bear the heavy part of the Allied attack. Davout's soldiers had 48 hours to march 110 km (70 miles). Their arrival would be extremely crucial in determining the success or failure of the French plan. The Imperial Guard and Bernadotte's I Corps were held in reserve while the V Corps under Lannes guarded the northern sector of the battle. is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1769 – November 26, 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of France in 1804. ... The III Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit during the Napoleonic Wars, it became legendary under the command of Louis Nicolas Davout, a Marshal of the French Empire. ... General Claude Juste Alexandre Legrand (1762-1815) commanded a French division at several notable battles of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. ... Alternate uses at Imperial guard The Imperial Guard was originally a small group of elite soldiers under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Marshal of France Jean Lannes by Jean Charles Nicaise Perrin Jean Lannes, Duke of Montebello (April 11, 1769 – May 31, 1809), Marshal of France, was born at Lectoure, Gers. ...


Battle is joined

The battle began around 8 AM with the first allied column attacking the village of Telnitz, which was defended by the 3rd Line Regiment. This sector of the battlefield witnessed heavy action in the following moments as several ferocious Allied charges evicted the French from the town and forced them on the other side of the Goldbach. The first men of Davout’s corps arrived at this time and threw the Allies out of Telnitz before they too were attacked by hussars and re-abandoned the town. Additional Allied attacks out of Telnitz were checked by French artillery.[25] A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ...


Allied columns started pouring against the French right, but not at the desired speed, so the French were mostly successful in curbing the attacks. In actuality, the Allied deployments were mistaken and poorly timed: cavalry detachments under Liechtenstein on the Allied left flank had to be placed in the right flank and in the process they ran into and slowed down part of the second column of infantry that was advancing towards the French right.[24] At the time, the planners thought this was a disaster, but later on it helped the Allies. Meanwhile, the lead elements of the second column were attacking the village of Sokolnitz, which was defended by the 26th Light Regiment and the Tirailleurs, French skirmishers. Initial Allied assaults proved unsuccessful and General Langeron ordered the bombardment of the village. This deadly barrage forced the French out, and around the same time, the third column attacked the castle of Sokolnitz. The French, however, counterattacked and regained the village, only to be thrown out again. Conflict in this area ended momentarily when Friant's division (part of III Corps) retook the village. Sokolnitz was perhaps the most fought over area in the battlefield and would change hands several times as the day progressed.[26] Count Alexander Fyodorovich Langeron, portrait from the War Gallery of Winter Palace. ... Louis Friant (18 September 1758 – 24 June 1829), Comte de lEmpire, was a Général de division of the French army who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. ...


"One sharp blow and the war is over"

The decisive attacks on the Allied center by St. Hilaire and Vandamme split the Allied army in two and left the French in a golden strategic position to win the battle.

Around 8:45 AM, finally satisfied at the weakness in the enemy center, Napoleon asked Soult how long it would take for his men to reach the Pratzen Heights, to which the Marshal replied, “Less than twenty minutes sire.” About 15 minutes later, Napoleon ordered the attack, adding, “One sharp blow and the war is over.”[27] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x668, 116 KB) Summary Description  Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links The following pages link... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x668, 116 KB) Summary Description  Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links The following pages link... General Dominique José Vandamme (1770–1830) was a French military officer, who fought in the Napoleonic Wars. ...


A dense fog helped to cloud the advance of St. Hilaire’s division, but as they went up the slope the legendary ‘Sun of Austerlitz’ ripped the mist apart and encouraged them forward.[26] Russian soldiers and commanders on top of the heights were stunned to see so many French troops coming towards them.[28] Allied commanders were now able to feed some of the delayed detachments of the fourth column into this bitter struggle. Over an hour of horrendous fighting left much of this unit decimated beyond recognition. The other men from the second column, mostly inexperienced Austrians, also participated in the struggle and swung the numbers game against one of the best fighting forces in the French army, finally forcing them to withdraw down the slopes. However, gripped by desperation, St. Hilaire's men struck hard once more and bayoneted the Allies out of the heights. To the north, General Vandamme’s division attacked an area called Staré Vinohrady and through talented skirmishing and deadly volleys broke several Allied battalions.[29] General Dominique José Vandamme (1770–1830) was a French military officer, who fought in the Napoleonic Wars. ...


The battle had firmly turned to France’s favor, but there was still much fighting ahead. Napoleon ordered Bernadotte’s I Corps to support Vandamme’s left and moved his own command center from Zuran Hill to St. Anthony’s Chapel on the Pratzen Heights. The difficult position of the Allies was confirmed by the decision to send in the Russian Imperial Guard; Grand Duke Constantine, Tsar Alexander’s brother, commanded the Guard and counterattacked in Vandamme’s section of the field, forcing a bloody effort and the loss of the only French standard in the battle (the unfortunate victim was a battalion of the 4th Line Regiment). Sensing trouble, Napoleon ordered his own heavy Guard cavalry forward. These men pulverized their Russian counterparts, but with both sides pouring in large masses of cavalry no victor was clear yet. The Russians had a numerical advantage here but fairly soon the tide swung as Drouet’s Division, the 2nd of Bernadotte’s I Corps, deployed on the flank of the action and allowed French cavalry to seek refuge behind their lines. The horse artillery of the Guard also unlimbered a deadly toll on the Russian cavalry and fusiliers. The Russians broke and many died as they were pursued by the reinvigorated French cavalry for about a quarter of a mile.[30] The term Leib Guard (Russian: , from German leib, meaning body) collectively distinguished military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... dErlon, 1815 Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte dErlon (July 29, 1765-January 25, 1844) was a marshal of France and a soldier in Napoleons Army. ... A lifesize model of a Swedish 1850s horse artillery team towing a light artillery piece in full gallop. ...


Endgame

By 1400 hours, the Allied army had been dangerously separated. Napoleon now had the option to strike at one of the wings, and he chose the Allied left since other enemy sectors had already been cleared or were conducting fighting retreats.

Meanwhile, the northernmost part of the battlefield was also witnessing heavy fighting. Prince Liechtenstein’s heavy cavalry began to assault Kellerman’s lighter cavalry forces after finally arriving at the correct position in the field. The fighting originally went well for the French, but Kellerman’s forces took cover behind General Caffarelli’s infantry division once it became clear Russian numbers were too great. Caffarelli’s men halted the Russian assaults and permitted Murat to send two cuirassier divisions into the fray to finish off the Russian cavalry for good. The ensuing melee was bitter and long, but the French ultimately prevailed. Lannes then led his V Corps against Bagration’s men and after hard fighting managed to drive the skilled Russian commander off the field. He wanted to pursue, but Murat, who was in control of this sector in the battlefield, was against the idea.[31] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x668, 110 KB) Summary Description  Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links The following pages link... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x668, 110 KB) Summary Description  Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Licensing  In the public domain as an original work of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links The following pages link... Johann Josef I (1760 - 1836) was the tenth prince of Liechtenstein between 1805 and 1806 and again from 1814 until 1836. ... Francois Etienne de Kellermann, Duc de Valmy (1770 - June 2, 1835) was a French cavalry general noted for his daring and skillful exploits during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Prince Pyotr Bagration (Пётр Иванович Багратион) (1765 - September 12, 1812), a descendant of the Georgian Royal family of the Bagrations, served as a Russian general. ...


Napoleon’s focus now shifted towards the southern end of the battlefield where the French and the Allies were still fighting over Sokolnitz and Telnitz. In an effective double-pronged assault, St. Hilaire’s division and part of Davout’s III Corps smashed through the enemy at Sokolnitz and persuaded the commanders of the first two columns, Generals Kienmayer and Langeron, to flee as fast as they could. Buxhowden, the commander of the Allied left and the man responsible for leading the attack, was completely drunk and fled as well. Kienmayer covered his withdrawal with the O’Reilly light cavalry, who gallantly managed to defeat five of six French cavalry regiments before they too had to retreat.[31] Michael von Kienmayer (January 17, 1755 - October 18, 1828) was an Austrian general who was active during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Count Alexander Fyodorovich Langeron, portrait from the War Gallery of Winter Palace. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Count von Buxhoevden, (Russian: , Fyodor Fyodorovich Booksgevden; other spellings: Feodor Buxhoeveden, BuxhÅ“wden) (September 14, 1750 - August 23, 1811) was a Russian Infantry General and government official who commanded the Russian armies during the Finnish War. ...


General panic now seized the Allied army and it abandoned the field in any and all possible directions. A famous yet frightful episode transpired during this retreat: Russian forces that had been defeated by the French right withdrew south towards Vienna via the Satschan frozen ponds. French artillery pounded towards the men, but Napoleon redirected his gunners to fire at the ice. The men drowned in the viciously cold ponds, dozens of artillery pieces going down along with them. Estimates on how many guns were captured differ; there may have been as low as 38 and as high as over 100. Sources also differ on casualties, with figures ranging from as low as 200 to as high as 2,000 dead. Because Napoleon exaggerated this incident in his report of the battle, the low numbers may be more accurate, although doubt remains as to whether they are fully correct. Many regard this incident as one of Napoleon's cruelest acts in war.[32]


Aftermath

The battle field of Austerlitz as of today, with the village of Prace (Pratzen) in the foreground.
The battle field of Austerlitz as of today, with the village of Prace (Pratzen) in the foreground.

Austerlitz and the preceding campaign profoundly altered the nature of European politics. In three months, the French had occupied Vienna, decimated two armies, and humbled the Austrian Empire. These events sharply contrast with the rigid power structures of the 18th century. Austerlitz set the stage for a near-decade of French domination on the European continent, but one of its more immediate impacts was to goad Prussia into war in 1806. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 82 pixelsFull resolution (21862 × 2239 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 82 pixelsFull resolution (21862 × 2239 pixel, file size: 5. ...


Military and political results

Russian lithograph of the battle
Russian lithograph of the battle

Overall, Allied casualties stood at about 27,000 out of an army of 73,000, which was 37% of their effectives. The French expended around 9,000 out of a force of 67,000, or about 13% of effectives. The Allies also lost 180 guns and 50 standards. The victory was met by sheer amazement and delirium in Paris, where just days earlier the nation was teetering on financial collapse. Napoleon wrote to Josephine, "I have beaten the Austro-Russian army commanded by the two emperors. I am a little weary....I embrace you."[33] Tsar Alexander perhaps best summed up the harsh times for the Allies by stating, “We are babies in the hands of a giant.”[34] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 3000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 3000 pixel, file size: 3. ...


France and Austria signed a truce on December 4 and the Treaty of Pressburg 22 days later took the latter out of the war. Austria agreed to recognize French territory captured by the treaties of Campo Formio (1797) and Lunéville (1801), cede land to Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden, which were Napoleon's German allies, and pay 40 million francs in war indemnities. Venice was also given to the Kingdom of Italy. It was a harsh end for Austria, but certainly not a catastrophic peace. The Russian army was allowed to withdraw to home territory and the French encamped themselves in Southern Germany. The Holy Roman Empire was also effectively wiped out, 1806 being seen as its final year. Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, a string of German states meant to serve as a buffer between France and Prussia. Prussia saw these and other moves as an affront to its status as the main power of Central Europe and it went to war with France in 1806. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 - October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... History of Württemberg // The origin of the name Württemberg remains obscure: scholars having universally rejected the once popular derivation from Wirth am Berg. Some authorities derive it from a proper name: Wiruto or Wirtino; others from a Celtic place-name, Virolunum or Verdunum. ... The History of Baden begins in the 12th century and continues until the mid-1900s. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from...


Rewards

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Napoleon's Speech at Austerlitz

Napoleon's words to his troops after the battle were full of praise: Soldats! Je suis content de vous (English: "Soldiers! I am pleased with you").[35] The Emperor provided two million golden francs to the higher officers, 200 francs to each soldier, and gave large pensions to the widows of the fallen. Orphaned children were adopted by Napoleon personally and were allowed to add "Napoleon" to their baptismal and family names.[36] Interestingly, Napoleon never gave a title of nobility to one of his commanders, as was customary following a great victory. It is probable that he considered Austerlitz too much of a personal triumph to elevate anyone else significantly.[37] To this day, Austerlitz is often called Napoleon's greatest victory.[38] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Popular conceptions

Mythology

There are many stories and legends regarding events before or during the battle. In the night before the day of battle, Napoleon set out with his entourage to review the forward positions. During this tour, he was recognized by the soldiers of Vandamme's division, and fairly soon the entire army lit candles to celebrate the anniversary of his coronation. Allied soldiers and commanders looking at this believed that the French were preparing to retreat. Another story features an unfortunate French soldier running from Cossacks; apparently, the soldier climbed through a chimney trying to hide, but the Cossacks found and killed him anyway. A more humorous episode transpired between some French troopers looking for horse fodder from a local peasant woman. The soldiers kept yelling, Babo, ovsa ("Lady, give us oats") but the woman, who was old and probably had difficult hearing, thought they were saying Hopsa ("jump"), so she repeatedly jumped, at the very great frustration of the French soldiers. Eventually, the soldiers realized she did not understand them, pointed to the horses outside, and even started chewing to give her a clue, which she finally got, giving the soldiers the oats they wanted. Yet another story tells of French artillerists throwing a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary into a fire for warmth and discovering that it would not burn.[39] For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


War and Peace

The Battle of Austerlitz is a major event in Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace. The battle serves as an episode to exalt Russian values and traditions of spirituality and modesty above the alleged crude logic and arrogance of the French. As the battle is about to start, Prince Andrei, one of the main characters, thinks that the approaching "day [will] be his Toulon, or his Arcola,"[40] references to Napoleon's early victories. Andrei hopes for glory, even thinking to himself, "I shall march forward and sweep everything before me."[40] Later in the battle, however, Andrei falls into enemy hands and even meets his hero, Napoleon. But the previous enthusiasm has been shattered; he no longer thinks much of Napoleon, "so petty did his hero with his paltry vanity and delight in victory appear, compared to that lofty, righteous and kindly sky which he had seen and comprehended."[41] Tolstoy portrays Austerlitz as an early test for Russia, one which ended badly because the soldiers fought for irrelevant things like glory or renown rather than the higher virtues which would produce, according to Tolstoy, a victory at Borodino during the 1812 invasion. Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... Combatants France French Royalists Naples, Sardinia, Spain, Great Britain Strength 32,000 (at peak) ca 22,000 12 ships of the line Casualties 2,000 killed or wounded, 14 French ships of the line sunk in harbour, 15 captured by British ca 4,000 The Siege of Toulon took place... Combatants French Revolutionary Army Austrian Empire Commanders General Napoleon Bonaparte General Alvinczy Casualties Unknown, three days of heavy fighting Unknown, much of the Austrian army had moved to safety. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mikhail Kutuzov Strength 82,400 infantry 26,700 cavalry 14,900 artillery troops with 587 guns[1] 72,000 infantry 17,300 cavalry 14,500 artillery troops with 637 guns[2] Casualties ~6,600 killed ~21,400 wounded [3] ~43,000... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ...


Historical views

Napoleon did not succeed in defeating the Allied army as thoroughly as he wanted,[37] but historians and enthusiasts alike recognize that the original plan provided a significant victory. For that reason, Austerlitz is sometimes compared to other great tactical battles like Cannae or Blenheim. Some historians suggest that Napoleon was so successful at Austerlitz that he lost touch with reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a "personal Napoleonic one" after the battle.[42] In French history, Austerlitz is acknowledged as an impressive military victory, and in the 19th century, when fascination with the First Empire was at its height, the battle was revered by the likes of Victor Hugo, who "in the depth of [his] thoughts" was hearing the "noise of the heavy cannons rolling towards Austerlitz".[43] In the recent bicentennial, however, controversy erupted when neither French president Jacques Chirac nor prime minister Dominique de Villepin attended any functions commemorating the battle.[44] On the other hand, residents of France's overseas departments protested what they viewed as the "official commemoration of Napoleon", arguing that Austerlitz should not be celebrated since they believed Napoleon committed genocide against colonial peoples.[44] For the 11th-century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ French numbers at the battle vary depending on the account; 65,000, 68,000, 73,000, or 75,000 are other figures often present in the literature. The discrepancy arises because about 7,000 men of Davout's III Corps were not at the battle right when it started. Including or not including these troops is a matter of preference (in this article, they will be included as separate from the 67,000 French soldiers originally on the field). David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 416 gives 67,000 (without Davout's III Corps)
  2. ^ Allied numbers at the battle vary depending on the account; 73,000, 84,000, or 85,000 are other figures often present in the literature. Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 25 gives 73,000. David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 417 gives 85,400. In Napoleon and Austerlitz (1997), Scott Bowden writes that the traditional number given for the Allies, 85,000, reflects their theoretical strength, and not the true numbers present on the battlefield.
  3. ^ a b David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 432
  4. ^ Chandler p. 304
  5. ^ Chandler p. 320
  6. ^ Chandler p. 328. The Baltic was dominated by Russia, something Britain was not comfortable with, as it provided valuable commodities like timber, tar, and hemp, crucial supplies to the British Empire. Additionally, Britain supported the Ottoman Empire against Russian incursions towards the Mediterranean. Meanwhile, French territorial rearrangements in Germany occurred without Russian consultation and Napoleon's annexations in the Po valley increasingly strained relations between the two.
  7. ^ Chandler p. 331
  8. ^ Chandler p. 323
  9. ^ a b Chandler p. 332
  10. ^ Chandler p. 333
  11. ^ Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 33
  12. ^ Fisher & Fremont-Barnes p. 31
  13. ^ Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 155
  14. ^ a b Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 32
  15. ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p. 108
  16. ^ a b Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 15
  17. ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 407
  18. ^ Chandler p. 409
  19. ^ a b Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 19
  20. ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 412–413
  21. ^ a b Chandler p. 416
  22. ^ Frank McLynn, Napoleon: A Biography. p. 342
  23. ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p. 109
  24. ^ a b Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 48
  25. ^ Fisher & Fremont-Barnes p. 48–49
  26. ^ a b Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 49
  27. ^ Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 21
  28. ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 425
  29. ^ Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 49–50
  30. ^ Fisher & Fremont-Barnes p. 51
  31. ^ a b Fisher & Fremont-Barnes p. 52
  32. ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 432
  33. ^ Chandler p. 432–433. Napoleon's comments in this letter led to the battle's other famous designation, "Battle of the Three Emperors." However, Emperor Francis of Austria was not present at the battlefield.
  34. ^ Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 54
  35. ^ Napoleon's Proclamation following Austerlitz. Dated 3 December, 1805. Translated by Markham, J. David.
  36. ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 439
  37. ^ a b Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 25
  38. ^ Austerlitz videogame, Accessed March 20, 2006
  39. ^ Battlefield Legends - Projekt Austerlitz, Accessed March 20, 2006
  40. ^ a b Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace. p. 317
  41. ^ Tolstoy p. 340
  42. ^ Frank McLynn, Napoleon: A Biography. p. 350
  43. ^ France's history wars, Accessed March 20, 2006
  44. ^ a b BBC - Furore over Austerlitz ceremony, Accessed March 20, 2006

The III Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit during the Napoleonic Wars, it became legendary under the command of Louis Nicolas Davout, a Marshal of the French Empire. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ...

References

  • Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. London: HarperCollins, 2000. ISBN 0-7607-2025-8
  • Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1
  • Fisher, Todd & Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-84176-831-6
  • Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. London: Penguin Group, 1982. ISBN 0-14-044417-3
  • Marbot, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine-Marcelin. "The Battle of Austerlitz," Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents, ed. Rafe Blaufarb (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008), 122-123.
  • McLynn, Frank. Napoleon: A Biography. New York: Arcade Publishing Inc., 1997. ISBN 1-55970-631-7
  • Uffindell, Andrew. Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. Kent: Spellmount Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-86227-177-1

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battle of Austerlitz

Coordinates: 49°07′40″N, 16°45′49″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



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