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Encyclopedia > Battle of Atlanta
Battle of Atlanta
Part of the American Civil War

Battle of Atlanta, by Kurz and Allison, 1888.
Date July 22, 1864
Location Fulton County, Georgia
Result Union victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
William T. Sherman
James B. McPherson
John B. Hood
Strength
Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee
Casualties
3,641 8,499

The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War on July 22, 1864, just southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. Despite the implication of finality in its name, the battle occurred mid-way through the campaign and the city would not fall for another six weeks. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Download high resolution version (900x631, 455 KB)TITLE: Battle of Atlanta--Death of Gen. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Fulton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... James B. McPherson James Birdseye McPherson (November 14, 1828 – July 22, 1864) was a career U.S. Army officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29[2], 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and an old friend of Lt. ... The Military Division of the Mississippi was an administrative division of the United States Army during the American Civil War that controlled all military operations in the Western Theater. ... The Army of Tennessee was formed in November 1862. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman Joseph E. Johnston Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,747 2,800 The Battle of Resaca was part of the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Adairsville Conflict American Civil War Date May 17, 1864 Place Bartow County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Adairsville was a battle of the Atlanta campaign fought during the American Civil War on May 17, 1864 just northeast (62 miles) of Atlanta, Georgia. ... The Battle of New Hope Church was fought on May 25 and May 26 of 1864 between Shermans Union force and Johnstons Confederate force. ... The Battle of Picketts Mill was fought on May 27, 1864 between Union and Confederate forces. ... {{Campaignbox {{{campaign}}}}} The Battle of Dallas was a battle in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Kolbs Farm was fought on June 22, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces. ... Battle of Kennesaw Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1864 Place Kennesaw, Georgia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27, 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Marietta of the American Civil War was fought from 9 June through 3 July of 1864 in Cobb County, Georgia between Union and Confederate forces. ... The Battle of Paces Ferry was an engagement fought on July 5, 1864, near Atlanta, Georgia, during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Peachtree Creek Conflict American Civil War Date July 20, 1864 Place Fulton County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Peachtree Creek was a battle of the American Civil War, fought in Georgia on July 20, 1864. ... Battle of Ezra Church Conflict American Civil War Date July 28, 1864 Place Fulton County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Ezra Church was fought on July 28, 1864, in Fulton County, Georgia, during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Utoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date August 5-7, 1864 Place Fulton County, Georgia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Utoy Creek was fought August 5– 7, 1864, during the Atlanta Campaign in the American Civil War. ... The Second Battle of Dalton was fought on August 14 and August 15 of 1864 between Union and Confederate forces. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman H. Judson Kilpatrick William H. Jackson Strength Cavalry Division Jacksons Division Casualties 237 240 The Battle of Lovejoys Station was fought on August 20, 1864, near what is now Lovejoy, Georgia, in Clayton County, during... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman Oliver Otis Howard John Bell Hood William J. Hardee Strength Army of the Tennessee Army of Tennessee Casualties 1,600 3,000 The Battle of Jonesborough (currently Jonesboro) was fought August 31 – September 1, 1864, during the... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...


During this time, Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman had command of the Union forces of the Western Theater. The main Union force in this battle was the Army of the Tennessee, under Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson. He was one of Sherman's and Grant's favorite commanders, as he was very quick and aggressive (qualities found in few Union generals). The XV Corps was commanded by Maj. Gen. John A. Logan, the XVI Corps was commanded by Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, and the XVII Corps was commanded by Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair Jr.. Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... James B. McPherson James Birdseye McPherson (November 14, 1828 – July 22, 1864) was a career U.S. Army officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... For other persons with similar names, see John Logan. ... Grenville M. Dodge wearing a major generals uniform Grenville Mullen Dodge (April 12, 1831 – January 3, 1916) was a Union army officer on the frontier and during the Civil War, a U.S. Congressman, businessman, and railroad executive who helped construct the Transcontinental Railroad. ... Francis Preston Blair, Jr. ...


Opposing these troops was the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood. Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee's Corps led the attack. The Army of Tennessee was formed in November 1862. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29[2], 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and an old friend of Lt. ... William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...

Contents

Prelude

During the months leading up to the battle, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston had repeatedly retreated from Sherman's superior force. All along the railroad line from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Marietta, Georgia, a pattern was played and replayed: Johnston would take up a defensive position, Sherman would march to outflank the Confederate defenses, and Johnston would retreat again. After Johnston's withdrawal following the Battle of Resaca, the two armies clashed again at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, but the Confederate leadership was unhappy with Johnston's reluctance to fight the Union army, even though he had little chance of winning. Thus, on July 17, 1864, as he was preparing for the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Johnston was relieved of his command and Hood was given control. Hood lashed out at Sherman's army at Peachtree Creek, but the attack failed with heavy casualties. Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... “Chattanooga” redirects here. ... Historic Downtown Marietta Marietta is a city located in central Cobb County, Georgia GR6, and is its county seat. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman Joseph E. Johnston Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,747 2,800 The Battle of Resaca was part of the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Kennesaw Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1864 Place Kennesaw, Georgia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27, 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Battle of Peachtree Creek Conflict American Civil War Date July 20, 1864 Place Fulton County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Peachtree Creek was a battle of the American Civil War, fought in Georgia on July 20, 1864. ...


Gen. Hood, with his vastly outnumbered army, was faced with two problems. First, he needed to defend the city of Atlanta, which was a very important rail hub and industrial center for the Confederacy. Second, his army was small in comparison to the enormous armies that Gen. Sherman commanded. He decided to withdraw inwards, enticing the Union troops to come forward. McPherson's army closed in from Decatur, Georgia, to the east side of Atlanta. For the south-western Georgia county, see Decatur County, Georgia. ...


Battle

Meanwhile, Hood took Gen. Hardee's troops on a march around the Union left flank, had Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler's cavalry march near Sherman's supply line, and had Maj. Gen. Benjamin Cheatham's corps attack the Union front. This was a Jackson-esque movement, which may have actually worked. However, it took longer than expected for Hardee to get in position, and during that time, Gen. McPherson had correctly deduced a possible threat to his left flank, and sent XVI Corps, his reserve, to help strengthen it. Gen. Hardee's force met this other force, and the battle began. Although the initial Confederate attack was repulsed, the Union left flank began to retreat. About this time, Gen. McPherson, who had ridden to the front to observe the battle, was shot and killed by Confederate infantry. Joseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician. ... Benjamin F. Cheatham Benjamin Franklin Cheatham (October 20, 1820 – September 4, 1886), known also as Frank, was a Tennessee farmer, California gold miner, and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... For the 1960s country music artist, see Stonewall Jackson (musician); for the submarine, see USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634). ...

Palisades and chevaux de frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864.

The main lines of battle now formed an "L" shape, with Hardee's attack forming the lower part of the "L" and Cheatham's attack on the Union front as the vertical member of the "L." Hardee's attack stalled as the Union XVI corps regrouped and held the line. Meanwhile, Gen. Cheatham's troops had broken through the Union lines, but Gen. Sherman massed 20 artillery pieces near his headquarters, and had them shell the Confederate forces, while Gen. Logan's XV Corps regrouped and repulsed the Confederate troops. The Union suffered 3,641 casualties, the Confederates 8,499. This was a devastating loss for the already reduced Confederate Army. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1449x1057, 420 KB) Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1449x1057, 420 KB) Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ... Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ... The cheval de frise (plural: chevaux de frise) was a Mediaeval defensive obstacle consisting of a portable frame (sometimes just a simple log) covered with many long iron or wooden spikes or even actual spears. ...


Aftermath

Although the Battle of Atlanta was a severe defeat for Hood's Confederate Army, they still held the city. Sherman settled into a siege of Atlanta, shelling the civilian population and sending raids west and south of the city to cut off the supply lines from Macon, Georgia. Finally, on August 31 at Jonesborough, Georgia, Sherman's army captured the railroad track from Macon, pushing the confederates to Lovejoy Station. Union forces in Jonesborough could hear the explosions from Atlanta throughout the night as Hood pulled his troops out of Atlanta the next day, destroying supply depots as he left to prevent them from falling into Union hands. On September 2, a committee of Mayor James Calhoun and Union-leaning citizens William Markham, Jonathan Norcross, and Edward Rawson met a captain on the staff of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum and surrendered the city.[1] Sherman sent a telegram to Washington reading, "Atlanta is ours, and fairly won" and he established his headquarters there on September 7, where he stayed for two months. He ordered the evacuation of the entire city population. The army then burned the town to the ground and departed east on what would become known as Sherman's March to the Sea. Macon is a city located in central Georgia, USA. It is among the largest metropolitan areas in Georgia, and the county seat of Bibb County, It lies near the geographic center of Georgia, approximately 75 miles (129 km) south of Atlanta, hence the citys nickname as the Heart of... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jonesboro is a city located in Clayton County, Georgia. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James M. Calhoun (February 12, 1811–October 1, 1875) was mayor of Atlanta, Georgia during the Civil War. ... William Markham (October 9, 1811 - November 9, 1890) was a prominent hotel owner in Atlanta and filled in as mayor following the illness of John Mims in October 1853. ... Jonathan Norcross in his 80s Jonathan Norcross (April 7, 1808 - 1898) was the fourth mayor of Atlanta and an important citizen in its history. ... Edward E. Rawson (1818—April 10, 1893) an important early businessman in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the historical event. ...


The fall of Atlanta was especially noteworthy for its political ramifications. Former Union General George B. McClellan was running against President Lincoln on a peace platform in the 1864 election. Part of the Democratic platform called for a truce with the Confederates. Had this truce been achieved, it is highly unlikely that the war could ever have been restarted. However, the capture of Atlanta and Hood's burning of many military facilities as he evacuated were extensively covered by Northern newspapers, and significantly boosted Northern morale. Lincoln was re-elected by a comfortable margin. For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ...


The battlefield is now urban residential and commercial land, with only a few markers memorializing the history of the battle. To commemorate the 140th anniversary of the battle in 2004, two new markers were erected in the Inman Park neighborhood. The "L"-shaped line of battle roughly corresponds to what is now Moreland Avenue between Little Five Points and I-20 as the north-south line and Interstate 20 as the east-west line where Hardee made his attack. The Atlanta Cyclorama contains a painting and museum of the battle. Inman Park is a neighborhood of the city of Atlanta, Georgia, its first planned suburb. ... Little Five Points (also L5P or LFP) is an area of Atlanta, Georgia, 2. ... “I-20” redirects here. ... Atlanta Cyclorama building The Atlanta Cyclorama is a cylindrical panoramic painting of the American Civil War Battle of Atlanta. ...


References

  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Red River to Appomattox, Random House, 1974, ISBN 0-394-74913-8.
  • Golden, Randy, The Battle of Atlanta at North Georgia History

Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ...

External Links

Notes

  1. ^ Upper Marietta Street Artery website

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Battle For Atlanta (915 words)
At that moment the battle was general all along the line, and raged fiercely for several hours.
The battle raged fearfully from noon until about 4 P.M., when the Confederates retired to their intrenchments, leaving several hundred of their dead on the field.
The Nationals entered Atlanta as victors on Sept. 2, 1864, and the national flag was unfurled over the courthouse.
Battle of Atlanta - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1025 words)
The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta campaign fought during the American Civil War on July 22, 1864 just southeast of Atlanta, Georgia.
The main lines of battle now formed an "L" shape, with Hardee's attack forming the lower part of the "L" and Cheatham's attack on the Union front as the vertical member of the "L." Hardee's attack stalled as the Union XVI corps regrouped and held the line.
To commemorate the 140th anniversary of the battle in 2004, two new markers were erected in the Inman Park neighborhood.
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