FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle of Antietam
Battle of Antietam
Part of the American Civil War

Battle of Antietam by Kurz and Allison.
Date September 17, 1862
Location Near Sharpsburg, Maryland
Result Tactically inconclusive; strategic Union victory
Belligerents
Flag of the United States United States (Union) Flag of Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders
George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee
Strength
87,000 45,000
Casualties and losses
12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing)

The Battle of Antietam (also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the South), fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties.[1] The second Antietam (CV-36) was laid down on 15 March 1943 by the Philadelphia Navy Yard; launched on 20 August 1944 sponsored by Mrs. ... Antietam National Battlefield is a unit of the National Park Service in Sharpsburg, Maryland, along Antietam Creek. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Image File history File links Battle_of_Antietam. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links US_flag_34_stars. ... Animated map of secession, Civil War and re-admission:  States of the Union  Territories of the Union (including occupied territory)  States of the Confederacy  Territories claimed by Confederacy During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the twenty-three states of the United States... Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_28. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Henry A. Cole Samuel Means Thomas T. Munford Strength 180 163 Casualties 55 7 The Battle of Mile Hill was an American Civil War cavalry skirmish that took place just north of Leesburg, Virginia, on September 2, 1862. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known... References Cramptons Gap Battlefield ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Dixon S. Miles† Thomas J. Jackson Strength 14,000 19,900 Casualties 44 killed 173 wounded 12,419 captured 39 killed 248 wounded Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862  Confederate  Union The Battle of Harpers Ferry was... Battle of Shepherdstown Conflict American Civil War Date September 19-20, 1862 Place Jefferson County, West Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Shepherdstown, also known as the Battle of Botelers Ford, took place from September 19-20, 1862 in Jefferson County, West Virginia as part of the Maryland... Historic Southern United States. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... Burnside Bridge traversing Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland, site of heavy combat during the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862 Antietam Creek is a tributary of the Potomac River located in south central Pennsylvania and western Maryland in the United States. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... American history redirects here. ...


After pursuing Confederate General Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan launched attacks against Lee's army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee's left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller's cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside's corps entered the action, capturing a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and advancing against the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a surprise counterattack, driving back Burnside and ending the battle. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, while removing his battered army south of the river.[2] A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For the English botanist, see Joseph Dalton Hooker. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite having superiority of numbers, McClellan's attacks failed to achieve concentration of mass, allowing Lee to counter by shifting forces along interior lines to meet each challenge. Despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan failed to destroy Lee's army. Nevertheless, Lee's invasion of Maryland was ended, and he was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. Although the battle was tactically inconclusive, it had unique significance as enough of a victory to give President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ...

Contents

Background and the Maryland Campaign

Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862.      Confederate      Union
Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862.      Confederate      Union

Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia—45,000 men—entered the state of Maryland on September 3, 1862, following their victory at Second Bull Run on August 29. Lee's strategy was to seek new supplies and recruits from the border state of Maryland, which had considerable pockets of Confederate sympathizers, and to affect public opinion prior to the upcoming elections in the North. (As it turned out, the social impact of Lee's actions was mixed; Marylanders were not as thoroughly won over by the sounds of Maryland, My Maryland from the bands of the Army of Northern Virginia as Lee had hoped, and the weak strategic victory of the Union's Army of the Potomac at Antietam diminished any successes Lee may have had in winning the hearts and minds of the people of Maryland.) Some Confederate politicians, including President Jefferson Davis, believed the prospect of foreign recognition would increase if they won a military victory on Northern soil; such a victory might gain recognition and financial support from Great Britain and France, although there is no evidence that Lee thought the South should base its military plans on this possibility.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1502x1700, 527 KB)Map of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War, actions Sept. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1502x1700, 527 KB)Map of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War, actions Sept. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Second Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date August 28–30, 1862 Place Prince William County Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Manassas, known as the Second Battle of Bull Run in the North, was a battle during the American Civil War. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Bleeding Kansas  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Union territories that permitted slavery The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia which bordered a free state and aligned with the Union... The Great Seal of Maryland Maryland, My Maryland is the official state song of Maryland. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ...


While McClellan's 90,000 -man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, two Union soldiers (Corporal Barton W. Mitchell and First Sergeant John M. Bloss[4] of the 27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry) discovered a mislaid copy of Lee's detailed battle plans—Special Order 191—wrapped around three cigars. The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically (to Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and Hagerstown, Maryland), thus making each subject to isolation and defeat if McClellan could move quickly enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and reposition his forces, thus squandering an opportunity to defeat Lee decisively.[5] Special Order 4900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 (also Special Order No. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... This article is about a city in the State of Maryland. ...


There were two significant engagements in the Maryland campaign prior to the major battle of Antietam: Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's capture of Harpers Ferry and McClellan's assault through the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Battle of South Mountain. The former was significant because a large portion of Lee's army was absent from the start of the battle of Antietam, attending to the surrender of the Union garrison; the latter because stout Confederate defenses at two passes through the mountains delayed McClellan's advance enough for Lee to concentrate the remainder of his army at Sharpsburg.[6] For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Dixon S. Miles† Thomas J. Jackson Strength 14,000 19,900 Casualties 44 killed 173 wounded 12,419 captured 39 killed 248 wounded Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862  Confederate  Union The Battle of Harpers Ferry was... Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known...


Opposing forces

Confederate

Further information: Antietam Confederate order of battle

General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was organized into two large infantry corps.[7] The following Confederate States Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War. ...


The First Corps, under Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, consisted of the divisions of: James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ...

The Second Corps, under Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, consisted of the divisions of: Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph Brevard Kershaw (January 5, 1822 – April 13, 1894) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... Paul Jones Semmes Paul Jones Semmes (June 4, 1815 – July 10, 1863) was a banker, businessman, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg. ... William Barksdale (August 21, 1821 – July 3, 1863) was a lawyer, newspaper editor, U.S. Congressman, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Carnot Posey (August 5, 1818 – November 13, 1863) was lawyer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Lewis Addison Armistead (February 18, 1817 - July 5, 1863) was a brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America. ... Roger Atkinson Pryor (July 19, 1828 – March 14, 1919) was an American jurist, politician, newspaper editor, and Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Ransom Wright (April 26, 1826 – December 21, 1872) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... David R. Jones (b. ... Postbellum photograph of Robert A. Toombs. ... Thomas Fenwick Drayton (August 24, 1809 – February 18, 1891) was a plantation owner, politician, railroad president, and military officer, serving in the United States Army and then as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army. ... Possible portrait of Richard B. Garnett Richard Brooke Garnett (November 21, 1817 – July 3, 1863) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed during Picketts Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg. ... James L. Kemper James Lawson Kemper (June 11, 1823 – April 7, 1895) was a lawyer, a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and a governor of Virginia. ... George Thomas Anderson (February 3, 1824 – April 4, 1901) was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Confederate General John George Walker John George Walker (July 22, 1821 – July 20, 1893[1]) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Vannoy Hartrog (Van) Manning (July 26, 1839 - November 3, 1892) was a U.S. Representative from Mississippi. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... William Tatum Wofford (June 28, 1824 – May 22, 1884) was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Evander M. Law Evander McIvor Law (August 7, 1836 – October 31, 1920) was an author, teacher, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Nathan George Shanks Evans (February 3, 1824 - November 23, 1868) was a Lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Cavalry who became a Brigadier General for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ...

The remaining units were the Cavalry Corps, under Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, and the reserve artillery, commanded by Brig. Gen. William N. Pendleton. The Second Corps was organized with artillery attached to each division, in contrast to the First Corps, which reserved its artillery at the corps level. Alexander Robert Lawton (November 4, 1818 – July 2, 1896) was a lawyer, politician, diplomat and brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... James Alexander Walker (August 27, 1832 – October 21, 1901) was a Virginia lawyer, politician, and Confederate general during the American Civil War, later serving as a United States Congressman for two terms. ... Harry Thompson Hays (April 14, 1820 – August 21, 1876) was an American Civil War brigadier general who served in the Army of Northern Virginia. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... Memorial cannon placed at site of Branchs death Lawrence OBryan Branch (November 28, 1820 – September 17, 1862) was a North Carolina representative in the U.S. Congress and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Antietam. ... Brigadier General Maxcy Gregg Maxcy Gregg (August 1, 1814 - December 15, 1862) was a lawyer, and Confederate Brigadier General during the American Civil War. ... James Jay Archer (December 19, 1817 – October 24, 1864) was a lawyer and an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... William Dorsey Pender William Dorsey Pender (February 6, 1834 – July 3, 1863) was one of the youngest, and most promising, generals fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. ... John Mercer Brockenbrough (August 1, 1830 – August 24, 1892) was a farmer and a Confederate colonel in the American Civil War. ... General Edward L. Thomas Edward Lloyd Thomas (March 23, 1825 – March 1894) was a Confederate Army brigadier general in the American Civil War. ... Andrew Jackson Grigsby (November 2, 1819 – December 23, 1895) was a Confederate States Army officer. ... Biography Johnson was laid to rest on Confederate Hill in Baltimores Loudon Park Cemetery. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... Roswell Sabine Ripley (March 14, 1823 – March 26, 1887) was an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican-American War and, despite bring Northern-born, a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. ... Robert E. Rodes Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley. ... Samuel Garland, Jr. ... George B. Anderson George Burgwyn Anderson (April 12, 1831 – October 16, 1862) was a career military officer, serving first in the antebellum U.S. Army and then dying from wounds inflicted during the American Civil War while a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. ... Alfred Holt Colquitt (April 20, 1824–March 26, 1894) was a lawyer, preacher, soldier, Governor of Georgia and two term U.S. Senator from Georgia where he died in office. ... For the Watergate conspirator, see Jeb Stuart Magruder. ... William Nelson Pendleton (December 26, 1809 – January 15, 1883) was an Episcopal minister and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, serving as Robert E. Lees chief of artillery. ...


Union

Further information: Antietam Union order of battle
Lincoln with McClellan and staff at the Grove Farm after the battle. Notable figures (from left) are 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Lincoln with McClellan and staff at the Grove Farm after the battle. Notable figures (from left) are 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.

Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, bolstered by units absorbed from John Pope's Army of Virginia, included six infantry corps.[8] The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x909, 394 KB)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x909, 394 KB)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... Alexander Stuart Webb (February 13, 1835 – February 12, 1911) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War who won the Medal of Honor for gallantry at the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Jonathan Letterman Jonathan K. Letterman was an American surgeon credited as being the originator of the modern methods for medical organization in armies. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Andrew A. Humphreys Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (November 2, 1810 – December 27, 1883), was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Custer redirects here. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ...


The I Corps, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of the divisions of: I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... For the English botanist, see Joseph Dalton Hooker. ...

The II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, consisted of the divisions of: Rufus King (January 26, 1814 - October 13, 1876) was a Union Brigadier General in the American Civil War. ... Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ... Marsena Rudolph Patrick (March 15, 1811 – July 27, 1888) was a college president and an officer in the United States Army, serving as a general in the Union volunteer forces during the American Civil War. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... James Brewerton Ricketts (June 21, 1817 – September 22, 1887) was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as a general in the Eastern Theater during the American Civil War. ... Abram Duryée Abram Duryée (April 29, 1815 – September 27, 1890) was a Union Army general during the American Civil War, the commander of one of the most famous Zouave regiments, the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Truman Seymour was born on September 24, 1824, in Burlington, Vermont. ... Thomas F. Gallagher (b. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Edwin Vose Bull Head Sumner (January 30, 1797 – March 21, 1863) was a U.S. Army officer who became a Major General and the oldest field commander of any Army Corps on either side during the American Civil War. ...

The V Corps, under Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, consisted of the divisions of: Israel B. Richardson (1815 – 1862) was a United States Army officer during the Mexican-American War and Civil War. ... John C. Caldwell John Curtis Caldwell (April 17, 1833 – August 31, 1912) was a teacher, a Union general in the American Civil War, and an American diplomat. ... Thomas Francis Meagher aka: OMeagher, or Meagher of the Sword (August 3, 1823 – July 1, 1867) was an Irish revolutionary, who also served in the United States Army as a Brigadier General during the U.S. Civil War. ... John Rutter (or Ruller) Brooke was born in Pennsylvania in 1838. ... Major General John Sedgwick John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Willis Arnold Gorman (January 12, 1816–May 20, 1876) was an American politician who served in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1849 to March 3, 1853 from Indiana and was the second Territorial Governor of Minnesota from May 15, 1853 to April 23, 1857 appointed to... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana was a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... William Henry French (January 13, 1815 – May 20, 1881) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Nathan Kimball (February 22, 1822 – January 21, 1898) was a physician, politician, postmaster, and military officer, serving as a general in the Union army during the American Civil War. ... Max Weber (27 August 1824 – 15 June 1901) was a military officer, most known for serving as a Brigadier General of the Union army during the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...

The VI Corps, under Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin, consisted of the divisions of: George Webb Morell (January 8, 1815 – February 11, 1883) was a civil engineer, lawyer, farmer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... For other persons of the same name, see James Barnes. ... Charles Griffin (December 18, 1825–September 15, 1867) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... George Sykes George Sykes (October 9, 1822 – February 8, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Robert Christie Buchanan (March 1, 1811 – November 29, 1878) was an American general who served in wars including the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Gouverneur Kemble Warren (January 8, 1830 – August 8, 1882) was a civil engineer and prominent general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Andrew A. Humphreys Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (November 2, 1810 – December 27, 1883), was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Major General William B. Franklin William Buel Franklin (February 27, 1823 – March 8, 1903) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ...

The IX Corps, under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, consisted of the divisions of: Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert (1833-1880) was an American Civil War general in the Union Army. ... Joseph Jackson Bartlett (November 21, 1834 – January 14, 1893) was a New York attorney, brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and postbellum international diplomat and pensions administrator for the United States Government. ... John Newton John Newton (August 25, 1822 – May 1, 1895) was a career engineer officer in the U.S. Army, a Union general in the American Civil War, and Chief of the Corps of Engineers. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks (January 28, 1821 – July 19, 1870) was a career military officer in the U.S. Army, serving as a major general during the American Civil War. ... There were two corps of the Union Army called IV Corps during the American Civil War. ... Darius Nash Couch (July 23, 1822 – February 12, 1897) was a United States Army officer, naturalist, and a Union major general in the American Civil War. ... Charles Devens (April 4, 1820–January 7, 1891) was an American lawyer, jurist and statesman. ... Albion Parris Howe (March 13, 1818 – January 25, 1897) was a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... John Cochran (1813-98) was an American soldier, lawyer, and congressman from the State of New York. ... IX Corps (Ninth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. ... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ...

The XII Corps, under Maj. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield, consisted of the divisions of: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Benjamin C. Christ was a Union army officer during the American Civil War. ... Thomas Welsh (May 5, 1824 – August 14, 1863) was a soldier in the U.S. Army during the Mexican War and a brigadier general during the American Civil War. ... Samuel Davis Sturgis (June 11, 1822-September 28, 1889) was an American military officer who served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Edward Ferrero (January 18, 1831 – December 11, 1899) was one of the leading dance instructors, choreographers, and ballroom operators in the United States. ... Isaac Peace Rodman (August 18, 1822 – September 30, 1862) was a Rhode Island banker and politician, and a Union Army brigadier general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Antietam. ... Jacob Dolson Cox (October 27, 1828 - August 4, 1900) was an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Hugh Boyle Ewing, (October 31, 1826 – June 30, 1905), was a diplomat, author, attorney, and Union Army general during the American Civil War. ... George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Union Army, XII Corps, 3rd Division Badge The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Joseph K. Mansfield Joseph King Fenno Mansfield (December 22, 1803 – September 18, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Antietam. ...

Alpheus S. Williams Alpheus Starkey Williams (September 29, 1810 – December 21, 1878) was a lawyer, judge, journalist, U.S. Congressman, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Samuel W. Crawford Samuel Wylie Crawford (November 8, 1829 – November 3, 1892) was a U.S. Army surgeon and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... George Henry Gordon (July 19, 1823 – August 30, 1886) was an American lawyer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... George Sears Greene George Sears Greene (May 6, 1801 – January 28, 1899) was a civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Alfred Pleasonton Alfred Pleasonton was a U.S. Army officer and general of Union cavalry during the American Civil War. ... John Franklin Farnsworth (March 27, 1820 – July 14, 1897) was a seven-term U.S. Congressman and a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Grimes Davis (1832 – June 9, 1863) was an American military officer who served in Indian wars, then led Union cavalry in the American Civil War before dying in combat. ...

Battle

Overview of the Battle of Antietam.
Overview of the Battle of Antietam.

Near the town of Sharpsburg, Lee deployed his available forces behind Antietam Creek along a low ridge, starting on September 15. While it was an effective defensive position, it was not an impregnable one. The terrain provided excellent cover for infantrymen, with rail and stone fences, outcroppings of limestone, and little hollows and swales. The creek to their front was only a minor barrier, ranging from 60 to 100 feet (18-30 m) in width, and was fordable in places and crossed by three stone bridges each a mile (1.5 km) apart. It was also a precarious position because the Confederate rear was blocked by the Potomac River and only a single crossing point, Boteler's Ford at Shepherdstown, was nearby should retreat be necessary. (The ford at Williamsport, Maryland, was 10 miles (16 km) northwest from Sharpsburg and had been used by Jackson in his march to Harpers Ferry. The disposition of Union forces during the battle made it impractical to consider retreating in that direction.) And on September 15, the force under Lee's immediate command consisted of no more than 18,000 men, only a third the size of the Federal army.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1559x2087, 751 KB)Overview of the Battle of Antietam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1559x2087, 751 KB)Overview of the Battle of Antietam. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Shepherdstown is a town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 803 at the 2000 census. ... Conococheague Street in Williamsport in 2007 Williamsport is a town in Washington County, Maryland, United States. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first two Union divisions arrived on the afternoon of September 15 and the bulk of the remainder of the army late that evening. Although an immediate Union attack on the morning of September 16 would have had an overwhelming advantage in numbers, McClellan's trademark caution and his belief that Lee had over 100,000 men caused him to delay his attack for a day. This gave the Confederates more time to prepare defensive positions and allowed Longstreet's corps to arrive from Hagerstown and Jackson's corps, minus A.P. Hill's division, to arrive from Harpers Ferry. Jackson defended the left (northern) flank, anchored on the Potomac, Longstreet the right (southern) flank, anchored on the Antietam, a line that was about 4 miles (6 km) long. (As the battle progressed and Lee shifted units, these corps boundaries overlapped considerably.) is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the evening of September 16, McClellan ordered Hooker's I Corps to cross Antietam Creek and probe the enemy positions. Meade's division cautiously attacked the Confederates under Hood near the East Woods. After darkness, artillery fire continued as McClellan continued to position his troops. McClellan's plan was to overwhelm the enemy's left flank. He arrived at this decision because of the configuration of bridges over the Antietam. The lower bridge (which would soon be named Burnside Bridge) was dominated by Confederate positions on the bluffs overlooking it. The middle bridge, on the road from Boonsboro, was subject to artillery fire from the heights near Sharpsburg. But the upper bridge was 2 miles (3 km) east of the Confederate guns and could be crossed safely. McClellan planned to commit more than half his army to the assault, starting with two corps, supported by a third, and if necessary a fourth. He intended to launch a simultaneous diversionary attack against the Confederate right with a fifth corps, and he was prepared to strike the center with his reserves if either attack succeeded.[10] The skirmish in the East Woods served to signal McClellan's intentions to Lee, who prepared his defenses accordingly. He shifted men to his left flank and sent urgent messages to his two commanders who had not yet arrived on the battlefield: Lafayette McLaws with two divisions and A.P. Hill with one division. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boonsboro lies nestled at the foot of South Mountain in Washington County, Maryland. ...


McClellan's plans were ill-coordinated and were executed poorly. He issued to each of his subordinate commanders only the orders for his own corps, not general orders describing the entire battle plan. The terrain of the battlefield made it difficult for those commanders to monitor events outside of their sectors, and McClellan's headquarters were more than a mile in the rear (at the Philip Pry house, east of the creek), making it difficult for him to control the separate corps. Therefore, the battle progressed the next day as essentially three separate, mostly uncoordinated battles: morning in the northern end of the battlefield, mid-day in the center, and afternoon in the south. This lack of coordination and concentration of McClellan's forces almost completely nullified the two-to-one advantage the Union enjoyed and allowed Lee to shift his defensive forces to meet each offensive.


Morning

Assaults by the I Corps, 5:30 to 7:30 a.m.
Assaults by the I Corps, 5:30 to 7:30 a.m.
The Dunker Church at Antietam
The Dunker Church at Antietam

The battle opened at dawn (about 5:30 a.m.) on September 17 with an attack down the Hagerstown Turnpike by the Union I Corps under Joseph Hooker. Hooker's objective was the plateau on which the Dunker Church sat, a modest whitewashed building belonging to a local sect of German Baptists. Hooker had approximately 8,600 men, little more than the 7,700 defenders under Stonewall Jackson, and this slight disparity was more than offset by the Confederates' strong defensive positions.[11] Abner Doubleday's division moved on Hooker's right, James Ricketts's moved on the left into the East Woods, and George Meade's Pennsylvania Reserves division deployed in the center and slightly to the rear. Jackson's defense consisted of the divisions under Alexander Lawton and John R. Jones in line from the West Woods, across the Turnpike, and along the southern end of the Miller Cornfield. Four brigades were held in reserve inside the West Woods.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (755x922, 236 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions starting at 6 a. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (755x922, 236 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions starting at 6 a. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Church of God (New Dunkers) is a now extinct body that divided from the Schwarzenau Brethren (also called German Baptist Brethren) in 1848. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... The Pennsylvania Reserves was an infantry division during the American Civil War, noted for its famous commanders and high casualities. ...


As the first Union men emerged from the North Woods and into the Cornfield, an artillery duel erupted. Confederate fire was from the horse artillery batteries under Jeb Stuart to the west and four batteries under Col. Stephen D. Lee on the high ground across the pike from the Dunker Church to the south. Union return fire was from nine batteries on the ridge behind the North Woods and four batteries of 20-pounder Parrott rifles, 2 miles (3 km) east of Antietam Creek. The conflagration caused heavy casualties on both sides and was described by Col. Lee as "artillery Hell."[13] Stephen Dill Lee (September 22, 1833 – May 28, 1908) was the youngest lieutenant general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, and later became a Mississippi planter, legislator, and president of Mississippi A&M College. ... A 200-pound Parrott rifle in Fort Gregg on Morris Island, South Carolina, 1865. ...


Seeing the glint of Confederate bayonets concealed in the Cornfield, Hooker halted his infantry and brought up four batteries of artillery, which fired shell and canister over the heads of the Federal infantry, covering the field. The artillery and rifle fire from both sides acted like a scythe, cutting down cornstalks and men alike.

Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church.
Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church.

Meade's 1st Brigade of Pennsylvanians, under Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour, began advancing through the East Woods and exchanged fire with Colonel James Walker's brigade of Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina troops. As Walker's men forced Seymour's back, aided by Lee's artillery fire, Ricketts's division entered the Cornfield, also to be torn up by artillery. Brig. Gen. Abram Duryée's brigade marched directly into volleys from Colonel Marcellus Douglass's Georgia brigade. Enduring heavy fire from a range of 250 yards (230 m) and gaining no advantage because of a lack of reinforcements, Duryée ordered a withdrawal.[12] Download high resolution version (1024x611, 211 KB)Stereoview of the field at Antietam, American Civil War. ... Download high resolution version (1024x611, 211 KB)Stereoview of the field at Antietam, American Civil War. ...


The reinforcements that Duryée had expected—brigades under Brig. Gen. George L. Hartsuff and Col. William A. Christian—had difficulties reaching the scene. Hartsuff was wounded by a shell, and Christian dismounted and fled to the rear in terror. When the men were rallied and advanced into the Cornfield, they met the same artillery and infantry fire as their predecessors. As the superior Union numbers began to tell, the Louisiana "Tiger" Brigade under Harry Hays entered the fray and forced the Union men back to the East Woods. The casualties received by the 12th Massachusetts Infantry, 67%, were the highest of any unit that day.[14] The Tigers were beaten back eventually when the Federals brought up a battery of 3-inch ordnance rifles and rolled them directly into the Cornfield, point-blank fire that slaughtered the Tigers, who lost 323 of their 500 men.[15] M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ...

...the most deadly fire of the war. Rifles are shot to pieces in the hands of the soldiers, canteens and haversacks are riddled with bullets, the dead and wounded go down in scores.
Captain Benjamin F. Cook of the 12th Massachusetts Infantry, on the attack by the Louisiana Tigers at the Cornfield[16]

While the Cornfield remained a bloody stalemate, Federal advances a few hundred yards to the west were more successful. Brig. Gen. John Gibbon's 4th Brigade of Doubleday's division (recently named the Iron Brigade) advanced down the turnpike, pushing aside Jackson's men. They were halted by a charge of 1,150 men from Starke's brigade, leveling heavy fire from 30 yards (30 m) away. The Confederate brigade withdrew after being exposed to fierce return fire from the Iron Brigade, and Starke was mortally wounded.[17] The Union advance on the Dunker Church resumed and cut a large gap in Jackson's defensive line, which teetered near collapse. Although the cost was steep, Hooker's corps was making steady progress. The Iron Brigade was an infantry brigade in the Union Army during the American Civil War, consisting primarily of Western regiments, that was noted for its ability to withstand almost any fire, and its regiments combined took the highest casualty percentage of the war. ...


Confederate reinforcements arrived just after 7 a.m. The divisions under McLaws and Richard H. Anderson arrived following a night march from Harpers Ferry. Around 7:15, General Lee moved George T. Anderson's Georgia brigade from the right flank of the army to aid Jackson.


At 7 a.m., Hood's division of 2,300 men advanced through the West Woods and pushed the Union troops back through the Cornfield again. The Texans attacked with particular ferocity because as they were called from their reserve position they were forced to interrupt the first hot breakfast they had had in days. They were aided by three brigades of D.H. Hill's division arriving from the Mumma Farm, southeast of the Cornfield, and by Jubal Early's brigade, pushing through the West Woods from the Nicodemus Farm, where they had been supporting Jeb Stuart's horse artillery. Hood's men bore the brunt of the fighting, however, and paid a heavy price—60% casualties—but they were able to prevent the defensive line from crumbling and held off the I Corps. When asked by a fellow officer where his division was, Hood replied, "Dead on the field."[18]


Hooker's men had also paid heavily but without achieving their objectives. After two hours and 2,500 casualties, they were back where they started. The Cornfield, an area about 250 yards (230 m) deep and 400 yards (400 m) wide, was a scene of indescribable destruction. It was estimated that the Cornfield changed hands no fewer than 15 times in the course of the morning.[19] Hooker called for support from the 7,200 men of Mansfield's XII Corps.

... every stalk of corn in the northern and greater part of the field was cut as closely as could have been done with a knife, and the [Confederates] slain lay in rows precisely as they had stood in their ranks a few moments before.
Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker[20]
Assaults by the XII Corps, 7:30 to 9:00 a.m.
Assaults by the XII Corps, 7:30 to 9:00 a.m.

Half of Mansfield's men were raw recruits, and Mansfield was also inexperienced, having taken command only two days before. Although he was a veteran of 40 years' service, he had never led large numbers of soldiers in combat. Concerned that his men would bolt under fire, he marched them in a formation that was known as "column of companies, closed in mass," a bunched-up formation in which a regiment was arrayed ten ranks deep instead of the normal two. As his men entered the East Woods, they presented an excellent artillery target, "almost as good a target as a barn." Mansfield himself was felled by a sniper's bullet and died later in the day. Alpheus Williams assumed temporary command of the XII Corps.[21] For the English botanist, see Joseph Dalton Hooker. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (755x921, 222 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions starting at 7:30 a. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (755x921, 222 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions starting at 7:30 a. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ...


The new recruits of Mansfield's 1st Division made no progress against Hood's line, which was reinforced by D.H. Hill's divisions under Colquitt and McRae. The 2nd Division of the XII Corps, under George Sears Greene, however, broke through McRae's men, who fled under the mistaken belief that they were about to be trapped by a flanking attack. This breach of the line forced Hood and his men, outnumbered, to regroup in the West Woods, where they had started the day.[14] Greene was able to reach the Dunker Church, Hooker's original objective, and drove off Stephen Lee's batteries. Federal forces held most of the ground to the east of the turnpike. This article is about the military tactic. ...


Hooker attempted to gather the scattered remnants of his I Corps to continue the assault, but a Confederate sharpshooter spotted the general's conspicuous white horse and shot Hooker through the foot. Command of his I Corps fell to General Meade, since Hooker's senior subordinate, James B. Ricketts, had also been wounded. But with Hooker removed from the field, there was no general left with the authority to rally the men of the I and XII Corps. Greene's men came under heavy fire from the West Woods and withdrew from the Dunker Church.


In an effort to turn the Confederate left flank and relieve the pressure on Mansfield's men, Sumner's II Corps was ordered at 7:20 a.m. to send two divisions into battle. Sedgwick's division of 5,400 men was the first to ford the Antietam, and they entered the East Woods with the intention of turning left and forcing the Confederates south into the assault of Ambrose Burnside's IX Corps. But the plan went awry. They became separated from William H. French's division, and at 9 a.m. Sumner, who was accompanying the division, launched the attack with an unusual battle formation—the three brigades in three long lines, men side-by-side, with only 50 to 70 yards (60 m) separating the lines. They were assaulted first by Confederate artillery and then from three sides by the divisions of Early, Walker, and McLaws, and in less than half an hour Sedgwick's men were forced to retreat in great disorder to their starting point with over 2,200 casualties.[22] Sumner has been condemned by most historians for his "reckless" attack, his lack of coordination with the I and XII Corps headquarters, losing control of French's division when he accompanied Sedgwick's, failing to perform adequate reconnaissance prior to launching his attack, and selecting the unusual battle formation that was so effectively flanked by the Confederate counterattack. Historian M.V. Armstrong's recent scholarship, however, has determined that Sumner did perform appropriate reconnaissance and his decision to attack where he did was justified by the information available to him.[23]


The final actions in the morning phase of the battle were around 10 a.m., when two regiments of the XII Corps advanced, only to be confronted by the division of John G. Walker, newly arrived from the Confederate right. They fought in the area between the Cornfield in the West Woods, but soon Walker's men were forced back by two brigades of Greene's division, and the Federal troops seized some ground in the West Woods.


The morning phase ended with casualties on both sides of almost 13,000, including two Union corps commanders.[24]


Mid-day

Assaults by the XII and II Corps, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.
Assaults by the XII and II Corps, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.

By mid-day, the action had shifted to the center of the Confederate line. Sumner had accompanied the morning attack of Sedgwick's division, but another of his divisions, under French, lost contact with Sumner and Sedgwick and inexplicably headed south. Eager for an opportunity to see combat, French found skirmishers in his path and ordered his men forward. By this time, Sumner's aide (and son) located French, described the terrible fighting in the West Woods and relayed an order for him to divert Confederate attention by attacking their center.[25] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (756x922, 266 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions 0900-1300. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (756x922, 266 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions 0900-1300. ...


French confronted D.H. Hill's division. Hill commanded about 2,500 men, less than half the number under French, and three of his five brigades had been torn up during the morning combat. This sector of Longstreet's line was theoretically the weakest. But Hill's men were in a strong defensive position, atop a gradual ridge, in a sunken road worn down by years of wagon traffic, which formed a natural trench.[26]


French launched a series of brigade-sized assaults against Hill's improvised breastworks at around 9:30 a.m. The first brigade to attack, mostly inexperienced troops commanded by Brig. Gen. Max Weber, was quickly cut down by heavy rifle fire; neither side deployed artillery at this point. The second attack, more raw recruits under Col. Dwight Morris, was also subjected to heavy fire but managed to beat back a counterattack by the Alabama Brigade of Robert Rodes. The third, under Brig. Gen. Nathan Kimball, included three veteran regiments, but they also fell to fire from the sunken road. French's division suffered 1,750 casualties (of his 5,700 men) in under an hour.[27]


Reinforcements were arriving on both sides, and by 10:30 a.m. Robert E. Lee sent his final reserve division—some 3,400 men under Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson—to bolster Hill's line and extend it to the right, preparing an attack that would envelop French's left flank. But at the same time, the 4,000 men of Maj. Gen. Israel B. Richardson's division arrived on French's left. This was the last of Sumner's three divisions, which had been held up in the rear by McClellan as he organized his reserve forces.[28] Richardson's fresh troops struck the first blow.


Leading off the fourth attack of the day against the sunken road was the Irish Brigade of Brig. Gen. Thomas F. Meagher. As they advanced with emerald green flags snapping in the breeze, a regimental chaplain, Father William Corby, rode back and forth across the front of the formation shouting words of conditional absolution prescribed by the Roman Catholic Church for those who were about to die. (Corby performed a similar service at Gettysburg in 1863.) The mostly Irish immigrants lost 540 men to heavy volleys before they were ordered to withdraw.[29] This article is about the unit of the United States Army during the Civil War. ... Rev. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing...


Gen. Richardson personally dispatched the brigade of Brig. Gen. John C. Caldwell into battle around noon (after being told that Caldwell was in the rear, behind a haystack), and finally the tide turned. Anderson's Confederate division had been little help to the defenders after Gen. Anderson was wounded early in the fighting. Other key leaders were lost as well, including George B. Anderson (no relation; Anderson's successor, Col. Charles C. Tew of the 2nd North Carolina, was killed minutes after assuming command)[30] and Col. John B. Gordon of the 6th Alabama. (Gordon received four serious wounds in the fight. He lay unconscious, face down in his cap, and later told colleagues that he should have smothered in his own blood, except for the act of an unidentified Yankee, who had earlier shot a hole in his cap, which allowed the blood to drain.)[31] Rodes was wounded in the thigh but was still on the field. These losses contributed directly to the confusion of the following events. John Brown Gordon John Brown Gordon ( February 6, 1832 – January 9, 1904) served as one of Robert E. Lees most trusted generals during the Civil War. ...

We were shooting them like sheep in a pen. If a bullet missed the mark at first it was liable to strike the further bank, angle back, and take them secondarily.
Sergeant of the 61st New York[32]

As Caldwell's brigade advanced around the right flank of the Confederates, Col. Francis C. Barlow and 350 men of the 61st and 64th New York saw a weak point in the line and seized a knoll commanding the sunken road. This allowed them to get enfilade fire into the Confederate line, turning it into a deadly trap. In attempting to wheel around to meet this threat, a command from Rodes was misunderstood by Lt. Col. James N. Lightfoot, who had succeeded the unconscious John Gordon. Lightfoot ordered his men to about-face and march away, an order that all five regiments of the brigade thought applied to them as well. Confederate troops streamed toward Sharpsburg, their line lost. Francis C. Barlow Francis Channing Barlow (October 19, 1834 – January 11, 1896) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire in enfilade on a British ship of line French frigate Aréthuse and English frigate Amélia exchanging defilade fire on the shores of Guinea, the 7th of February 1813 Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units...


Richardson's men were in hot pursuit when massed artillery hastily assembled by Gen. Longstreet drove them back. A counterattack with 200 men led by D.H. Hill got around the Federal left flank near the sunken road, and although they were driven back by a fierce charge of the 5th New Hampshire, this stemmed the collapse of the center. Reluctantly, Richardson ordered his division to fall back to north of the ridge facing the sunken road. His division lost about 1,000 men. Col. Barlow was severely wounded, and Richardson mortally wounded.[33] Winfield S. Hancock assumed division command. Although Hancock would have an excellent future reputation as an aggressive division and corps commander, the unexpected change of command sapped the momentum of the Federal advance.[34]

The Bloody Lane in 2005.
The Bloody Lane in 2005.

The carnage from 9:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. on the sunken road gave it the name Bloody Lane, leaving about 5,600 casualties (Union 3,000, Confederate 2,600) along the 800-yard (700 m) road. And yet a great opportunity presented itself. If this broken sector of the Confederate line were exploited, Lee's army would have been divided in half and possibly defeated. There were ample forces available to do so. There was a reserve of 3,500 cavalry and the 10,300 infantrymen of Gen. Porter's V Corps, waiting near the middle bridge, a mile away. The VI Corps had just arrived with 12,000 men. Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin of the VI Corps was ready to exploit this breakthrough, but Sumner, the senior corps commander, ordered him not to advance. Franklin appealed to McClellan, who left his headquarters in the rear to hear both arguments but backed Sumner's decision, ordering Franklin and Hancock to hold their positions.[35] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Later in the day, the commander of the other reserve unit near the center, the V Corps, Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, heard recommendations from Maj. Gen. George Sykes, commanding his 2nd Division, that another attack be made in the center, an idea that intrigued McClellan. However, Porter is said to have told McClellan, "Remember, General, I command the last reserve of the last Army of the Republic." McClellan demurred and another opportunity was lost.[36]


Afternoon

Assaults by the IX Corps, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Assaults by the IX Corps, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

The action moved to the southern end of the battlefield. McClellan's plan called for Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside and the IX Corps to conduct a diversionary attack in support of Hooker's I Corps, hoping to draw Confederate attention away from the intended main attack in the north. However, Burnside was instructed to wait for explicit orders before launching his attack, and those orders did not reach him until 10 a.m.[37] Burnside was strangely passive during preparations for the battle. He was disgruntled that McClellan had abandoned the previous arrangement of "wing" commanders reporting to him. Previously, Burnside had commanded a wing that included both the I and IX Corps and now he was responsible only for the IX Corps. Implicitly refusing to give up his higher authority, Burnside treated first Maj. Gen. Jesse L. Reno (killed at South Mountain) and then Brig. Gen. Jacob D. Cox of the Kanawha Division as the corps commander, funneling orders to the corps through him. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x925, 269 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions 10:00 - 16:30. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x925, 269 KB)Map of the Battle of Antietam of the American Civil War, actions 10:00 - 16:30. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Jesse Lee Reno (April 20, 1823 – September 14, 1862) was a Union general in the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of South Mountain. ...


Burnside had four divisions (12,500 troops) and 50 guns east of Antietam Creek. Facing him was a force that had been greatly depleted by Lee's movement of units to bolster the Confederate left flank. At dawn, the divisions of Brig. Gens. David R. Jones and John G. Walker stood in defense, but by 10 a.m. all of Walker's men and Col. George T. Anderson's Georgia brigade had been removed. Jones had only about 3,000 men and 12 guns available to meet Burnside. Four thin brigades guarded the ridges near Sharpsburg, primarily a low plateau known as Cemetery Hill. The remaining 400 men—the 2nd and 20th Georgia regiments, under the command of Brig. Gen. Robert Toombs, with two artillery batteries—defended Rohrbach's Bridge, a three-span, 125-foot (38 m) stone structure that was the southernmost crossing of the Antietam.[38] It would become known to history as Burnside's Bridge because of the notoriety of the coming battle. The bridge was a difficult objective. The road leading to it ran parallel to the creek and was exposed to enemy fire. The bridge was dominated by a 100-foot (30 m) high wooded bluff on the west bank, strewn with boulders from an old quarry, making infantry and sharpshooter fire from good covered positions a dangerous impediment to crossing. Burnsides Bridge Burnsides Bridge is a landmark on the Antietam National Battlefield near Sharpsburg, Maryland. ...

Go and look at [Burnside's Bridge], and tell me if you don't think Burnside and his corps might have executed a hop, skip, and jump and landed on the other side. One thing is certain, they might have waded it that day without getting their waist belts wet in any place.
Confederate staff officer Henry Kyd Douglas[39]

Antietam Creek in this sector was seldom more than 50 feet (15 m) wide, and several stretches were only waist deep and out of Confederate range. Burnside has been widely criticized for ignoring this fact, starting with derision from Confederate staff officer Henry Kyd Douglas.[39] However, the commanding terrain across the sometimes shallow creek made crossing the water a comparatively easy part of a difficult problem. Burnside concentrated his plan instead on storming the bridge while simultaneously crossing a ford McClellan's engineers had identified a half mile (1 km) downstream, but when the Burnside's men reached it, they found the banks too high to negotiate. While Col. George Crook's Ohio brigade prepared to attack the bridge with the support of Brig. Gen. Samuel Sturgis's division, the rest of the Kanawha Division and Brig. Gen. Isaac Rodman's division struggled through thick brush trying to locate Snavely's Ford, 2 miles (3 km) downstream, intending to flank the Confederates.[40]

Burnside's Bridge.
Burnside's Bridge.

Crook's assault on the bridge was led by skirmishers from the 11th Connecticut, who were ordered to clear the bridge for the Ohioans to cross and assault the bluff. After receiving punishing fire for 15 minutes, the Connecticut men withdrew with 139 casualties, one third of their strength, including their commander, Col. Henry W. Kingsbury, who was fatally wounded.[41] Crook's main assault went awry when his unfamiliarity with the terrain caused his men to reach the creek a quarter mile (400 m) upstream from the bridge, where they exchanged volleys with Confederate skirmishers for the next few hours.[42] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


While Rodman's division was out of touch, slogging toward Snavely's Ford, Burnside and Cox directed a second assault at the bridge by one of Sturgis's brigades, led by the 2nd Maryland and 6th New Hampshire. They also fell prey to the Confederate sharpshooters and artillery, and their attack fell apart.[43] By this time it was noon, and McClellan was losing patience. He sent a succession of couriers to motivate Burnside to move forward. He ordered one aide, "Tell him if it costs 10,000 men he must go now." He increased the pressure by sending his inspector general, Col. Delos B. Sackett, to confront Burnside, who reacted indignantly: "McClellan appears to think I am not trying my best to carry this bridge; you are the third or fourth one who has been to me this morning with similar orders."[44] Col. ...


The third attempt to take the bridge was at 12:30 p.m. by Sturgis's other brigade, commanded by Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero. It was led by the 51st New York and the 51st Pennsylvania, who, with adequate artillery support and a promise that a recently canceled whiskey ration would be restored if they were successful, charged downhill and took up positions on the east bank. Maneuvering a captured light howitzer into position, they fired double canister down the bridge and got within 25 yards (23 m) of the enemy. By 1 p.m., Confederate ammunition was running low, and word reached Toombs that Rodman's men were crossing Snavely's Ford on their flank. He ordered a withdrawal. His Georgians had cost the Federals more than 500 casualties, giving up fewer than 160 themselves. And they had stalled Burnside's assault on the southern flank for more than three hours.[45]


Burnside's assault stalled again on its own. His officers had neglected to transport ammunition across the bridge, which was itself becoming a bottleneck for soldiers, artillery, and wagons. This represented another two-hour delay. Gen. Lee used this time to bolster his right flank. He ordered up every available artillery unit, although he made no attempt to strengthen D.R. Jones's badly outnumbered force with infantry units from the left. Instead, he counted on the arrival of A.P. Hill's Light Division, currently embarked on an exhausting 17 mile (27 km) march from Harpers Ferry. By 2 p.m., Hill's men had reached Boteler's Ford, and Hill was able to confer with the relieved Lee at 2:30, who ordered him to bring up his men to the right of Jones.[46]


The Federals were completely unaware that 3,000 new men would be facing them. Burnside's plan was to move around the weakened Confederate right flank, converge on Sharpsburg, and cut Lee's army off from Boteler's Ford, their only escape route across the Potomac. At 3 p.m., Burnside left Sturgis's division in reserve on the west bank and moved west with over 8,000 troops (most of them fresh) and 22 guns for close support.[47]


An initial assault led by the 79th New York "Cameron Highlanders" succeeded against Jones's outnumbered division, which was pushed back past Cemetery Hill and to within 200 yards (200 m) of Sharpsburg. Farther to the left, Rodman's division advanced toward Harpers Ferry Road. Its lead brigade, under Col. Harrison Fairchild, containing several colorful Zouaves of the 9th New York, came under heavy shellfire from a dozen enemy guns mounted on a ridge to their front, but they kept pushing forward. There was panic in the streets of Sharpsburg, clogged with retreating Confederates. Of the five brigades in Jones's division, only Toombs's brigade was still intact, but he had only 700 men.[48] The 79th New York Volunteer Infantry was an antebellum military regiment raised in the state of New York in the late 1850s. ... A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer trousers instead of the usual red. ...


A. P. Hill's division arrived at 3:30 p.m. Hill divided his column, with two brigades moving southeast to guard his flank and the other three, about 2,000 men, moving to the right of Toombs's brigade and preparing for a counterattack. At 3:40 p.m., Brig. Gen. Maxcy Gregg's brigade of South Carolinians attacked the 16th Connecticut on Rodman's left flank in the cornfield of farmer John Otto. The Connecticut men had been in service for only three weeks, and their line disintegrated with 185 casualties. The 4th Rhode Island came up on the right, but they had poor visibility amid the high stalks of corn, and they were disoriented because many of the Confederates were wearing Union uniforms captured at Harpers Ferry. They also broke and ran, leaving the 8th Connecticut far out in advance and isolated. They were enveloped and driven down the hills toward Antietam Creek. A counterattack by regiments from the Kanawha Division fell short.[49]


The IX Corps had suffered casualties of about 20% but still possessed twice the number of Confederates confronting them. Unnerved by the collapse of his flank, Burnside ordered his men all the way back to the west bank of the Antietam, where he urgently requested more men and guns. McClellan was able to provide just one battery. He said, "I can do nothing more. I have no infantry." In fact, however, McClellan had two fresh corps in reserve, Porter's V and Franklin's VI, but he was too cautious, concerned about an imminent massive counterstrike by Lee. Burnside's men spent the rest of the day guarding the bridge they had suffered so much to capture.[50]


Aftermath

The battle was over by 5:30 p.m. Losses for the day were heavy on both sides. The Union had 12,401 casualties with 2,108 dead. Confederate casualties were 10,318 with 1,546 dead. This represented 25% of the Federal force and 31% of the Confederate.[51] More Americans died on September 17, 1862, than on any other day in the nation's military history, including World War II's D-Day and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.[52] On the morning of September 18, Lee's army prepared to defend against a Federal assault that never came. After an improvised truce for both sides to recover and exchange their wounded, Lee's forces began withdrawing across the Potomac that evening to return to Virginia. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


President Lincoln was disappointed in McClellan's performance. He believed that McClellan's cautious and poorly coordinated actions in the field had forced the battle to a draw rather than a crippling Confederate defeat. Historian Stephen Sears agrees.[53]

In making his battle against great odds to save the Republic, General McClellan had committed barely 50,000 infantry and artillerymen to the contest. A third of his army did not fire a shot. Even at that, his men repeatedly drove the Army of Northern Virginia to the brink of disaster, feats of valor entirely lost on a commander thinking of little beyond staving off his own defeat.

Stephen W. Sears, Landscape Turned Red

President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general's tent near the Antietam battlefield, October 3, 1862.
President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general's tent near the Antietam battlefield, October 3, 1862.

The president was even more astonished that from September 17 to October 26, despite repeated entreaties from the War Department and the president himself, McClellan declined to pursue Lee across the Potomac, citing shortages of equipment and the fear of overextending his forces. General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck wrote in his official report, "The long inactivity of so large an army in the face of a defeated foe, and during the most favorable season for rapid movements and a vigorous campaign, was a matter of great disappointment and regret."[54] Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7, effectively ending the general's military career. President Abraham Lincoln and Gen. ... President Abraham Lincoln and Gen. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some students of history question the designation of "strategic victory" for the Union. After all, McClellan performed poorly in the campaign and the battle itself, and Lee displayed great generalship in holding his own in battle against an army that greatly outnumbered him. Casualties were comparable on both sides, although Lee lost a higher percentage of his army. Lee withdrew from the battlefield first, the technical definition of the tactical loser in a Civil War battle. However, in a strategic sense, despite being a tactical draw, Antietam is considered a turning point of the war and a victory for the Union because it ended Lee's strategic campaign (his first invasion of the North) and it allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, which took effect on January 1, 1863. Although Lincoln had intended to do so earlier, he was advised by his Cabinet to make this announcement after a Union victory to avoid the perception that it was issued out of desperation. The Union victory and Lincoln's proclamation played a considerable role in dissuading the governments of France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy; some suspected they were planning to do so in the aftermath of another Union defeat. When the issue of emancipation was linked to the progress of the war, neither government had the political will to oppose the United States. Historian James M. McPherson summed up the importance of Antietam in his Crossroads of Freedom:[55] This article is about real and historical warfare. ... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

No other campaign and battle in the war had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam. In July 1863 the dual Union triumphs at Gettysburg and Vicksburg struck another blow that blunted a renewed Confederate offensive in the East and cut off the western third of the Confederacy from the rest. In September 1864 Sherman's capture of Atlanta reversed another decline in Northern morale and set the stage for the final drive to Union victory. These also were pivotal moments. But they would never have happened if the triple Confederate offensives in Mississippi, Kentucky, and most of all Maryland had not been defeated in the fall of 1862. Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War...

James M. McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom

The battle is commemorated at Antietam National Battlefield. Antietam National Battlefield is a unit of the National Park Service in Sharpsburg, Maryland, along Antietam Creek. ...


See also

Three ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Antietam, after the Civil War Battle of Antietam. ... Tietam Brown is World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) wrestler Mick Foleys first novel, published in 2003. ...

References

  • Armstrong, Marion V., Disaster in the West Woods: General Edwin V. Sumner and the II Corps at Antietam, Western Maryland Interpretive Association, 2002.
  • Bailey, Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Bloodiest Day: The Battle of Antietam, Time-Life Books, 1984, ISBN 0-8094-4740-1.
  • Cole, J. R., History of Washington and Kent Counties, Rhode Island, W.W. Preston & Co., 1889.
  • Douglas, Henry Kyd, I Rode with Stonewall: The War Experiences of the Youngest Member of Jackson's Staff, University of North Carolina Press, 1940, ISBN 0-8078-0337-5.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Jamieson, Perry D., Death in September: The Antietam Campaign, McWhiney Foundation Press, 1999, ISBN 1-893114-07-4.
  • Kennedy, Frances H., Ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
  • McPherson, James M., Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, The Battle That Changed the Course of the Civil War, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-513521-0.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam, Houghton Mifflin, 1983, ISBN 0-89919-172-X.
  • Tucker, Phillip Thomas, Burnside's Bridge: The Climactic Struggle of the 2nd and 20th Georgia at Antietam Creek, Stackpole Books, 2000, ISBN 0-8117-0199-9.
  • Wolff, Robert S., "The Antietam Campaign", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • National Park Service battle description

For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ McPherson, p. 3.
  2. ^ NPS.
  3. ^ Sears, pp. 65-66; McPherson, pp. 88-95.
  4. ^ Sears, p. 112; McPherson, p. 108.
  5. ^ McPherson, p. 109.
  6. ^ McPherson, pp. 110-12.
  7. ^ Eicher, p. 337. Although most histories, including the Official Records, refer to these organizations as Corps, that designation was not formally made until November 6, 1862, after the Maryland Campaign. Longstreet's unit was referred to as the Right Wing, Jackson's the Left Wing, for most of 1862.
  8. ^ Eicher, p. 338.
  9. ^ Bailey, p. 60.
  10. ^ Bailey, p. 63.
  11. ^ Sears, p. 181.
  12. ^ a b Wolff, p. 60.
  13. ^ Sears, p. 190.
  14. ^ a b Wolff, p. 61.
  15. ^ Bailey, pp. 71, 73.
  16. ^ Bailey, p. 71.
  17. ^ Bailey, p. 75.
  18. ^ Bailey, p. 79.
  19. ^ Bailey, p. 81.
  20. ^ Bailey, p. 70.
  21. ^ Bailey, pp. 79-80.
  22. ^ Armstrong, pp. 3-27; Sears, pp. 221-30; Eicher, pp. 353-55; Wolff, pp. 61-62.
  23. ^ Armstrong, pp. 39-55.
  24. ^ Kennedy, p. 120.
  25. ^ Bailey, p. 93.
  26. ^ Bailey, p. 94.
  27. ^ Wolff, p. 63.
  28. ^ Bailey, p. 99.
  29. ^ Bailey, p. 100.
  30. ^ Bailey, pp. 101, 103.
  31. ^ Sears, p. 242.
  32. ^ Bailey, p. 102.
  33. ^ Sears, p. 254.
  34. ^ Bailey, p. 108.
  35. ^ Bailey, pp. 108-9.
  36. ^ Bailey, p. 141.
  37. ^ Jamieson, p. 94. McClellan issued the order at 9:10, after the repulse of Hooker's and Mansfield's assaults, having waited for the VI Corps to reach the battlefield and take up a reserve position.
  38. ^ Wolff, p. 64.
  39. ^ a b Douglas, p. 172.
  40. ^ Eicher, 359-60; Sears, p. 260; Wolff, p. 64.
  41. ^ Tucker, p. 87.
  42. ^ Sears, p. 263.
  43. ^ Bailey, p. 120.
  44. ^ Sears, pp. 264-65.
  45. ^ Sears, pp. 266-67; Bailey, pp. 125-26.
  46. ^ Sears, p. 276.
  47. ^ Bailey, p. 131.
  48. ^ Bailey, pp. 133-36.
  49. ^ Bailey, pp. 136-37.
  50. ^ Sears, pp. 291-92.
  51. ^ Sears, pp. 294-96. Confederate casualties are estimates; McPherson, p. 129. McPherson gives ranges for the Confederate losses: 1,546–2,700 dead, 7,752–9,024 wounded. He reported that more than 2,000 of the wounded on both sides died from their wounds.
  52. ^ Antietam is sometimes cited as the bloodiest day in all of American history, but the deaths from the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 are significantly higher. The bloodiest battle in American history was Gettysburg, but its more than 46,000 casualties occurred over three days. Antietam ranks fifth in terms of total casualties in the Civil War, falling behind Chickamauga, Chancellorsville, and Spotsylvania Court House.
  53. ^ Sears, p. 296.
  54. ^ Bailey, p. 67.
  55. ^ McPherson, p. 155.

The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Lowest pressure 936 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ...

Further reading

  • Frassanito, William A., Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, Thomas Publications, 1978, ISBN 1-57747-005-2.
  • Gallagher, Gary W., Ed., Antietam: Essays on the 1862 Maryland Campaign, Kent State University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87338-400-8.
  • Jermann, Donald R., Antietam: The Lost Order, Pelican Publishing Company Inc., 2006, ISBN 1-58980-366-3.
  • Luvaas, Jay, and Harold W. Nelson, Eds., The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battle of Antietam: The Maryland Campaign of 1862, University Press of Kansas, 1987, ISBN 0-7006-0784-6.

External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a series of violent events, involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery Border Ruffian elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Bleeding Kansas  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Union territories that permitted slavery The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia which bordered a free state and aligned with the Union... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... The fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a public territory. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... This article is about slavery. ... John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was a white American abolitionist who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish all slavery. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American individualist anarchist political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Harriet Tubman (c. ... H. B. Lindsley, Harriet Tubman, c. ... Animated map of secession, Civil War and re-admission:  States of the Union  Territories of the Union (including occupied territory)  States of the Confederacy  Territories claimed by Confederacy During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the twenty-three states of the United States... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Navy Department Seal The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. ... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military operations in the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War. ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... Union Forces Campaign Streamer Confederate Forces Campaign Streamer American Civil War Campaigns are categorized in various ways. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Stones River Conflict American Civil War Date December 31, 1862 – January 3, 1863 Place Murfreesboro, Tennessee Result Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate Army withdrew The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from December... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Battle of Hoovers Gap Conflict American Civil War Date June 24– 26, 1862 Place Bedford County, Tennessee and Rutherford County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Hoovers Gap was the principal battle fought in the Tullahoma Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan Morgans Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. ... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet and Ambrose Burnside, principal commanders of the Knoxville Campaign The Knoxville Campaign[1] was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863. ... The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March... Western Theater campaigns of 1864–65 The Franklin-Nashville Campaign, also known as Hoods Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles in the Western Theater, fought in the fall of 1864 in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... This article is about the historical event. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... The Battles of the American Civil War can be organized in a variety of ways, including chronologically, alphabetically by nation and by country and by race and by those blacks, by winner, by casualty statistics, etc. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Robert Anderson # P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 500 Casualties and losses 0 killed 5 wounded 0 killed (1 horse) 4 wounded The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861 – April 13, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter near Charleston... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Combatants United States of America State of Missouri Confederate States of America Commanders Nathaniel Lyon Samuel D. Sturgis Franz Sigel Sterling Price Ben McCulloch Strength Army of the West Missouri State Guard and McCulloch’s Brigade Casualties 1,235 1,095 The Battle of Wilsons Creek, also known as... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner # Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Samuel R. Curtis Earl Van Dorn Strength Army of the Southwest,≈10,500 men Army of the West, ≈16,000 men Casualties 1,349 (mostly killed and wounded) 4,600 (mostly captured) The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Officer David G. Farragut and Maj. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... For other uses, see Bull Run (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties and losses 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116 wounded... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War... Combatants United States of America (U.S. Navy) Confederate States of America (Confederate States Navy) Commanders David Farragut (navy) Gordon Granger (army) Franklin Buchanan (navy) Dabney H. Maury (army) Strength 14 wooden ships (including 2 gunboats) 4 ironclad monitors 5,500 Land Force Troops Three gunboats, One ironclad, 2,000... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John McAllister Schofield John Bell Hood Strength IV and XXIII Corps (Army of the Ohio and Army of the Cumberland) Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,326 6,261 Franklin-Nashville Campaign Allatoona – Decatur – Johnsonville – Columbia – Spring Hill – 2nd Franklin – 3rd... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George H. Thomas John Bell Hood Strength IV Corps, XXIII Corps, detachment of Army of the Tennessee, provisional detachment, and Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,900 approximately 13,000 The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (pronounced ) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), was a Louisiana-born general for the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Jubal Early (disambiguation). ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Josiah Gorgas Josiah Gorgas (July 1, 1818 – May 15, 1883) was one of the few Northern-born Confederate generals in the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... John Singleton Mosby John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 – May 30, 1916) also known as the Gray Ghost, was a Confederate partisan Ranger (a partisan is similar to a guerrilla fighter) in the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... William Clark Quantrill of Quantrills Raiders William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 – June 6, 1865), was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Civil War. ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... James Seddon James Alexander SeddonBorn 9/1/1988 James seddon is a pupil at sutton high and isnt a very good one. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... Anderson after the War Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Samuel Francis du Pont by Daniel Huntington 1867-68, oil on canvas National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC Samuel Francis du Pont (September 27, 1803 – June 23, 1865) was an officer in the United States Navy who achieved the rank of rear admiral. ... David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the first senior officer of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... Image:Brandon Roseli. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... For the English botanist, see Joseph Dalton Hooker. ... Henry Jackson Hunt during the Civil War Henry Jackson Hunt (September 14, 1819 – February 11, 1889) was Chief of Artillery in the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. ... Montgomery C. Meigs Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (IPA: ) (May 3, 1816 – January 2, 1892) was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, construction engineer for a number of facilities in Washington, D.C., and Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States admiral who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... General Sherman redirects here. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807, Boston - November 21, 1886, Boston), the son of John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... This article is about John Ericsson, the Swedish-American inventor. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harpers Weekly, 1884 Allan Pinkerton (August 25, 1819 – July 1, 1884) was a U.S. detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first detective agency of the United States. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868), was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... Benjamin Franklin Bluff Wade (October 27, 1800 – March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer and United States Senator. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raiders (the most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to Union naval forces. ... In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... A Bureau agent stands between an armed group of Southern whites and a group of freed slaves in this 1868 picture from Harpers Weekly On March 3, 1865, Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmens Bureau, was a federal agency that... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. ... The Arizona Territory was disputed during the American Civil War, with both the slave-holding Confederate States of America and the United States Federal government claiming ownership and territorial rights. ... The state of Arkansas was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, and provided a source of troops, supplies, and military and political leaders for the fledgling country. ... Californias involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units, maintaining numerous fortifications, and sending east some soldiers who became famous. ... The Colorado Territory was formally created in 1861 shortly before the attack on Fort Sumter sparked the American Civil War. ... President Lincoln insisted that construction of the U.S. Capitol continue during the Civil War. ... The Battle of Olustee was the only major Civil War battle fought in Florida. ... On January 18, 1861, Georgia seceded from the Union, keeping the name State of Georgia and joined the newly-formed Confederacy in February. ... Illinois infantry regimental flag (77th IL is shown) The state of Illinois during the American Civil War was a major source of troops for the Union army (particularly for those armies serving in the Western Theater), as well as military supplies, food, and clothing. ... The state of Iowa played a role during the American Civil War in providing food, supplies, and troops for the Union army, although its contribution was overshadowed by larger and more populated eastern states. ... At the commencement of the Civil War, the Kansas government had no well-organized militia, no arms, accoutrements or supplies, nothing with which to meet the demands, except the united will of officials and citizens. ... Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. ... The state of Louisiana during the American Civil War was a part of the Confederate States of America. ... See also: American Civil War and Origins of the American Civil War Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the North and South. ... William Lloyd Garrison In the years leading up to the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center of abolitionist activity within the United States. ... Michigan made a substantial contribution to the Union during the American Civil War. ... Mississippi was the second state to secede from the Union on January 9, 1861. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Missouri in the Civil War was a border state that sent men, generals, and supplies to both opposing sides, had its star on both flags, had state... George B. McClellan The state of New Jersey in the United States provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. ... As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico... The Southern United States state of North Carolina provided an important source of soldiers, supplies, and war materiel to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... During the American Civil War, the State of Ohio played a key role in providing troops, military officers, and supplies to the Union army. ... State Flag of Pennsylvania During the American Civil War, the commonwealth of Pennsylvania played a critical role in the Union, providing a huge supply of military manpower, materiel, and leadership to the Federal government. ... South Carolina had long before the American Civil War been a region that heavily supported individual states rights and the institution of slavery. ... The American Civil War, to a large extent, was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee—only Virginia had more battles. ... Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. ... Flag of Vermont During the American Civil War, the State of Vermont continued the military tradition started by the Green Mountain Boys of Revolutionary War fame, contributing a significant portion of their eligible men to the war effort. ... Virginia began a convention about secession on February 13, 1861 after six states seceded to form the Confederate States of America on February 4. ... West Virginia was formed and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia). ... With the outbreak of the American Civil War, the northwestern state of Wisconsin raised 91,200 soldiers for the Union Army, organized into 53 infantry regiments, 4 cavalry regiments, a company of Berdan’s sharpshooters, 13 light artillery batteries and 1 unit of heavy artillery. ... Woodblock sketch of Lowes balloon with McClellans Army of the Potomac as depicted in Harpers Weekly. ... For other uses, see Bushwhackers (disambiguation). ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ... Military leadership in the American Civil War was influenced by professional military education and the hard-earned pragmatism of command experience. ... Naval battles of the American Civil War were a common occurrence just as they are with many wars. ... The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... U.S. Army Signal Corps station on Elk Mountain, Maryland, overlooking the Antietam battlefield. ... The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War. ... This article is about the Civil War faction. ... A political general was a general without significant military experience who was given a high position in command due to political connections or to appease certain political blocks. ... Frémont (left), 1856 Republican parade banner The Radical Republicans were the remaining faction of American politicians within the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction following an 1864 exodus of pro-Lincoln Republicans into the creation of the National Union Party. ... James Murray Mason John Slidell The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... This is a timeline of significant events leading to the American Civil War. ... This is a list of topics relating to the American Civil War. ... There have been numerous alternative names for the American Civil War that reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different groups and regions. ... Casualties and losses 120[1], although counts vary by sources. ... Two photographers having lunch in the Bull Run area before the second battle, 1862. ... Confederate railroads During the American Civil War, the Confederacy depended heavily on railroads to get supplies to their lines. ... A number of cases were tried before the Supreme Court of the United States during the period of the American Civil War. ... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Antietam (234 words)
GENERAL ROBERT E. first invasion of the North culminated with the Battle of Antietam, in Maryland (or Sharpsburg, as the South called it).
The battle also became a turning point, an engagement that changed the entire course of the Civil War.
The battle sealed the fate of the Confederacy.
Antietam National Battlefield (U.S. National Park Service) (342 words)
The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia’s first invasion into the North and led to Abraham Lincoln’s issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
The Battle of Antietam was part of what is known as the Maryland Campaign of 1862.
On the day of the battle, September 17, 1862, it was foggy and damp in the morning, clearing with light winds and temperatures in the 70s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m