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Encyclopedia > Battle of Amphipolis
Battle of Amphipolis
Part of the Peloponnesian War

Date: 422 BC
Location: Amphipolis
Result: Spartan victory
Casus belli: {{{casus}}}
Territory changes: {{{territory}}}
Combatants
Athens Sparta
Commanders
Cleon
Nicias
Thucydides
Brasidas
Clearidas
Strength
About 2000 About 2500
Casualties
About 600 8
{{{notes}}}
Peloponnesian War
SybotaPotidaeaChalcisNaupactusTanagraOlpaePylosSphacteriaDeliumAmphipolisMantineaSicilian ExpeditionSymeCynossemaCyzicusNotiumArginusaeAegospotami

The Battle of Amphipolis was fought in 422 BC during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. It was the culmination of events that began in 424 BC with the capture of Amphipolis by the Spartans. Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC - 422 BC - 421 BC 420 BC... Amphipolis (modern Greek: Amfipoli), was an ancient city of Macedonia, on the east bank of the river Strymon, where it emerges from Lake Cercinitis, about 3 m. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Casus Belli is a New Latin expression meaning occasion of war. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Cleon (d. ... Nicias (d. ... Bust of Thucydides Thucydides (between 460 and 455 BC–circa 400 BC, Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. ... Brasidas (d. ... Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. ... Battle of Sybota Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 433 BC Place Off Corcyra Result Indecisive The Battle of Sybota took place in 433 BC between Corcyra and Corinth. ... Battle of Potidaea Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 432 BC Place Potidaea Result Athenian victory The Battle of Potidaea was, with the Battle of Sybota, one of the catalysts for the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Chalcis Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 429 BC Place Chalcis Result Athenian defeat The Battle of Chalcis took place in 429 BC between Athens and the Chalcidians and their allies, in the early part of the Peloponnesian War. ... The naval Battle of Naupactus took place over the course of a week in 429 BC, in the early part of the Peloponnesian War, between the Athenian fleet under Phormio and a combined Spartan and Corinthian fleet. ... Battle of Tanagra Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 426 BC Place Tanagra Result Athenian victory The Battle of Tanagra was a battle in the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC between Athens and Tanagra. ... Battle of Olpae Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 426 BC Place Olpae Result Athenian victory The Battle of Olpae was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, between armies led by Athens and Sparta. ... The naval Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta. ... Battle of Sphacteria Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 425 BC Place Sphacteria Result Athenian victory The Battle of Sphacteria was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 425 BC, between Athens and Sparta. ... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... The Battle of Mantinea took place in 418 BC between Sparta and its allies, and an army led by Argos and Athens. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Syme Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Syme Result Indecisive The Battle of Syme was a naval battle in 411 BC between Sparta and Athens, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Cynossema Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Cynossema Result Athenian victory The Battle of Cynossema was a naval battle in the Hellespont in 411 BC between Athens and Sparta, around the same time the Athenian democracy was overthrown in favour of a short_lived oligarchy. ... The Battle of Cyzicus in 410 BC was a small-scale naval battle during the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet led by Alcibiades and a Peloponnesian fleet led by Sparta. ... At the Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, the Spartan fleet of Lysander defeated a part of the Athenian fleet, resulting in the recall of Alcibiades, the Athenian admiral. ... The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BCE during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Aegospotami Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 405 BC Place Aegospotami Result Spartan victory The battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC was the destruction of the Athenian navy in the Peloponnesian War, and led directly to Athens final defeat by Sparta in the following year. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC - 422 BC - 421 BC 420 BC... Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Amphipolis (modern Greek: Amfipoli), was an ancient city of Macedonia, on the east bank of the river Strymon, where it emerges from Lake Cercinitis, about 3 m. ...

Contents


Capture of Amphipolis, 424/3 BC

In the winter of 424/3, around the same time as the Battle of Delium, the Spartan general Brasidas besieged Amphipolis, an Athenian colony in Thrace on the Strymon river.1 The city was defended by the Athenian general Eucles, who sent for help from Thucydides, who was stationed at Thasos with seven Athenian ships.2 The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... Brasidas (d. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ... The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... Bust of Thucydides Thucydides (between 460 and 455 BC–circa 400 BC, Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. ... Thasos (Greek: ) or Thassos is the name of an island in the north of the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestos (during the Ottoman times Kara-Su). ...


In order to capture the city before Thucydides arrived, Brasidas offered to let everyone who wished to stay keep their propery, and offered safe passage to those who wanted to leave.3 Amphipolis surrendered, despite protests from Eucles.4 Thucydides arrived at the nearby port of Eion on the same day the city surrendered, and defended it with help from those who had left Amphipolis.5 Meanwhile Brasidas began to ally with more Thracian towns, as well as Perdiccas of Macedon, and he attacked other towns in the area, such as Torone. The Athenians were afraid that their other allies would quickly capitulate, as the Amphipolitans had, if Brasidas offered them favourable terms of peace. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Perdiccas (d. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the Macedonian kingdom Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom located in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region...


Thucydides, who recounted the capture of Amphipolis in his History of the Peloponnesian War, is often considered to be partially or entirely responsible for the fall of Amphipolis. Some have seen his actions as "gross negligence," although he claimed he was unable to arrive in time to save the city. He was recalled to Athens where he was tried and exiled.6. Page from tenth-century minuscule manuscript of Thucydides History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). ...


Armistice of 423 BC

In response to the fall of the city, Athens and Sparta signed an armistice. Athens hoped they could fortify more towns in preparation for future attacks from Brasidas, and the Spartans hoped Athens would finally return the prisoners taken at the Battle of Sphacteria earlier in 424. According to the terms of the truce, "It is proposed that each side should remain in its own territory, holding what it now holds...The armistice is to last for one year." (Thuc. 4.118) While the negotiations were going on, Brasidas captured Scione and refused to give it back when news of the treaty arrived. The Athenian leader Cleon sent a force to take it back, despite the treaty. A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Battle of Sphacteria Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 425 BC Place Sphacteria Result Athenian victory The Battle of Sphacteria was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 425 BC, between Athens and Sparta. ... Cleon (d. ...


Battle of Amphipolis, 422 BC

When the armistice ended in 422, Cleon arrived in Thrace with a force of 30 ships, 1200 hoplites, and 300 cavalry, along with many other troops from Athens' allies. He recaptured Torone and Scione; at Scione, the Spartan commander Pasitelidas was killed. He then took up position at Eion, while Brasidas took his position at Cerdylium. Brasidas about 2000 hoplites and 300 cavalry, plus some other troops in Amphipolis, but he did not feel that he could defeat Cleon in a pitched battle. Brasidas then moved his forces back into Amphipolis, and Cleon moved towards the city in preparation for battle. When Brasidas did not come out, Cleon assumed there would be no attack, and he began to move his troops back to Eion. A hoplite armed with a spear. ... Cavalry is also a common misspelling of the Biblical hill Calvary. ...


At this point, Brasidas moved out from Amphipolis and charged the disorganized Athenian troops. In the rout that followed, Brasidas was mortally injured, although the Athenians did not realize it. Cleon was also killed when he was attacked by the Spartan commander Clearidas. The entire Athenian army fled back to Eion, although about 600 of them were killed before they reached the port. Only seven other Spartans were killed.


Results

Brasidas lived long enough to learn of his victory, and was buried in Amphipolis. The Amphipolitans began to regard him as the founder of the city. After the battle, neither the Athenians or the Spartans wanted to continue the war, and the Peace of Nicias was signed in 421 BC. This treaty was also eventually broken. Thucydides was exiled for his failure to protect Amphipolis, thus ending the period of the war that he observed firsthand. The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC - 421 BC - 420 BC 419 BC...


References

  • Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War. London, J. M. Dent; New York, E. P. Dutton. 1910. [1]

Notes

  • 1 Thucydides 4.102.1 [2]
  • 2 Thucydides 4.104.4-5 [3]
  • 3 Thucydides 4.105.1-2 [4]
  • 4 Thucydides 4.106.1-2 [5]
  • 5 Thucydides 4.106.3-4.107.1 [6], [7]
  • 6 Thucydides 5.26.5 [8]

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