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Encyclopedia > Battle for Mexico City
Battle for Mexico City
Part of the Mexican-American War
Date September 8-September 15, 1847
Location Mexico City, D.F.
Result U.S. victory
Combatants
United States Mexico
Commanders
Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna
Strength
7,200 16,000
Casualties
1,651 4,500
Mexican-American War
Fort TexasPalo AltoResaca de la Palma – Cañoncito – Santa FeMonterrey – 1st Tabasco – Siege of Los AngelesBattle of Dominguez RanchoSan PasqualEl BrazitoRio San GabrielLa Mesa – Cañada – MoraEmbudo PassPueblo de TaosBuena Vista – Sacramento – VeracruzCerro GordoTuxpan – 2nd Tabasco – ContrerasChurubuscoMolino del ReyChapultepecMexico CityHuamantlaPuebla

The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847, in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War. Included are major actions at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, culminating with the fall of Mexico City. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The Siege of Fort Texas marked the beginning of active campaigning by the armies of the United States of America and Mexico during the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Mariano Arista Strength 2,400 infantry 2,300 infantry, 1,100 cavalry and 160 artillery 12 guns Casualties 5 killed 43 wounded 102 killed 129 wounded 26 missing The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War... At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican-American War, Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Army of the North under Gen. ... In the beginning of the Mexican-American War, Stephen W. Kearny brought 1,700 soldiers from Kansas in the contested Indian territory to conquer the New Mexico territory. ... Battle of Santa Fe Conflict Mexican-American War Date August 15, 1846 Place Santa Fe, New Mexico Result U.S. victory The Battle of Santa Fe occurred on August 15, 1846 during the Mexican-American War. ... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... The First Battle of Tabasco was fought during the Mexican-American War. ... The Terra Cotta relief on the current Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial Fort Moore was a historic fort in Los Angeles, California, during the Mexican-American War. ... Well, Mexican-American, was a very long war; it lasted for two whole years. ... The Battle of San Pascual was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican_American War in what is now San Diego County, California, on the 6 and 7 December 1846. ... The Battle of El Brazito took place on December 25th, 1846, early in the Mexican-American war. ... Combatants United States of America Mexico Californeros Commanders Robert F. Stockton Stephen Watts Kearny José Mariá Flores Strength U.S. naval and army forces 600 sailors, marines and dragoons Californios sympathic to Mexico 300 dragoons 200 soldiers Casualties 143 80 The Battle of Rio San Gabriel was a part of... The Battle of La Mesa occurred on January 9, 1847 in present-day Vernon, in which the outgunned and outnumbered Californios (The Americans having rifles, the Californios fighting on horseback with only lances)almost gained the advantage, but they fell back and camped at present-day Pasadena, giving up Los... Insurgents in New Mexico under the leadership of Pablo Chavez, Pablo Montoya and Jesus Tafoya began marching south towards the American-held city of Santa Fe. ... Combatants United States Mexican Insurgents Commanders Israel R. Hendley Jesse I. Morin Manuel Cortez Strength 80 200 Casualties 1 killed 3 wounded 25 killed 17 prisoners The Battle of Mora was part of the Taos Revolt, a popular insurrection against the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexican/Indian Insurgents Commanders John Burgwin Ceran St. ... The Siege of Pueblo de Taos was an engagement between U.S. forces and Insurgent forces in New Mexico during the Mexican-American War. ... The Battle of Buena Vista was a land battle of the Mexican-American War fought on 23 February 1847 in Buena Vista, Coahuila, seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. ... The Battle of the Sacramento took place on February 28, 1847 during the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott (Army) David Conner (Navy) Matthew C. Perry (Navy) Juan Morales Strength 12,000 3,360 Casualties 18 killed 62 wounded 180 killed and wounded 100 civilian The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican seaport of Veracruz, Veracruz... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 8,500 12,000 Casualties 417 4,000 Gen Ciriaco Vasquez dead Gens. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Matthew C. Perry Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength 1,519 400 Casualties 3 killed 11 wounded  ? The Battle of Tuxpan was a battle fought during the Mexican-American War. ... The Second Battle of Tabasco (also known as the Battle of Villahermosa) was a battle fought during the Mexican-American War as part of the U.S. blockade of Mexican Gulf ports. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ... The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo # Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... The Battle of Huamantla was a U.S. victory late in the Mexican-American War that forced the Mexican army to lift the Siege of Puebla. ... The Siege of Puebla began the same day Mexico City fell to Winfield Scott and lasted for 28 days when a relief force was able to fight its way into the city and lift the siege. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo # Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ...

Contents

Background

The major objective of U.S. operations in central Mexico had been the capture of Mexico City. After capturing the port of Veracruz in March, Winfield Scott was able to secure a base and move inland and defeat a large Mexican force at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. After routing the Mexicans at the Battle of Churubusco, Scott's army was only 5 miles (8 km) away from its objective of Mexico City. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott (Army) David Conner (Navy) Matthew C. Perry (Navy) Juan Morales Strength 12,000 3,360 Casualties 18 killed 62 wounded 180 killed and wounded 100 civilian The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican seaport of Veracruz, Veracruz... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 8,500 12,000 Casualties 417 4,000 Gen Ciriaco Vasquez dead Gens. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ...


Although defeated at Cerro Gordo and Churubusco, Santa Anna's army remained intact and outnumbered Scott. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain...


Order of battle

United States

Army of Invasion Winfield Scott For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ...

  • 1st Division William J. Worth
    • Brigade – [[John Garland (general)|John Garland],2d & 3d Artillery, 4th Infantry, Duncan's Battery]
    • Brigade – [[Newman S. Clarke], 5th, 6th & 8th Infantry][1]
  • 2nd Division David E. Twiggs
    • Brigade – [[Bennet Riley],4th Artillery, 2d & 7th Infantry]
    • Brigade – [[Persifor F. Smith], 1st Artillery, 3d Infantry, Taylor's Battery]
  • 3rd Division Gideon Pillow
    • Brigade – [[Franklin Pierce], 9th, 12th & 15th Infantry, Magruder's Battery]
    • Brigade – [[George Cadwalader],11th & 14th Infantry, Voltigeurs]
  • 4th Division John A. Quitman
    • Brigade – [[James Shields] New York & South Carolina Regiments, Mariners, Steptoe's Batter]
    • Marines – [[Samuel E. Watson], 2d Pennsylvania Regiment]
    • Cavalry Brigade [[Col. Harney ], 1st, 2d & 3d Dragoons ]

William Jenkins Worth was a United States general during the Mexican-American War Early Life Worth was born on March 1, 1794 in Hudson, New York. ... Brigadier General David E. Twiggs David Emanuel Twiggs (1790 – July 15, 1862) was a United States soldier during the War of 1812 and Mexican-American War and a general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806-October 8, 1878) was an American general. ... John Anthony Quitman (September 1, 1798–July 17, 1858) was an American politician. ...

Mexico

7 August 1847—20,210 men August 7 is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Mexican Army General Antonio López de Santa Anna Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain...


Chief of Artillery: General Carrera
Chief of Engineers: General Mora y Villamil

  • Army of the East General Manuel Lombardini
    • 1st Brigade General Terres (1st Activos, Lakes and 2nd Light Battalions)
    • 2nd Brigade General Martinez (Morelia Activos,Invalids Corps)
    • 3rd Brigade General Rangel (Mixto Sta Anna, Morelia Nac Guards)
    • 4th Brigade General Perez (1st,3rd & 4th Light, 11th Infantry)
    • 5th Brigade General Leon (Oajaca & Queretaro Activos, 10th Infantry, Queretaro & Mina National Guards)
    • 6th Brigade General Pedro María de Anaya (Independecia, Bravos, Victoria & Hidalgo National Guards)
    • 7th Brigade Col. Zerecero (Acapulco, parts Tlapa & Libertad pickets)
  • Army of the North General Gabriel Valencia 3,000 Infantry, 100 Cavalry 500 Artillery
    • Vanguard Brigade General Mejia (Fijo de Mexico, Potosi Activos, 7th Cavalry)
    • Centre Brigade General Parrodi (10th and 11th Infantry, Tampico Coast Guards, Queretaro, Celaya and Guanajuato Activos, Celaya Auxiliary)
    • Reserve Brigade General Salas (Engineers, Mixto Sta Anna, Aguascalientes Activos, 2nd, 3rd & 8th Cavalry, Guanajuato Cavalry)
  • Army of the South General Juan Álvarez 2,762 Cavalry
    • Cavalry Division

Alcaraz, Ramon "Apuntes pra la hirtoria de la guerra entre Mexico...† Manuel María Lombardini (1802-1853) was acting president of Mexico for two months in 1853. ... Pedro María Anaya (1794-1854) was the interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. ... General Gabriel Valencia, in an 1848 lithograph Gabriel Valencia (1799—1848) was a Mexican soldier in the early years of the Republic. ... Juan Álvarez (1790-1867) was a general and interim president of Mexico from 1855 to 1856. ...


Battles

Molino del Rey

On September 8, the fight for Mexico City began. Scott believed that a cannon foundry was located at the Molino del Rey, the King's Mill, located just over 2 miles (3 km) outside the city. Scott sent the 1st Division under William J. Worth to seize and destroy the foundry. Worth wished to include Chapultepec Castle in his attack, and when Scott refused, a bitter rivalry began between Scott and Worth. In the ensuing battle, both sides suffered heavy casualties, and Worth drove the Mexicans from the mill, separating them from the forces at Chapultepec. The battle produced no significant military gains for the U.S. The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Jenkins Worth was a United States general during the Mexican-American War Early Life Worth was born on March 1, 1794 in Hudson, New York. ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ...


Chapultepec

Storming of Chapultepec
Storming of Chapultepec
Main article: Battle of Chapultepec

The main assault on the city came a few days later on September 12. Mexico City was guarded in part by Chapultepec Castle, which was being used as a military academy. Scott preceded infantry assault with an all day artillery barrage on September 12. The next day, September 13, the 4th Division, under John A. Quitman, spearheaded the attack against Chapultepec and carried the castle. Future Confederate generals George E. Pickett and James Longstreet participated in the attack. Serving in the Mexican defense were the cadets later immortalized as Los Niños Héroes (the "Boy Heroes"). The Mexican forces fell back from Chapultepec and retreated within the city. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo # Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... John Anthony Quitman (September 1, 1798–July 17, 1858) was an American politician. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Portrait of George E. Pickett George Edward Pickett (January 25, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a major-general in the army of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Attacks on the San Cosme and Belén Gates

Quitman's Division made its way down the Belén Causeway towards the Belén Gate, defended by General Terres & Colonel Garay with 3 guns, while Worth's Division further to the north made its way up La Verónica Causeway towards the San Cosme Gate, defended by General Rangel's Infantry Brigade (Granaderos Battalion, 1st Light, part 3d Light (Lt.Col. Echeagaray))with 3 guns & howitzers. Quitman was merely supposed to make a feint towards the city, but he pushed forward his whole division and broke through the defenses. Santa Anna arrived at the Belén Gate in a fury and relieved the front commander. Worth's Division in the meantime had a slow start against the Mexicans after beating off a Mexican cavalry attack. When he reached San Cosme, he found its defenses ill prepared, but the Mexicans defending it put up a good fight before falling back. Ulysses S. Grant found his way into the action along the causeway on Worth's front and helped in hoisting a cannon into the belltower of a nearby church. From this spot Grant fired into the defenders below. When the fighting subsided on all fronts, both gates had fallen and the Mexicans had withdrawn into the city. Other gates defended were: San Antonio by General M. Martinez with 10 guns; Nino Perdido by the National Guards and 2 guns; and San Lazaro, Guadeloupe and Villejo, which were defended by small infantry detachments. 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


Fall of Mexico City

Santa Anna had withdrawn his army from the city during the night, and the U.S. forces, expecting another assault, found the city undefended. Worth and Quitman advanced cautiously. Quitmant sent Lieutenant Pierre Beauregard to arrange the surrender of the ciudadela. Beauregard and Mansfield Lovell were met by a Mexican officer who asked for a receipt for the captured ciudadela. Beauregard exclaimed that "we give receipts at the point of their swords". Scott gave the honor of formally entering the city to Quitman's Division. The conquering army was less than impressing, the troops wore ragged and bloodstained uniforms and Quitman only had on one shoe when he marched into the city. Worth personally took down the flag flying over the National Palace, and a U.S. Marine hoisted the U.S. flag in its place. Quitman marched into the Zócalo plaza in the center of the city in front of the National Palace where the formal surrender took place. As Worth's division entered the city the leading unit was John Garland's brigade. Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BOH-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Mansfield Lovell Image:MansfieldLOVELL.jpg Birth: Oct. ... Union Jack. ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Flag in center of the Zócalo Catedral Metropolitana La Plaza de la Constitución, informally called El Zócalo, is a square in Mexico City. ... John Garland (1792-1861) was a career United States soldier in the Regular Army who had a long and distinguished career spanning fifty years of service during the War of 1812, Seminole Wars, Mexican-American War, Utah War and the early part of the American Civil War. ...


Stragglers from the Mexican army left in the city after Santa Anna's withdrawal climbed to the roofs of houses and began shooting at the American soldiers. General Garland was hit in the chest with the first shot and fell severely wounded. Before he evacuated, Santa Anna released 30,000 prisoners into the streets of the city, and these rooftop shots provoked the prisoners into similar acts. Worth did manage to get the sniping under control. William S. Harney's dragoons escorted General Scott into the city wearing his immaculate dress uniform and was greeted by patriotic music. Scott appointed the politically savvy Quitman as military governor, becoming the only American to ever rule from the National Palace. William Selby Harney (22 August 1800 - 9 May 1889) was a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ...


Casualties

September 8

  • U.S. 116 killed, 665 wounded, 18 missing, 789 total
  • Mexican 2,700 total

September 12-15

  • U.S. 130 killed, 703 wounded, 29 missing, 862 total
  • Mexican 1,800 killed and wounded, 823 captured, 2,623 total

Totals

  • U.S. 1,651
  • Mexican 4,500

See also

// The following are known battles of the Mexican-American War. ... The Marines Hymn is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps. ... The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ...

Notes

^  Lieutenant Colonel James S. McIntosh temporarily commanded Clarke's brigade at Molino del Rey; Clarke returned to command after McIntosh was killed during the fighting


References

  • Nevin, David; editor, The Mexican War (1978)
  • Bauer, K. Jack, "The Mexican-American War 1846-48"
  • Brooks, N. C., "A Complete History Of The Mexican War: Its Causes, Conduct And Consequences"(1849)

External links

  • Winfield Scott's Official Report
  • Irish fighters

 
 

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