FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle Of Crete
Battle of Crete
Part of the Mediterranean Theater of World War II

German paratroopers in action on Crete
Date 20 May1 June 1941
Location Crete, Greece
Result Axis Phyrric victory
Belligerents
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of Australia Australia
Germany
Italy
Commanders
Flag of New Zealand Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student
Strength
United Kingdom:
15,000
Greece:
11,000
Australia:
7,100
New Zealand:
6,700
Total:
40,000 (10,000 without fighting capacity[1])
Germany:
14,000[citation needed] paratroopers
15,000[citation needed] mountain troopers
280 bombers
150 dive bombers
180 fighters
500 transports
80 troop gliders
Italy:
2,700
Casualties and losses
Official British figures:
791 dead
268 wounded
6,576 captured
Official Australian figures:
274 dead
507 wounded
3,079 captured
Official New Zealand figures:
671 dead
967 wounded
2,180 captured

Official Greek figures:
 ? dead
 ? wounded
5,255 captured
Official Royal Navy figures:
1,828 dead
183 wounded
9 ships sunk and 18 damaged

Total:
3,564 dead
1,925 wounded
17,090 captured Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... From the German Historic Museum, item F 60/2017. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... A Pyrrhic victory (pronounced pirric) is a victory which comes at heavy cost to the victor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... The Rt Hon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ...

Official German figures:[2]
2,124 dead
1,917 missing, presumed dead
4,041 total dead and missing

2,640 wounded
17 captured and evacuated to Egypt

6,698 total
370 aircraft destroyed or damaged

The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) was a battle during World War II on the Greek island of Crete. The battle began on the morning of 20 May 1941, when Nazi Germany launched an airborne invasion of Crete under the code-name Unternehmen Merkur ("Operation Mercury"). Greek rebels and Allied forces defended the island. Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Italy Commanders Vice-Admiral John Tovey Captain Enrico Baroni† Strength 5 cruisers 3 destroyers Casualties 1 cruiser lightly damaged 1 destroyer sunk 150-180 dead The Battle of the Espero Convoy was one of the very first naval battles between the Royal Navy and the Regia... Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 1 aircraft carrier 3 battleships 2 light cruisers 11 destroyers 4 battleships 6 destroyers 1 seaplane tender Casualties 3 Blackburn Skua 3 Fairey Swordfish 2 dead 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships heavily damaged 1 destroyer damaged 1,297 dead... The Battle of Calabria, also known as the Battle of Punta Stilo, was a naval battle between ships of Italian Regia Marina on one side and the British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy on the other. ... The battle of Cape Spada was a naval battle of World War II fought in the Mediterranean off Cape Spada, the north-western extremity of Crete on 19 July 1940. ... This article is about the 1940 battle. ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders James Somerville Inigo Campioni Strength 1 carrier 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 1 heavy cruiser 5 light cruisers 1 anti aircraft cruiser 4 destroyers 4 corvettes 4 freighters 2 battleships 6 heavy cruisers 14 destroyers Casualties 1 heavy cruiser damaged 1 destroyer damaged The Battle of... Operation Excess was a sequence of supply convoys to Malta, Alexandria and Greece in January 1941. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Italy Commanders Andrew Cunningham Angelo Iachino Strength 1 aircraft carrier 3 battleships 7 light cruisers 17 destroyers 1 battleship 6 heavy cruisers 2 light cruisers 17 destroyers Casualties 4 light cruiser lightly damaged 1 torpedo bomber destroyed 3 dead 1 battleship heavily damaged 3 heavy cruisers... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Captain P J Mack Captain Pietro de Cristofaro Strength 4 destroyers 3 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk 41 killed 3 destroyers sunk 5 merchant ships sunk 1800+ men lost The Battle of the Tarigo Convoy (sometimes referred to as the Action off Sfax) was fought... Operation Substance was a British naval operation in July 1941 during the Second World War to escort a convoy from Gibraltar to Malta. ... During World War II, Operation Halberd was a British naval operation in September 1941 to escort a convoy from Gibraltar to Malta. ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Captain W.G Agnew Captain Ugo Bisciani Strength 2 light cruisers 2 destroyers 2 heavy cruisers 10 destroyers Casualties none? 2 destroyers sunk, 5 merchant ships sunk, ?? lost The Battle of the Duisburg Convoy was fought on the night of 8-9 November 1941 between... The Battle of Cape Bon was a Second World War naval action off Cape Bon, Tunisia. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Netherlands Italy Commanders Andrew Cunningham Angelo Iachino Strength 6 light cruisers 10 destroyers 4 battleships 2 heavy cruisers 3 light cruisers 19 destroyers 1 torpedo boat Casualties 1 light cruiser sunk 1 destroyer sunk 2 destroyers damaged 767 killed None ? The First Battle of Sirte was... The Second Battle of Sirte was a naval battle between the Royal Navy and the Regia Marina during the World War II. It took place on 22 March 1942, in the Mediterranean, north to the Gulf of Sirte, west of Malta. ... In World War II, Operation Harpoon was one of two simultaneous Allied convoys sent to supply Malta in the Axis-dominated Mediterranean Sea in mid-June 1942. ... Operation Vigorous was a World War II operation to deliver a supply convoy (MW-11) that sailed from Haifa and Port Said on the 12th June 1942 to Malta. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Commanders Vice Admiral Sir Neville Syfret, Rear-Admiral H M Burrough, CB Alberto Da Zara Strength 2 Battleships, 4 Aircraft Carriers, 7 Cruisers, 16 Destroyers, 14 Merchantmen. ... During World War II, Operation Agreement consisted of ground and amphibious attacks by British, Rhodesian and New Zealand forces on German- and Italian-held Tobruk (Operation Daffodil), Benghazi (Operation Snowdrop), Jalo oasis (Operation Tulip) and Barce (Operation Hyacinth) launched on 13 September 1942. ... Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch... During World War II, Operation Stone Age was the merchant convoy that reached Malta from Egypt on 20 November 1942 breaking the siege of that island. ... Combatants Vichy France Germany Commanders Jean de Laborde André Marquis Johannes Blaskowitz Casualties whole fleet scuttled ; 12 killed ; 26 wounded. ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Germany¹ Commanders C. H. J. Harcount Aldo Cocchia Strength 3 light cruisers 2 destroyers 3 destroyers 2 torpedo boats convoy of 4 ships Casualties no ships lost 1 destroyer entire convoy ¹one ship in the convoy was German The Battle of Skerki Bank was a World... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders unknown unknown Strength 2 destroyers 2 torpedo boats 1 transport ship Casualties 1 destroyer sunk 10 dead 1 torpedo boat sunk 1 torpedo boat damaged 100-120 dead The Battle of the Cigno Convoy was a naval engagement between two Royal Navy destroyers and two... Belligerents United States United Kingdom Canada Australia South Africa Free French Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton Albert Kesselring Alfredo Guzzoni Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin Strength 160,000 personnel 14,000 vehicles 600 tanks 1,800 guns 300,000 Italian personnel 40... Roma was an Italian Vittorio Veneto class battleship that served in the Regia Marina during World War II. She was built in 1940. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... Belligerents Italy Albania Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men, 463 aircraft[1] Under 300,000 men, 77 aircraft[1] Casualties and losses 63,000[2][3][4] dead, 100,000+[2] wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by... “April War” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...


After one day of fighting, the Germans had suffered appalling casualties and none of their objectives had been achieved. The next day, through miscommunication and the failure of Allied commanders to grasp the situation, Maleme airfield in western Crete fell to the Germans, enabling them to fly in reinforcements and overwhelm the Allied forces. Maleme (Greek: Μάλεμε) is a town and airport 16km to the west of Chania, in North Western Crete, Greece. ...


The Battle of Crete was unprecedented in three respects: it was the first-ever mainly airborne invasion; it was the first time the Allies made significant use of intelligence from the deciphered German Enigma code; and it was the first time invading German troops encountered mass resistance from a civilian population. In light of the heavy casualties suffered by the parachutists, Adolf Hitler forbade further large scale airborne operations. However, the Allies were impressed by the potential of paratroopers, and started to build their own airborne divisions. For a discussion of how Enigma-derived intelligence was put to use, see Ultra (WWII intelligence). ... Hitler redirects here. ...

Contents

Prelude

Allied forces had occupied Crete when the Italians invaded Greece on 28 October 1940. Though the Italians were initially repulsed, the subsequent German intervention drove 57,000 Allied troops from the mainland. The Royal Navy evacuated many of them; some were taken to Crete to bolster its garrison. Belligerents Italy Albania Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men, 463 aircraft[1] Under 300,000 men, 77 aircraft[1] Casualties and losses 63,000[2][3][4] dead, 100,000+[2] wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II, Operation Marita was the German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but...


Possession of Crete provided the Royal Navy with excellent harbours in the eastern Mediterranean. From Crete, the Ploieşti oil fields in Romania, which were critical to the Axis war effort, were within range of British bombers. Given its strategic value, Winston Churchill would later write in his book The Second World War, "To lose Crete because we had not sufficient bulk of forces there would be a crime."[citation needed] For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... County Prahova County Status County seat Mayor Emil Calotă, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 58. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... Churchill redirects here. ...


With Crete in Allied hands the Axis southeastern flank could be threatened, with the possibility of British bombers based on Crete being within range of the Ploesti oilfields in Romania. However, the German army high command was preoccupied with the planned invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, and was against involvement. Nevertheless, senior Luftwaffe commanders were enthusiastic about the idea of seizing Crete by a daring airborne attack. The need of Luftwaffe officers to re-establish prestige after their defeat against the Royal Air Force over Britain in 1940 may have played a role in the thinking of Luftwaffe commanders, especially before the advent of the much more important - and army controlled - invasion of Russia. Hitler was won over by the audacious proposal, though the directive stated that the operation against Crete was to be in May because of the approaching attack on the Soviet Union. The priority of the attack in the east was underlined: Crete was under no circumstances allowed to interfere with the war against the Soviet Union. [3]In advance of the land battle, the Germans launched frequent bombing raids against the island in order to establish air superiority. This air campaign eventually succeeded in its objective, forcing the Royal Air Force to remove its planes to Alexandria. Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... RAF redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


At the outset of the land battle, the Allies had the advantage of numerical superiority and naval supremacy. In their favour, the Germans had air superiority and greater mobility, which allowed them to concentrate their forces more effectively.


Order of battle

For more details on this topic, see Crete order of battle.
Major-General Freyberg, Allied Commander at the Battle of Crete
Major-General Freyberg, Allied Commander at the Battle of Crete

This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Crete and related operations in 1941. ... Image File history File links Lieutenant_General_Freyberg_gazes_over_the_parapet. ... Image File history File links Lieutenant_General_Freyberg_gazes_over_the_parapet. ...

Allied forces

On 30 April 1941, a New Zealand Army officer, Major-General Bernard Freyberg VC was appointed commander of the Allied forces on Crete. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Zealand Army (Maori: Ngāti Tumatauenga, Tribe of the God of war), is the land armed force of the New Zealand military and comprises around 4,500 regular personnel and 2,500 non-regulars and civilians. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


By May, the Greek forces consisted of approximately 9,000 troops: three battalions of the 5th (Crete) Division of the Hellenic Army, which had been left behind when the rest of the unit had been transferred to the mainland to oppose the German invasion; the Cretan Gendarmerie (a battalion-sized force); the Heraklion Garrison Battalion, a defence battalion — made up mostly of transport and logistics personnel; and remnants of the 12th and 20th Hellenic Army divisions, which had escaped to Crete and were organized under British command. There were also cadets from the Gendarmerie academy and recruits from the Greek training centres in the Peloponnese who had been transferred to Crete to replace the trained soldiers sent to fight on the mainland. These troops were already organised into numbered recruit training regiments, and it was decided to use this existing configuration to organize the Greek troops, supplementing them with experienced men arriving from the mainland. Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. ... The Cretan Gendarmerie (Greek Κρητική Χωροφυλακή) was a gendarmerie force created soon after Crete gained its autonomy from Ottoman rule in the late 19th century. ... For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ...


The British Commonwealth contingent consisted of the original 14,000-man British garrison and another 25,000 Commonwealth troops evacuated from the mainland. The evacuees were the typical mix found in any contested evacuation — substantially intact units under their own command, composite units hurriedly brought together by leaders on the spot, stragglers without leaders from every type of unit possessed by an army, and deserters. Most of these men lacked heavy equipment. The key formed units were the New Zealand 2nd Division, less the 6th Brigade and division headquarters; the Australian 19th Brigade Group; and the British 14th Infantry Brigade. In total, there were roughly 15,000 combat-ready British Commonwealth infantry, augmented by about 5,000 non-infantry personnel equipped as infantry, and one composite (Australian) artillery battery.[4] On May 4, Freyberg sent a message to the British commander in the Middle East, General Archibald Wavell requesting the evacuation of about 10,000 personnel who did not have weapons and had "little or no employment other than getting into trouble with the civil population".[5] However, few of these men had left Crete by the time the battle started. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Desertion is the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from someone or something to which you owe allegiance, responsibility or loyalty. ... The New Zealand 2nd Division was that countrys major land formation during much of World War II. Commanded for much of its existence by Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Freyberg. ... The most well-known 6th Division in the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) during World War II. (The 6th Division name was previously used for a short-lived World War I unit, formed from First Australian Imperial Force troops in England, in... History At the start of the Second World War this unit was made up of regular army battalions based in the Middle East garrisons. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ...

German paratroopers in action on Crete

From the German Historic Museum, item F 60/2017. ... From the German Historic Museum, item F 60/2017. ...

Axis forces

On 25 April Hitler signed Directive Number 28, ordering the invasion of Crete. The Royal Navy's forces from Alexandria retained control of the waters around Crete, so any amphibious assault would be quickly decided by the nature of an air-versus-ship battle, making it a risky proposition at best. With German air superiority a given, an airborne invasion was decided on. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Amphibious Assault began when 17-year-old, former Kittie guitarist, Fallon Bowman was on a plane from Ontario to New Jersey, skimming through a Tom Clancy novel when she came upon the term amphibious assault. ...


This was to be the first truly large-scale airborne invasion, although the Germans had used parachute and glider-borne assaults on a much smaller scale in the invasion of France and the Low Countries, Norway and even mainland Greece. In the latter instance, German paratroops had been dispatched to capture the bridge over the Corinth Canal which was being readied for demolition by the Royal Engineers. German engineers were landed near the bridge in gliders, while parachute infantry attacked the perimeter defence. The bridge was damaged in the fighting, which slowed the German advance and gave the Allies time to evacuate 18,000 troops to Crete and an additional 23,000 to Egypt, albeit with the loss of most of their heavy equipment.[6] For the game, see Paratrooper (video game). ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Władysław Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... The Corinth Canal The Corinth Canal is a canal connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Demolition (disambiguation). ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... This article is about the distance around an object. ...


The intention was to use Fallschirmjäger to capture key points of the island, including airfields that could then be used to fly in supplies and reinforcements. The XI Fliegerkorps was to co-ordinate the attack by the 7th Flieger Division, which would insert its paratroopers by parachute and glider, followed by the 22nd Air Landing Division once the airfields were secure. The assault was initially scheduled for 16 May, but was postponed to 20 May, with the 5th Mountain Division replacing the 22nd Division. Fallschirmjäger Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940   (often rendered Fallschirmjager in English; from German Fallschirm parachute and Jäger, hunter; ranger a term for light infantry) are German paratroopers. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... The German 1st Parachute Division was a German military parachute-landing Division that fought during World War II. A division of paratroopers was termed a Fallschirmjäger Division. ... 22nd Infantry Division 22nd Air Landing Division 22nd Volksgrenadier Division Created as 22nd Infantry Division in 1935. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The German 5th Mountain Division was established in the fall of 1940, from a mountain regiment taken from the 1st Mountain Division and an infantry regiment taken from the 10th Infantry Division. ...


Intelligence

British intelligence and the Ultra intercepts

By this time, Allied commanders had become aware of the imminent invasion through Ultra intercepts. General Freyberg was informed of the air component of the German battle plan, and started to prepare a defence based near the airfields and along the north coast. However, he was seriously hampered by a lack of modern equipment, and was faced with the reality that even lightly armed paratroopers would be able to muster about the same firepower as his own, if not more. In addition, it should be noted that although the Ultra intelligence Freyberg received was very detailed, it came only from decrypts of the air force code. The result was misleading information taken out of context. As an example, the German messages mentioned seaborne operations, which seriously affected Freyberg's troop deployment as he expected an amphibious landing, consequently detracting from the main German objective of the Maleme airfield. Furthermore, he was seriously hampered by his own superiors. Freyberg requested the demolition of the Cretan airfields, so that even if captured by the German, they would not be used to fly in significant reinforcements, but this was turned down by his superiors, who apparently considered the battle already won and were already planning to use the airbases against the Germans. This article is about WW II intelligence material. ...


German intelligence

Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, chief of the German Abwehr, originally reported a mere 5,000 British troops on Crete and no Greek forces. It is not clear whether Canaris, who had an extensive intelligence network at his disposal, was misinformed or was attempting to sabotage Hitler's plans (Canaris would be executed much later in the war for supposedly participating in the July 20 Plot). The Abwehr also predicted the Cretan population would welcome the Germans as liberators, due to their strong republican and anti-monarchist feelings, and would want to join the "…favorable terms which had been arranged on the mainland…"[7] While it is true the late republican prime minister of Greece, Eleftherios Venizelos, had been a Cretan, and support for his ideas was strong on the island, the Germans seriously underestimated the depth of patriotic feeling on the part of the Cretans. In fact, King George II of Greece and his entourage escaped from Greece via Crete with the help of Greek and Commonwealth soldiers, Cretan civilians, and even a band of prisoners that had been released from captivity by the advancing Germans (see below). For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For the Athens airport, see Athens International Airport. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... George II, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος Î’ [Geōrgios] Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (20 July 1890–1 April 1947) ruled Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


German Twelfth Army Intelligence painted a less optimistic picture, but still believed the British Commonwealth forces to be much weaker than they actually were, and also underestimated the number of Greek troops who had been evacuated from the mainland. General Alexander Löhr, the theatre commander, was convinced the island could be taken with two divisions, but decided to keep 6th Mountain Division in Athens as a reserve. Events would prove this to have been a wise precaution. Alexander Löhr (May 20, 1885–February 26, 1947) was an Austrian Air Force commander during the 1930s before the Anschluss and, later on, a Luftwaffe Commander during the Second World War. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


Weapons

German

The Germans deployed a new weapon on Crete: the 7.5 cm Leicht Geschütz 40 "light gun" (actually a recoilless rifle). At 320 pounds (145 kg), it weighed only a tenth as much as a standard German 75 mm field gun, yet had two-thirds of its range. It fired a 13 lb (6 kg) shell over three miles (5 km). Adding to the airborne units' firepower was the fact one-quarter of them jumped with a MP40 submachine gun, often carried in addition to a bolt-action Karabiner 98k rifle. Moreover, almost every German squad was equipped with an MG34 light machine gun.[8] M67 recoilless rifle. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... The MP40 (Maschinenpistole 40, literally machine pistol 40) was a submachine gun developed in Germany and used extensively by paratroopers and platoon and squad leaders, and other troops during World War II. The MP40 had a relatively lower rate of fire and low recoil, which made it more manageable than... The MP5 is a third-generation submachine gun that is widely used by law enforcement tactical teams and military forces. ... Half-opened bolt on a Winchester Model 70. ... The Karabiner 98 Kurz (often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) was a bolt-action rifle adopted as the standard infantry rifle in 1935 by the Wehrmacht,[1] and was one of the final developments in the long line of Mauser military rifles. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... MG34 The Maschinengewehr 34, or MG34, was a German machine gun that was first produced and accepted for service in 1934, and first issued to units in 1935. ... The M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, one of the most popular modern 5. ...


The Germans used color-coded parachutes to distinguish the canisters carrying rifles, ammunition, crew-served weapons and other supplies. Heavy equipment like the Leichtgeschütz 40 was dropped with a special triple-parachute harness designed to bear the extra weight. Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


The troopers also carried special strips of cloth which could be unfurled in pre-arranged patterns to signal low-flying fighters to coordinate air support and supply drops.


In contrast with the practice of most other nations' airborne forces, who jumped with personal weapons strapped to the body, German airborne procedure was for individual weapons to be dropped in canisters; this was a major flaw. While it facilitated exit from the aircraft and prevented loss and damage to the rifles, it left the paratroopers armed only with their sidearms and fighting knives in the critical few minutes after landing. The poor design of German parachutes compounded the problem: the standard German parachute harness had only a single riser connecting the paratrooper to the parachute canopy, and thus could not be steered toward weapons canisters and away from ground hazards during descent. Even the twenty-five percent of paratroops armed with submachine guns were at a distinct disadvantage, given the weapon's limited range. Many Fallschirmjäger were shot attempting to make it to their weapons canisters.


Greek

Greek troops were armed with the Mannlicher-Schönauer 6.5 mm mountain carbine or ex-Austrian 8 mm Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 rifles, the latter part of post–World War I reparations. About one thousand Greeks carried antique Gras rifles. The garrison had been stripped of its best crew-served weapons, which were sent to the mainland. There were twelve obsolescent Saint Etienne light machine guns and forty other light machine guns of various manufacture at the Greek troops' disposal. Many of the Greek troops had less than thirty rounds of ammunition left, and could not be resupplied by the British, who had no stocks in the correct calibers. This affected their placement in the battle; those with insufficient ammunition were posted to the island's eastern sector, where the Germans were not expected in force. The Greeks made up for the lack of equipment with intensity of spirit; historian Christopher Buckley described their fight as one of "…extreme courage and tenacity." (154). The Mannlicher-Schönauer (sometimes Anglicized as Mannlicher Schoenauer, Hellenized as Τυφέκιον Μάνλιχερ or Όπλον Μάνλιχερ-Σενάουερ) is a type of rotary magazine bolt action rifle adopted by both the Greek and Austrian Armies in 1903. ... 8x50R Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 Long Rifle The Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 rifle is an early bolt-action rifle, employed by the Austro-Hungarian army throughout World War I, and post-war by both Austrian and Hungarian armies. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Fusil Gras mle 1874 used by the French Army was an adaptation to metallic cartridge of the Chassepot breechloading rifle by general (then captain) Basile Gras. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ...


British Commonwealth

British Commonwealth troops used their standard Lee-Enfield rifle, Bren light machine gun and Vickers medium machine gun. The Allies on Crete did not possess sufficient Universal Carriers or trucks, which would have provided the extra mobility and firepower needed for rapid-response teams to attack paratrooper units before they had a chance to dig in. Lee-Enfield No4 Mk1 with bayonet, scabbard attached The Lee-Enfield was the British armys standard bolt action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle from 1895 until 1956. ... The Bren (from Brno (the Czechoslovakian town of design) and Enfield, the location of the British Royal Small Arms Factory), usually called the Bren Gun, was a series of squad automatic weapon/light machine guns adopted by Britain in the 1930s and used in various roles into the 1980s. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... The Universal Carrier, usually known as a Bren Gun Carrier (even when it was not carrying a Bren), was a small, tracked British-designed military vehicle, used widely by Allied forces during World War II. Universal Carriers were usually used for transporting personnel and equipment, mostly support weapons, or as...


The Allies had about 85 artillery pieces of various calibres, many of them captured Italian pieces without sights.[9]


Anti-aircraft defences consisted of one light anti-aircraft battery equipped with 20 mm automatic cannons, split between the two airfields. The guns were carefully concealed, often in nearby olive groves, and some were ordered to hold their fire during the initial assault so that they would not immediately reveal themselves to German fighters and dive-bombers. “Flak” redirects here. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive bombers A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy and limit the exposure to and effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire. ...


Allied armor resources consisted of nine Matilda IIA infantry tanks, belonging to "B" Squadron, 7th Royal Tank Regiment, and sixteen Mark VIB light tanks from "C" Squadron, 4th Queen's Own Hussars. In common with most British tank units at the time, the Matildas' 2-pdr (40 mm) cannon had only armor piercing rounds which were not effective against infantry (high explosive rounds in such a small caliber was impractical).[10] General characteristics Length 6. ... The Infantry tank was a concept developed by the British in the years leading up to World War II. They followed from the principle of separating tank functions into two areas - the Infantry tanks that would support the infantry units in making a breakthrough in the enemy lines of defence... The 7th Royal Tank Regiment (7 RTR) was an armoured regiment of the British Army until 1959. ... The Tank, Light, Mk VI was a British light tank built by Vickers and used by the British Army during World War II. // The Vickers design was ready for production when the United Kingdom began its large rearmament program. ... The 4th Queens Own Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685. ... Ordnance QF 2 pounder Type Anti-tank gun Nationality UK Era WW2 Target armoured vehicles History Date of design 1936 Production period 1936 - Number built Service duration 1936-1945 Operators War service WW2 Specifications Carriage Calibre 40 mm Barrel length 50 calibres Weight 130 kg Ammunition AP Shell weight 2... Armor piercing ammunition is used to penetrate hardened armored targets such as body armor, vehicle armor, concrete, tanks and other defenses, depending on the caliber of the fire arms. ...


The tanks had numerous maintenance problems. The engines, especially, were worn and could not be overhauled with the limited resources available on Crete. Most of the tanks were therefore used as mobile pillboxes to be brought up and dug in at strategic points. One of the Matildas had a damaged turret crank that allowed it to turn clockwise only. In the end, many of the British tanks were lost to the rough terrain, not in combat. For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... A bunker is a defensive warfare fortification to protect oneself. ...


Strategy & tactics

Operation MERCURY

Hitler's directive authorising the operation, Directive Number 28, made it very clear that the forces used were primarily airborne and air units already in the area. Hitler's order was plain that the preparations for the operation must not conflict with Operation Barbarossa. The movement of forces for the Crete attack were not, under any cicumstances, to interfere with the movement of forces for Operation Barbarossa. Further, units committed for the attack on Crete but earmarked for Barbarossa were to conclude operations before the end of May at the latest. Barbarossa was not to be delayed by the attack on Crete. This meant that the planned attack had to be launched within the allotted period, or else it would be cancelled. Planning had to be rushed, and much of the German operation would be improvised. Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


Though the German planners agreed on the necessity of taking Maleme, there was some debate over the concentration of forces there and the number to be deployed against other targets, such as the smaller airfields at Heraklion and Rethymnon. The Luftwaffe commander, General Alexander Löhr, and the naval commander, Counter Admiral Karl-Georg Schuster, favored a heavier concentration against Maleme, to achieve overwhelming superiority of force. By contrast, Major-General Kurt von Student wanted to disperse his paratroops more widely, in order to maximize the effect of surprise. As a primary objective, Maleme offered several advantages: it was the largest airfield, capable of supporting heavy transports bearing reinforcements; it was near enough to the mainland to allow air cover from land-based Bf 109 fighters; and it was near the northern coast, so seaborne reinforcements could be brought up quickly. A compromise plan was forced by Hermann Goering and the final plan heavily emphasized securing Maleme first, while not ignoring the other Allied assets. Categories: Greece geography stubs | Crete | Cities and towns in Greece ... Alexander Löhr (May 20, 1885–February 26, 1947) was an Austrian Air Force commander during the 1930s before the Anschluss and, later on, a Luftwaffe Commander during the Second World War. ... Counter Admiral is an Anglification of a naval rank found in some European navies; in the Deutsche Marine: Konteradmiral. ... Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ... (Bf 109 was the official Reichsluftfahrtministerium designation, though some late_war aircraft actually carried the Me 109 designation stamped onto their aircraft type plates. ... Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) (January 12, 1893–October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ...

Map of the German assault on Crete
Map of the German assault on Crete

The final plan was code named Merkur, after the swift Roman god Mercury. German forces were divided into three battle groups, Center, West and East, each with a special code name following the classical theme established by MERCURY. A total of 750 glider troops, 10,000 paratroops, 5,000 airlifted mountain troops, and 7,000 seaborne troops were allotted for the invasion. The largest proportion of the forces were in Group West. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 178 KB) Description: German assault on Crete - May 1941 Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 178 KB) Description: German assault on Crete - May 1941 Source: www. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ...

Operation Mercury battle groups
Group name Mythical codename Commander Target
Gruppe Mitte (Group Centre) Mars Major General Wilhelm Süssman Prison Valley, Chania Souda, Rethymnon
Gruppe West (Group West) Comet Major General Eugen Meindl Maleme
Gruppe Ost (Group East) Orion Colonel Bruno Bräuer Heraklion

For more complete information on the disposition of forces, see Crete order of battle Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Arion. ... In 1905 Bruno Bräuer (born 4 February 1893 Willmannsdorf, Krs. ... This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Crete and related operations in 1941. ...


German airborne doctrine was based on parachuting in a small number of forces directly on top of enemy airfields. This force would capture the perimeter and any local anti-aircraft guns, allowing a much larger force to land by glider. Freyberg was aware of this after studying German actions of the past year, and decided to render the airfields unusable for landing. However, he was countermanded by the Middle East Command in Alexandria. They felt the invasion was doomed to fail now that they knew about it, and possibly wanted to keep the airfields intact for the RAF's return once the island was secure, in what is held by some to have been a fatal error. It is not clear whether this is the case, for the Germans proved they were able to land reinforcements without resort to fully-functioning airfields. One German pilot crash-landed his transport on a deserted beach; others landed in empty fields, discharged their cargo and took off again. With the Germans willing to sacrifice some of their numerous transport aircraft to win the battle, it is not clear whether a decision to destroy the airfields would have made any difference to the final outcome. The gliders, were, of course, designed to be expendable and consequently their pilots were even more daring in their landing choices. American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Day one, 20 May

German paratroopers landing on Crete
German paratroopers landing on Crete

Image File history File links German_paratroopers_jumping_From_Ju_52s_over_Crete. ... Image File history File links German_paratroopers_jumping_From_Ju_52s_over_Crete. ...

Maleme-Chania sector

At 8:00 am on 20 May German paratroopers landed near Maleme airfield and the town of Chania. The 21st, 22nd, and 23rd New Zealand Battalions defended Maleme airfield and its direct surrounding area. The Germans suffered heavy casualties within the first hours of the invasion. One company of the III Battalion, 1st Assault Regiment, lost 112 killed out of 126; 400 of the battalion's 600 men were killed before the end of the first day. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maleme (Greek: Μάλεμε) is a town and airport 16km to the west of Chania, in North Western Crete, Greece. ... Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ...


Of the initial forces, the majority were mauled by Allied forces placed near the airfield of Maleme and town of Chania. Many of the gliders following the paratroops were hit by mortar fire within seconds of landing. Those who did land were wiped out almost to a man by the Commonwealth and Greek defenders. US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...


A number of German forces had landed off-site near both airfields, as is common in airdrops, and set up defensive positions to the west of Maleme airfield, and "Prison Valley" in the Chania area. Although both forces were bottled up and failed to take the airfields, they were in place and the defenders had to deploy to face them.


Greek police forces and cadets were also in action, with the First Greek Regiment (Provisional) combining with civilians to rout a detachment of German paratroopers dropped at Kastelli. Meanwhile, the 8th Greek Regiment and elements of the Cretan forces severely hampered movement by the 95th Reconnaissance Battalion on Kolimbari and Paleochora, where Allied reinforcements from North Africa could potentially be landed. Kissamos (Greek: Κίσσαμος) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete. ... Kolymvari (Greek: Κολυμβάρι, Δήμος Κολυμβαρίου) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. ... Paleochora (Greek Παλαιόχωρα) is a small town next to the White Mountains on the Greek island of Crete. ...

More paratroops landing - photo probably edited for propaganda purposes

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1973x1359, 254 KB) Summary Description: German paratroopers land in Crete, May 1941 Source: From collection of Wiki-Eds great uncle, probably traded Date: 1940s Author: Arthur Conry (digitised and edited by Wiki-Ed) Permission: GFDL Licensing I, the creator of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1973x1359, 254 KB) Summary Description: German paratroopers land in Crete, May 1941 Source: From collection of Wiki-Eds great uncle, probably traded Date: 1940s Author: Arthur Conry (digitised and edited by Wiki-Ed) Permission: GFDL Licensing I, the creator of...

Rethimnon-Heraklion sector

A second German wave arrived in the afternoon, one group attacking Rethimnon at 4:15 pm and another at Heraklion at 5:30. As with the earlier actions, the defenders were waiting for them and inflicted heavy casualties. Categories: Greece geography stubs | Crete | Cities and towns in Greece ... For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ...


Heraklion was defended by the British 14th Infantry Brigade, augmented by the Australian 2/4th Battalion and the Greek 3rd, 7th and "Garrison" (ex-5th "Crete" Division") battalions. The Greek units were sorely lacking in equipment and supplies, the Garrison Battalion especially, as the bulk of its matériel had shipped to the mainland with the division, but they would fight with distinction nonetheless. History At the start of the Second World War this unit was made up of regular army battalions based in the Middle East garrisons. ... The 2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion was a battalion of the 6th Australian Division raised as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force for World War II. It was raised Victoria Barracks, New South Wales on 3 November 1939. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ...


The Germans pierced the defensive cordon around Heraklion on the first day, seizing the Greek barracks on the west edge of the town and capturing the docks; the Greeks counterattacked both points and recaptured them. Some German units began using captured townspeople as human shields, and the Germans dropped leaflets urging surrender and threatening dire consequences if an Allied surrender was not effected immediately. The next day Heraklion was heavily bombed. The battered Greek units were rotated out and assumed a defensive position on the road to Knossos.[citation needed]. Human shield is a military term describing the use of civilians to deter an enemy from attacking certain targets—in particular military targets. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ...


As night fell, none of the German objectives had been secured. The risky plan — attacking at four separate points to fully use surprise rather than concentrating on one — seemed to have failed, although the reasons were unknown to the Germans.


Towards the evening of 20 May the Germans at Maleme were slowly pushing back the New Zealanders from Hill 107, which overlooked the airfield. The Axis commanders on Crete decided to throw everything into the Maleme sector the next day.


Among the paratroopers who landed on the first day of the battle was former world heavyweight champion boxer Max Schmeling, who held the rank of Gefreiter (lance corporal/private first class) at the time. Schmeling survived the battle and the war. For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Maximillian Adolph Otto Siegfried Schmeling (September 28, 1905 – February 2, 2005) was a German boxer whose two fights with Joe Louis transcended boxing and became worldwide social events because of their racial and national associations. ... Modern German Gefreiter insignia Gefreiter is the German equivalent for Private (OR-2) (US Army E-2) in the armed services. ... Lance Corporal (LCpl or L/Cpl) is a military rank used by some elements of the British, Commonwealth, and U.S. armed forces. ... US Military In the U.S. Army, Private First Class is the third lowest enlisted rank, just above Private and below Corporal or Specialist. ...


Civilian Uprising

Everywhere on the island, Cretan civilians, armed and otherwise, joined the battle with whatever weapons were at hand. In some cases, ancient rifles which had last been used against the Turks were dug up from their hiding places and pressed into action. In other cases, Cretan civilians went into action armed only with what they could gather from their kitchens or barns, and many German parachutists were knived or clubbed to death in the olive groves that dotted the island. In one recorded case, an elderly Cretan clubbed a parachutist to death with his walking stick before the German could disentangle himself from his parachute lines.[11] The Cretans soon supplemented their makeshift weapons with captured German small arms. Their actions were not limited to harassment - the civil population also played a significant role in the Greek counter-attacks at Kastelli Hill and Paleochora, and it took all of the strength of character of the British and New Zealand advisors at these locations to prevent massacres. Civilian action also checked the Germans to the north and west of Heraklion, and in the town centre itself.[12]


This was the first occasion during the war that Germans had encountered widespread and unrestrained resistance from a civilian population, and for a period of time it unbalanced them. However, once they had overcome their shock at these actions, the German paratroopers reacted with equal ferocity. Further, as most Cretan partisans wore no identifying insignia such as armbands, the Germans felt free of all of the constraints implied by the Geneva conventions. In his book 'The Lost Battle', MacDonald argues that battlefield mutilations (attributed to the torture of injured Germans by civilians) were more than likely a result of carrion birds and physical decay of corpses left in the extreme heat.


The Escape of the King

The majority of Cretans, as mentioned above, were Venizelist Republicans — as were a significant number of mainland Greeks. In 1924 George II, King of the Hellenes had been deposed and exiled to Romania, only to return in 1935 after the collapse of republican government. The Germans regarded George as a hopeless Anglophile and an obstacle to their conquest of Greece, which they believed to be mostly anti-monarchist. After the king escaped to Crete on 22 April and issued a defiant memorandum to the Germans, Hitler responded by attacking the king in a speech given on 4 May. The British feared the propaganda coup that the capture by airborne troops of a sovereign monarch under their protection would represent.[13] George II, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος Î’ [Geōrgios] Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (20 July 1890–1 April 1947) ruled Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The king was staying in a villa near the village of Perivolia, outside Chania. He and his entourage narrowly escaped capture at that house and at the abode of Emmanouil Tsouderos, the prime minister. From the garden of Tsouderos's home, German paratroopers were seen landing in the area of the king's villa, although it later turned out they were members of 3rd Battalion, 3rd Parachute Rifle Regiment, which was assigned to the Galatas sector and whose members had been dropped near the villa by mistake. An evacuation by the Royal Navy had already been arranged, with Colonel J.S. Blunt, the British military attaché to Greece acting as liaison. A platoon of New Zealand infantry under Lieutenant W.H. Ryan was assigned as a bodyguard, along with a complement of Cretan gendarmes. The king was accompanied by his cousin, Prince Peter; Colonel Dimitrios Levidis , Master of Ceremonies; Prime Minister Tsouderos and Kyriakos Varvaressos, Governor-in-Exile of the Bank of Greece.[14] Perivolia may refer to several places in Greece: Perivolia, a town in the Achaea prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Arcadia prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Ilia prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Grevena prefecture Perivolia, a town in the Laconia prefecture Categories: | ... Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ... Not to be confused with the National Bank of Greece. ...


The party had several close calls with both the Germans and the native Cretans. A detachment was sent back for some papers left behind by Mr. Tsouderos; they returned to report the house was already occupied, meaning the Germans were by now aware of the king's presence nearby. Lieutenant Ryan had the king remove his Greek general's uniform, which was adorned with gold braid and other ornaments that were bound to attract attention. At one point the group were pinned down by the rifle fire of Cretan mountaineers. Prince Peter shouted to them in Greek, and they replied "Germans also speak Greek and wear Greek uniforms". Eventually convinced that the royal retinue were not German spies, they let them pass. That night, the evacuees rested in the village of Therisso. There, they were startled by a clamour at the doors, which turned out to be the prison escapees released earlier in the day. Patriotism apparently overwhelmed any sympathy for their German emancipators and antipathy to the monarchist constitution, and the prisoners moved on to forage for weapons instead of betraying their fellow fugitives.[15] A braid Step by step creation of a basic braid using three strings To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern. ... Theriso (Greek: Θέρισο, Δήμος Θερίσου) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. ...


Though forced to abandon their pack mules and lacking proper clothing and equipment for mountain climbing, the entourage arrived safely at their rendezvous point. There, joined by evacuating members of the British diplomatic corps, they signalled HMS Decoy and were plucked from the shore, arriving in Alexandria on the night of 22 May. By pure coincidence two other members of the Greek Royal family were in the same waters at this time. Prince Philip was a Lieutenant serving as search light officer on the HMS Valiant and Captain Lord Louis Mountbatten, commander of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla, was on the HMS Kelly which was sunk on the 23rd May. Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... At least four vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Decoy. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921)[2] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a royal Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip renounced these titles shortly before his marriage. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... HMS Kelly (F01) was a K-class destroyer in Britains Royal Navy, launched on 25 October 1938 and commissioned on 23 August 1939. ...


Day two, 21 May

The next morning it was found that the New Zealand infantry battalion defending the airfield on Hill 107 had mistakenly withdrawn at night, although they continued to pour artillery fire into the area. This gave the German forces control of the airfield, just as a sea landing took place nearby. That evening Junkers Ju 52 transport aircraft started flying in units of the Fifth Mountain Division. These troops moved into the line as soon as their planes landed, many of which were hit by artillery fire and littered the airfield. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... The Junkers Ju 52 (nicknamed Tante Ju - Auntie Ju - and Iron Annie) was a transport aircraft and bomber manufactured 1932 – 1945 by Junkers. ... A cargo aircraft, also alternately known as a transport aircraft, is an aircraft dedicated to handling transport of materials and oversized loads. ...


Naval attack on 21 May

Before midnight, Force D of the Royal Navy intercepted a flotilla of reinforcements, escorted by an Italian small destroyer, the Lupo, successfully preventing their landing. The convoy, comprising around 20 caiques, was fiercely defended by the Regia Marina unit. Some ten boats and 2,000 German troops were saved due to the skillful maneuvers conducted by the Italian commander, Francesco Mimbelli, against an overwhelmingly superior force. About 300 German soldiers and two Italian seamen died in action, as well as two British from HMS Orion.[16]. The Spica class were a class of torpedo boats of the Regia Marina (Italian Navy) during World War II. These ships were built as a result of a clause in the Washington Naval Treaty, which stated that ships with a tonnage of less than 600 tons could be built in... The kaiki or caique is the Greek (from Turkish) name for a wooden fishing boat usually found among the waters of the Ionian or Aegean Seas. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... Francesco Mimbelli (born 16 april 1903 Livorno, died 26 January 1978 in Rome) was an Italian Naval officer who fought in World War II. // Mimbelli was a commander of a Torpedo boat destroyer flottila which fought in the Battle of Crete he was responsible for delivering a convoy to Crete... The Leander-class light cruiser HMS Orion: Royal Navy, Penant 85 Displacement: 7,215 tons Speed: 32. ...


Day three, 22 May

Realising that Maleme was now the key to holding the entire island, the defending force organised for a counter-attack by two New Zealand battalions, the 20th Battalion of the 4th brigade and the 28th Maoris Battalion of the 5th Brigade on the night of 21–22 May. Fears of a sea landing meant that a number of units that could have taken part in the attack were left in place, although this possibility was removed by a strong Royal Navy presence which arrived too late for the plans to change. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The force attacked at night, but by this time the original paratroops had set up defensive lines, and the newly arrived mountain troops proved difficult to dislodge. The attack slowly petered out, failing to retake the airfield. From this point on the defenders were involved in a series of withdrawals to the eastern end of the island, in an attempt to avoid being out-flanked by the oncoming German forces.


Naval attack on 22 May

Admiral Andrew Cunningham, determined that no German troop transports should reach Crete, sent Admiral King's Force C (three cruisers and four destroyers) into the Aegean through the Kaso Strait, to attack a second flotilla of transports escorted by the Italian torpedo boat Sagittario. The cruiser sank a caique separated from the main flotilla at 8.30am thus saving it from an air attack that struck HMS Naiad at this time. The pilots were trying to avoid killing their troops in the water. King's squadron, still under constant air attack and running short of anti-aircraft ammunition, then steamed on toward Milos sighting the Sagittario at ten o'clock. King made the difficult decision not to attack, despite his overpowering advantage, due to the shortage of ammunition and a torpedo charge executed by the Italian warship. He had succeeded, however, in forcing the Germans to abort this seaborne operation. During the search and withdrawal from the area Force C suffered heavy losses. Naiad was damaged by near misses and the cruiser HMS Carlisle was hit. Admiral Cunningham later criticized King decisions.[17] Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, KT, GCB, OM, DSO** (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963), older brother of General Sir Alan Cunningham, was a British admiral of the Second World War. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... The Spica class were a class of torpedo boats of the Regia Marina (Italian Navy) during World War II. These ships were built as a result of a clause in the Washington Naval Treaty, which stated that ships with a tonnage of less than 600 tons could be built in... The kaiki or caique is the Greek (from Turkish) name for a wooden fishing boat usually found among the waters of the Ionian or Aegean Seas. ... HMS Naiad was a Dido class cruiser of the Royal Navy. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Carlisle. ...


Force C met up with Rear Admiral Rawling's Force A1 at the Kithera channel where more air attacks inflicted damage on both forces. A bomb struck Warspite and then the destroyer Greyhound was sunk. King sent Kandahar and Kingston to pick up survivors while the cruisers Gloucester and Fiji provided anti-aircraft support, forgetting their ammunition shortage. Gloucester was hit by several bombs while the fleet was withdrawing and had to be left behind due to the intense air attacks. Seven hundred and twenty-two officers and ratings from this ship lost their lives. HMS Warspite was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Greyhound (H05) was a G-class destroyer laid down by Vickers Armstrong Naval Construction Works at Barrow-in-Furness on 20 September 1934, launched on 15 August 1935 and completed on 31 January 1936. ... HMS Kandahar (F28) was a K-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Kingston (F64) was a K-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by J. Samuel White and Company at Cowes on the Isle of Wight on 6 October 1937, launched on 9 January 1939 and commissioned on 14 September 1939. ... HMS Gloucester was a member of the second group of three ships of the Town class of light cruisers. ... HMS Fiji - OPERATIONAL HISTORY _____________________________________________________________________________ HMS FIJI was the first of eight ships of the Fiji class authorised in the 1937 and 1938 programmes. ...


The air attacks on Force A1 and Force C continued. Two bombs hit the battleship Valiant (with Lieutenant Prince Philip of Greece on board) and later another hit Fiji, disabling it. A Junkers 88 flown by Lieutenant Gerhard Brenner dropped three bombs on Fiji, sinking it. Five hundred survivors were rescued by Kandahar and Kingston the next morning. The Royal Navy lost two cruisers and a destroyer sunk but had managed to turn the invasion fleet around.[18] HMS Valiant was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the Royal Navy built at the Fairfield shipyards in Glasgow and launched in November 1914. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921)[2] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a royal Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip renounced these titles shortly before his marriage. ... The Junkers Ju 88 was a WW2 Luftwaffe twin-engine multi-role aircraft. ...


23-27 May

Fighting against a constant supply of fresh troops the Allied troops began a series of retreats working southward across Crete.


23 May: the Sinking of Kelly and Kashmir

The 5th Destroyer Flotilla: Kelly, Kipling, Kelvin, Jackal and Kashmir, under Captain Lord Louis Mountbatten, was ordered to leave Malta on 21 May, to join the fleet off Crete. It arrived in the area after Gloucester and Fiji were sunk. They were first sent to pick up survivors but were then diverted to attack some caiques off the Cretan coast and then shell the Germans at Maleme. Kelvin and Jackal were diverted on another search while Mountbatten with Kelly, Kashmir and Kipling were to go to Alexandria. HMS Kelly (F01) was a K-class destroyer in Britains Royal Navy, launched on 25 October 1938 and commissioned on 23 August 1939. ... HMS Kelvin (F37) was a K-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited, at Govan in Scotland on 5 October 1937, launched on 19 January 1939 and commissioned on 27 November 1939. ... HMS Jackal (F22) was a J-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by John Brown and Company, Limited, at Clydebank in Scotland on 24 September 1937, launched on 25 October 1938 and commissioned on 31 March 1939. ... HMS Kashmir, a ship of the Royal Navy, is named after Kashmir (used to be part of the British Empire). ... . Captain, is the name most often given in naval circles to the NATO rank code of OF-5. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The kaiki or caique is the Greek (from Turkish) name for a wooden fishing boat usually found among the waters of the Ionian or Aegean Seas. ... USS Iowa (BB-61) fires a full broadside of nine 16/50 and six 5/38 guns during a target exercise near Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, 1 July 1984. ...


While the three ships were rounding the western side of Crete they came under heavy air attack from 24 Stuka dive bombers. Kashmir was hit and sank in two minutes and Kelly was hit and turned turtle soon after. Kipling survived 83 bombs aimed at her, while she picked up 279 survivors from the two ships. The Noel Coward film In Which We Serve was based on this action.[19] Noël Peirce Coward (December 16, 1899 – March 26, 1973) was an Academy Award winning English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ... In Which We Serve is a 1942 war film that tells the story of the British destroyer HMS Torrin, as told in flashbacks by the survivors as they cling to a life raft. ...


24-26 May

After air attacks on Allied positions in Kastelli on 24 May, the 95th Gebirgs Pioneer Battalion advanced on the town[20]. These air attacks enabled the escape of German paratroopers captured on 20 May; the newly liberated paratroopers killed and captured several New Zealand officers assigned to lead the 1st Greek Regiment. Despite this setback, the Greeks put up determined resistance, but with only 600 rifles and a few thousand rounds of ammunitions available for a force of 1,000 ill-trained men[21], were unable to repel the German advance. Fighting with the remnants of 1st Greek Regiment continued in the Kastelli area until 26 May hampering the efforts of the Germans to secure the port for the landing of reinforcements. Kissamos (Greek: Κίσσαμος) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete. ...


27 May

"Awful news from Crete. We are scuppered there, and I'm afraid the morale and material effects will be serious. Certainly the Germans are past-masters in the art of war—and great warriors. If we beat them, we shall have worked a miracle."
Alexander Cadogan, end of diary entry for May 27, 1941[22]

The Germans finally secured the port at Kastelli and landed some light tanks. The Rt. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Battle of "42nd Street"

In a ferocious bayonet charge on the morning of 27 May, the New Zealand 28th (Māori) Battalion, the Australian 2/7th Battalion and the Australian 2/8th Battalion, cleared a section of road between Souda and Chania which was under threat from troops of the German 141st Mountain Regiment. For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... The 28th Māori Battalion, or more commonly known as the Maori Battalion, was part of the second New Zealand Expeditionary Force (2NZEF) during World War II. // The 28th Māori Battalion was formed following pressure on the Labour government by the Māori MPs and Māori organisations throughout... The 2/7th Australian Infantry Battalion was a battalion of the 6th Australian Division raised as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force for World War II. It was raised at Puckapunyal, Victoria on 15 April 1940. ... The 2/8th Australian Infantry Battalion was a battalion of the 6th Australian Division raised as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force for World War II. It was raised at Puckapunyal, Victoria on 15 April 1940. ...


Orders to Evacuate

Command in London eventually decided the cause was hopeless and on 27 May ordered an evacuation. Major-General Freyberg concurrently ordered his troops to begin withdrawing to the south coast to be evacuated. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Evacuation to Egypt, 28–31 May

British wounded evacuated to Alexandria
British wounded evacuated to Alexandria

Over four nights 16,000 troops were evacuated to Egypt by ships including HMS Ajax of Battle of the River Plate fame. The majority of these troops embarked from Sphakia. A smaller number were withdrawn from Heraklion on the night of 28 May; this task force was attacked en route by Luftwaffe dive-bombers and suffered serious losses. More than 9,000 Anzacs and thousands of Greeks were left behind to defend the remaining territory as best they could. They fought on until they were surrounded. They were either killed, wounded or captured. The cities of Irakleio and Rethymno were taken in the following days by the Germans. A small Italian force assisted the capture of Rethymno. By the 1st of June, the island of Crete was under German control. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (695x655, 96 KB) Description: Walking wounded British troops disembarking at a port in Egypt after the evacuation of Crete. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (695x655, 96 KB) Description: Walking wounded British troops disembarking at a port in Egypt after the evacuation of Crete. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... HMS Ajax was a Leander-class light cruiser. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 heavy cruiser 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 heavy cruiser damaged 36 dead 60 wounded 1 heavy cruiser heavily damaged 2 light cruisers damaged 72 dead 28 wounded For other uses, see The Battle of... The village of Hóra Sfakíon. ... Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive bombers A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy and limit the exposure to and effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire. ...


Defence of 8th Greek Regiment

The defence of the 8th Greek Regiment in and around the village of Alikianos is credited with protecting the Allied line of retreat. Alikianos, located in the "Prison Valley," was strategically important and it was one of the first targets the Germans attacked on the opening day of the battle. The 8th Greek was composed of young Cretan recruits, gendarmes, and cadets. They were poorly equipped and only 850 strong — roughly battalion, not regiment-sized. Attached to the 10th New Zealand Infantry Brigade under Lieutenant-Colonel Howard Kippenberger, little was expected of them by Allied officers. The Greeks, however, proved such pessimism wrong. On the first day of battle they decisively repulsed the Engineer Battalion. During the next several days they held out against repeated attacks by the 85th and 100th Mountain Regiments. For seven days they held Alikianos and protected the Allied line of retreat. The 8th Greek Regiment is credited with making the evacuation of Western Crete a possibility by many historians such as Antony Beevor and Alan Clark. Alikianos (Greek Αλικιανός) is the head village of the Mousouri municipality in Chania Prefecture, Crete located approximately 12. ... Major-General Sir Howard Kippenberger, KBE CB DSO ED, (28 January 1897-1957) was a New Zealand soldier during World War II. // Early Life He was born in Ladbrooks, near Christchurch, the son of a schoolmaster who later became a farmer at Waimate. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark (13 April 1928 - 5 September 1999) was a British Conservative politician, historian and diarist. ...


The Anzacs fall back

The Germans pushed the British, Commonwealth and Hellenic forces steadily southward, using aerial and artillery bombardment followed by waves of motorcycle and mountain troops (the mountainous terrain made it difficult to employ tanks). The Souda Bay garrisons at Souda and Beritania gradually fell back along the lone road to Vitsilokoumos, just to the north of Sphakia. About halfway there, near the village of Askifou lay a large crater nicknamed "The Saucer". It was the only spot in the rugged terrain sufficiently wide and flat enough to support a large-scale air drop. Troops were stationed about its perimeter to prevent a German airborne force from landing to block the retreat. At the village of Stilos, the 5th New Zealand Brigade and the 2/7th Australian Battalion held off a German mountain battalion which had begun a flanking manœuvre, but were forced to withdraw for lack of air and artillery support, despite their superior numbers. Fortunately for the Anzacs, German air assets were being concentrated on Rethymnion and Heraklion, and they were able to retreat down the road safely in broad daylight. For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is a town and municipality of the Greek island of Crete, in the prefecture of Chania. ... Stilos is a village in the Chania Prefecture of the Greek island of Crete. ... ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps — t[[Image: ]]he name used to describe the combination of the Australian Army and New Zealand Army Corps during wartime. ...


The Māori make a stand

The general retreat of the brigade was covered by two companies of the 28th (Māori) Battalion under Captain Rangi Royal. (Royal's men had already distinguished themselves at 42nd Street.) They overran the 1st Battalion, 141st Gebirgsjäger Regiment and halted the German advance. When the main unit was safely to the rear, the Māori in turn made their own fighting retreat of twenty-four miles, losing only two killed and eight wounded, all of whom they were able to carry to safety. Thus, the Layforce commando detachment was the only major unit in this area to be cut-off and unable to retreat. The 28th Māori Battalion, or more commonly known as the Maori Battalion, was part of the second New Zealand Expeditionary Force (2NZEF) during World War II. // The 28th Māori Battalion was formed following pressure on the Labour government by the Māori MPs and Māori organisations throughout... Layforce consisted of Nos. ...


The lost detachment

Layforce had been sent into Crete by way of Sphakia when it was still hoped that large-scale reinforcements could be brought into Crete from Egypt to turn the tide of the battle. The battalion-sized force was split up, with a 200 man detachment under the unit's commander, Robert Laycock, stationed at Souda to cover the retreat of the heavier units. Laycock's men, augmented by three of the remaining British tanks, were joined by the men of the 20th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, who had been assigned to guard the Souda docks and refused to believe that a general evacuation had been ordered. After a day's fierce fighting, Laycock decided to retreat under cover of night to nearby Beritiana. He was joined there by Captain Royal and the Māoris, who took up separate defensive positions and eventually made their fighting retreat. Laycock and his force, however, were cut-off by superior German forces near the village of Babali Khani. Pummelled from the air by dive bombers, Layforce Detachment was unable to get away. Laycock and his brigade major, novelist Evelyn Waugh were able to escape by crashing through German lines in a tank. Most of the other men of the detachment and their comrades from the 20th were either killed or captured. Layforce consisted of Nos. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... In the British Army the Chief of Staff of a brigade or similar formation. ... Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ...


Tradition

During the evacuation Admiral Cunningham was determined that the "navy must not let the army down". When army officers expressed fears he would lose too many ships, Cunningham said that "It takes three years to build a ship, it takes three centuries to build a tradition".[23]


Major Alistair Hamilton, a company commander in the Black Watch, had declared, "The Black Watch leaves Crete when the snow leaves Mount Ida". Hamilton himself never left the island: he was killed by a mortar bomb, but his men were ordered off, and reluctantly complied. The consensus among the men was that they were letting their Greek allies down, and while most British heavy equipment was destroyed in order to keep it from falling into enemy hands, the men turned over their ammunition to the Cretans who were staying behind to resist the Germans. For other uses, see Black Watch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named Mount of the Goddess. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...


Surrender

Meanwhile, Colonel Campbell, the commander at Heraklion, was also forced to surrender his contingent. Rethimno fell as well, and on the night of the 30th, German motorcycle troops linked up with Italian troops who had landed that day on the Gulf of Mirabella. The Italian commander in the Dodecanese had volunteered the services of his men as early as 21 May, but the request had to pass through German channels to Hermann Göring, who finally authorized the move when it became clear that the German effort was not moving ahead as quickly as planned. Also called Mirabella (or Mirabello) Bay. ... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ...


On 1 June the remaining 5,000 defenders at Sphakia surrendered, although many took to the hills and caused the German occupation problems for years. By 1941 an estimated 500 British Commonwealth troops remained at large, to say nothing of the Greeks, who were more easily able to blend in with the native population. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The village of Hóra Sfakíon. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ...


It must have been a bitter pill for the British to learn that they lost the battle against German elite troops that were for a major part originally prisoners of war during the invasion of The Netherlands. Because the British were only able to transport about 1,200 captured German paratroopers before the Dutch capitulation to Germany, the majority of the captured German paratroopers were handed over to the German occupier.


Aftermath

Map of Occupied Greece showing the German and Italian occupation zones on Crete
Map of Occupied Greece showing the German and Italian occupation zones on Crete

Allied commanders were worried about the Germans using Crete as a "springboard" to further operations in the area, possibly an airborne attack on Cyprus or a seaborne invasion of Egypt in support of the German/Italian forces operating from Libya. However, these fears were soon put to rest when Operation Barbarossa opened, and it was clear that the German operation was defensive in nature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (899x917, 107 KB) Map showning the zones of control of the three occupying powers in Greece during WW2, from 1941 to 1944. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (899x917, 107 KB) Map showning the zones of control of the three occupying powers in Greece during WW2, from 1941 to 1944. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


Losses among the German paratroops were very high in Hitler's opinion, and the Germans were forced to reconsider their airborne doctrine, which eliminated this weapon from large scale use in the Soviet Union. Ironically, the use of paratroopers in force impressed the Allies. The German casualty rate was hidden from Allied planners, who scrambled to create their own large airborne divisions after this battle. Hitler redirects here. ...


The battle of Crete did not delay Operation Barbarossa. The start date for Barbarossa (22 June 1941) had been set several weeks before the Crete operation was considered, and the directive by Hitler for Operation Merkur made it plain that the preparations for Merkur must not interfere with Barbarossa. Units assigned to Merkur and earmarked for Barbarossa were to redeployed to Poland and Romania by the end of May, and in the event, the movement of units from Greece was not delayed by Merkur. Indeed, the transfer of Fliegerkorps VIII during the battle in order to reach their assigned positions in time for Barbarossa was a key reason in allowing the Royal Navy to evacuate so many of the defenders. The reasons for the delay of Operation Barbarossa owed nothing to the battle of Crete, but was because of the need to allow swollen rivers to fall and for airfields to dry out in Poland.[24]


The loss of Crete, particularly as a result of the failure of the British land forces to recognise the strategic importance of the airfields, served as a wake-up call for the British Government. As a direct consequence, the Royal Air Force (RAF) was given responsibility for defending its own bases from ground and air attack. The RAF Regiment was formed on February 1, 1942 to meet this requirement. RAF redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Casualties

The place of rest at Maleme Cemetery "The soldiers' graves are the greatest preachers of peace."
The place of rest at Maleme Cemetery "The soldiers' graves are the greatest preachers of peace."
Suda Bay War Cemetery
Suda Bay War Cemetery
Memorial for Greek and Australian soldiers in the center of Rethymno
Memorial for Greek and Australian soldiers in the center of Rethymno

Official German casualty figures are hard to determine with exactitude due to minor variations between different documents produced by the various German commands on various dates. Davin has calculated an estimate of 6,698 based upon an examination of various sources[25], which are summarized as follows: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Maleme Military Cemetary I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Maleme Military Cemetary I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixels, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; text-align:center; margin:0. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixels, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; text-align:center; margin:0. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 363 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (859 × 1417 pixels, file size: 381 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 363 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (859 × 1417 pixels, file size: 381 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

[table of German casualty source documents to come]

This total of 6,698 excludes the wounded suffered by 8 Fliegerkorps as well as any casualties suffered by the Kriegsmarine in the aborted seaborne landings. Davin also notes that his estimate might exclude several hundred lightly wounded soldiers[26]. Other minor omissions are possible. However, Davin states in regard to the Battle of Crete: The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ...

Reports of German casualties in British reports are in almost all cases exaggerated and are not accepted against the official contemporary German returns, prepared for normal purposes and not for propaganda.[27]

These exaggerated reports of German casualties began to appear almost immediately after the battle had ended. Taylor cites a report published in the New Zealand newspaper Press on June 12, 1941 that: The Press is a daily newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand, which circulates widely in the northern half of the South Island. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

The Germans lost at least 12,000 killed and wounded, and about 5,000 drowned [28]

Winston Churchill claimed that the Germans must have suffered well over 15,000 casualties while Admiral Cunningham felt that the figure was more like 22,000. Buckley, based on British intelligence assumptions of two enemies wounded for every one killed, gave an estimate of 16,800 total casualties. Despite the enduring popularity of these rather fanciful estimates, the U.S. Army Center of Military History, citing a report of the Historical Branch of the British Cabinet Office, concludes military historians largely accept estimates of between 6,000 and 7,000 German casualties as correct[29]. The Center of Military History traces its functional lineage to the American Civil War era. ... The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet in progressing matters that require coordination across Government departments. ...


The Australian Graves Commission counted a combined total of roughly 5,000 German graves in the Maleme-Suda Bay area, at Retimo and at Heraklion. Davin concludes that this total would have included a sizeable number of deaths during the German occupation due to sickness, accidents or fighting with partisan forces[30].


The German casualties included a lengthy list of commissioned officers. Leading this list is Major General Wilhelm Süssman, commander of the 7th Flieger Division and Group Centre in the assault, who died in a glider accident on 20 May before reaching Crete. Also prominent on this list is Major General Eugen Meindl, commander of Luftlande Sturmregiment and Group West in the assault, who was shot in the chest on 20 May and evacuated the following morning. According to Davin, the only German prisoners evacuated to Egypt were 17 captured officers. The German 1st Parachute Division was a German military parachute-landing Division that fought during World War II. A division of paratroopers was termed a Fallschirmjäger Division. ...


Also prominent among the German casualties were the three von Blücher brothers who died in the battle.


The Allies lost 3,500 soldiers: 1,751 dead, with an equal number wounded, and an enormous number captured (12,254 Commonwealth and 5,255 Greek). There were also 1,828 dead and 183 wounded among the Royal Navy. After the war the Allied graves from the four burial grounds that had been established by the German forces were moved to the site of Suda Bay War Cemetery.


A large number of civilians were killed in the crossfire or died fighting as partisans. Many Cretans were shot by the Germans in reprisals, both during the battle and in the occupation that followed. The Germans claimed widespread mutilation of corpses by Cretan partisans but MacDonald (1995) suggests this was down to the breakdown of dead bodies in the very high temperatures as well as carrion birds. One Cretan source puts the number of Cretans killed by German action during the war at 6,593 men, 1,113 women and 869 children.[citation needed]. German records put the number of Cretans executed by firing squad as 3,474, and at least a further 1,000 civilians were killed in massacres late in 1944.[31] Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Attacks by German planes, mainly Ju-87 and Ju-88, destroyed a number of British ships: three cruisers (Gloucester, Fiji and Calcutta) and six destroyers (Kelly, Greyhound, Kashmir, Hereward, Imperial and Juno). Seven other ships were damaged, including the battleships Warspite and Valiant, and the cruiser Orion. Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was the most famous Sturzkampfflugzeug (German dive bomber) in World War II, instantly recognisable by its inverted gull-wings and fixed undercarriage. ... The Junkers Ju 88 was a WW2 Luftwaffe twin-engine multi-role aircraft. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... HMS Gloucester was a member of the second group of three ships of the Town class of light cruisers. ... HMS Fiji was a cruiser of the Royal Navy, named after the island of Fiji. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ...

Crete Military Casualties Killed Missing
(presumed dead)
Total Killed and Missing Wounded Captured Total
British Commonwealth 3,579 1,900 12,254 17,733
German[32] 2,124 1,917 4,041 2,640 17 6,698
Greek 5,225
Italian

Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Greece dealt the first victory for the allies by resisting initial attempts of Italian invasion and pushing Mussolinis forces back into Albania. ... Belligerents Italy Albania Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men, 463 aircraft[1] Under 300,000 men, 77 aircraft[1] Casualties and losses 63,000[2][3][4] dead, 100,000+[2] wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by... “April War” redirects here. ... Belligerents Germany Italy Bulgaria Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Bernard Freyberg Thomas Blamey Strength Germany:[1] 680,000 men, 1200 tanks 700 aircraft 1Italy:[2] 565,000 men 1Greece:[3] 430,000 men British Commonwealth:[4] 262,612 men 100 tanks... This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Crete and related operations in 1941. ...

Resistance

An ELAS fighter The Greek Resistance (Greek: , i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notable participants

David CokeRoald DahlRoy FarranBernard FreybergAlfred HulmeRobert LaycockPatrick Leigh FermorJohn PendleburyMax SchmelingTheodore StephanidesEvelyn WaughLawrence DurrellCharles Upham • Geoffrey Cox • Dan Davin (who wrote a book on the battle) David Coke was a WWII Flying ace. ... Roald Dahl (IPA: ]) (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a Welsh novelist, short story writer and screenwriter, who rose to prominence in the 1940s with works for both children and adults, and became one of the worlds bestselling authors. ... Major Roy Alexander Farran DSO, MC & Bar (born: 2 January 1921 — died: 1 June 2006) was a soldier, cabinet minister, farmer and author, and journalist. ... The Rt Hon. ... Photo by Terry Macdonald Alfred Clive Hulme (January 24, 1911-September 2, 1982) was a New Zealand recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Layforce consisted of Nos. ... Sir Patrick Paddy Michael Leigh Fermor DSO (born 11 February 1915, London) is a British author, scholar and soldier, who played a prominent role behind the lines in the Battle of Crete during World War II. He is famous for his travel writing and is widely regarded as Britains... John Pendlebury (1904-1941) was a British archaeologist who worked for British intelligence during the World war Two. ... Maximillian Adolph Otto Siegfried Schmeling (September 28, 1905 – February 2, 2005) was a German boxer whose two fights with Joe Louis transcended boxing and became worldwide social events because of their racial and national associations. ... Theodore Stephanides was a Greek poet, author, doctor and naturalist. ... Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ... Lawrence George Durrell (February 27, 1912 – November 7, 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer, though he resisted affiliation with Britain and preferred to be considered cosmopolitan. ... Charles Upham Captain Charles Hazlitt Upham VC and bar (September 21, 1908 – November 22, 1994) was a New Zealand soldier who won the Victoria Cross twice during the Second World War: in Crete in May 1941, and at Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt, in July 1942. ... Daniel Marcus (Dan) Davin 1 September 1913 - 28 September 1990 was an author who wrote about New Zealand, although most of his career was in Oxford, England with the Oxford University Press. ...


External links

  • John Hall Spencer, 'Battle for Crete', Pen and Sword Books Ltd (Barnsley), 2008, ISBN 9781844157709
  • Major Tim Saunders, 'Crete', Pen and Sword Books Ltd (Barnsley), 2007, ISBN 9781844155576

Notes

  1. ^ Gavin Long, 1953, Official Histories — Second World War Volume II – Greece, Crete and Syria (1st ed.), Canberra: Australian War Memorial, p. 210
  2. ^ Davin, Daniel Marcus (1953). "Appendix V — CASUALTIES", Crete, The Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–1945. Wellington, New Zealand: Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Government of New Zealand, pp. 486-488. 
  3. ^ 'Germany and the Second World War: The Mediterranean, South-east Europe, and North Africa, 1939-1941, Volume III', Militargeschichtliches Forschungamt (ed), pp.530-531
  4. ^ Long, p.218-219
  5. ^ Long, ibid.
  6. ^ Peter D. Antill, Crete 1941: Germany's lightning airborne assault, Campaign series (Osprey Publishing : Oxford; New York, 2005) ISBN 1-84176-844-8, p. 13
  7. ^ Christopher Buckley Greece and Crete 1941 (London: 1952; P. Efstathiadis & Sons S.A.:1984) ISBN 960-226-041-6, p. 163
  8. ^ Antill, p. 25
  9. ^ MacDonald, C. The Lost Battle - Crete 1941, MacMillan 1995 ISBN 0333616758 p. 153
  10. ^ Antill, p. 24
  11. ^ MacDonald pp. 176-178
  12. ^ MacDonald p. 195
  13. ^ Buckley, p. 211
  14. ^ Buckley, p. 212
  15. ^ Buckley, pp. 212-215
  16. ^ Green & Massignani, page 170
  17. ^ Greene & Massignani, page 172
  18. ^ Beevor, pp.166-168
  19. ^ Beevor, p170-171
  20. ^ Davin, pp. 289-292
  21. ^ Davin, pp. 71-72
  22. ^ Cadogan, Alexander (1972). The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan 1938-1945: Edited by David Dilks, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. Page 381.
  23. ^ Churchill, Winston; The Second World War Volume III, "The Grand Alliance", Chapter XVI Crete: The Battle. p265
  24. ^ 'Germany and the Second World War, Volume IV, The Attack on the Soviet Union', Militargeschichliches Forschungsamt (ed, (1995), see especially p.376; McDonald.C, 'The Lost Battle: Crete 1941', (1995), pp.63-84.
  25. ^ Davin, pp. 486-488
  26. ^ Davin, p. 488
  27. ^ Davin, p. 486
  28. ^ Taylor, Nancy Margaret (1986). "CHAPTER 8 — Blood is Spilt", The Home Front Volume I, The Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–1945. Wellington, New Zealand: Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Government of New Zealand, p. 299. 
  29. ^ United States Army Center of Military History (November 1953). "Chapter 21 Operations", Historical Study: The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941) [Dept of the Army Pamphlet No. 20-260]. Washington DC: Department of the Army, pp. 139-141. 
  30. ^ Davin, pp. 486-487
  31. ^ MacDonald, p303
  32. ^ Davin, pp. 486-488

The Center of Military History traces its functional lineage to the American Civil War era. ...

Further reading

  • Antill, Peter D. Crete 1941: Germany's lightning airborne assault, Campaign series. Osprey Publishing: Oxford, New York. 2005 ISBN 1-84176-844-8
  • Barber, Laurie and Tonkin-Covell, John. Freyberg : Churchill's Salamander, Hutchinson 1990. ISBN 1-86941-052-1
  • Beevor, Antony. Crete: The Battle and the Resistance, John Murray Ltd, 1991. Penguin Books, 1992. Pbk ISBN 0-14-016787-0 Boulder : Westview Press, 1994. LCCN 93047914
  • Buckley, Christopher. Greece and Crete 1941, London, 1952. Greek pbk edition (in English): P. Efstathiadis & Sons S.A., 1984. Pbk ISBN 960-226-041-6
  • Clark, Alan. The Fall of Crete, Anthony Blond Ltd., London, 1962. Greek pbk edition (in English): Efstathiadis Group, 1981, 1989. Pbk ISBN 960-226-090-4
  • Churchill, Winston. The Second World War Volume IIIPenguin Pbk edition ISBN 0-141-44174-7
  • Comeau, M. G. Operation Mercury : Airmen in the Battle of Crete, J&KH Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-900511-79-7
  • Davin, Daniel Marcus (1953). Crete, The Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–1945. Wellington, New Zealand: Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Government of New Zealand. 
  • Elliot, Murray. Vasili: The Lion of Crete, Century Hutchinson New Zealand Ltd., London, Australia, South Africa. Greek paperback edition (in English): Efstathiadis Group S.A., 1987, 1992. Pbk ISBN 960-226-348-2
  • Greene, Jack and Massignani, Alessandro. The naval war in the Mediterranean 1940-1943, Chatam Publishing, 1998.
  • Hellenic Army General Staff (1997). An Abridged History of the Greek-Italian and Greek-German War, 1940-1941 (Land Operations). Athens: Army History Directorate Editions. ISBN 960-7897-01-3 OCLC 45409635. 
  • Harokopos, George. The Fortress Crete, subtitled on cover '1941-1944' and within 'The Secret War 1941-1944' and 'Espionage and Counter-Espionage in Occupied Crete', Seagull Publications. Greek paperback edition/English translation: B. Giannikos & Co., Athens, 1993. Translation and comments by Spilios Menounos. Pbk ISBN 960-7296-35-4
  • Keegan, John. Intelligence in War: Knowledge of the Enemy from Napoleon to Al-Qaeda (2003) ISBN 0-375-40053-2
  • Kokonas, N.A., M.D. The Cretan Resistance 1941-1945, forwarded by P. Leigh Fermor and others. London, 1993. Greek paperback edition (in English): Graphotechniki Kritis, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece. Pbk ISBN 960-85329-0-6
  • Lind, Lew. Flowers of Rethymnon: Escape from Crete, Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd, 1991. ISBN 0-86417-394-6
  • Long, Gavin (1953). Greece, Crete and Syria, Australia in the War of 1939-1945 — Series One ( Army ). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. 
  • MacDonald, C. The Lost Battle - Crete 1941, MacMillan 1995 ISBN 0333616758
  • Mazower, Mark. Inside Hitler's Greece: The Experience of Occupation 1941-44, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1993. ISBN 0-300-05804-7
  • Moss, W. Stanley. Ill Met By Moonlight: The Story of the Kidnapping of General Karl Kreipe, the German Divisional Commander in Crete, The MacMillan Company, NY, 1950
  • Psychoundakis, George. The Cretan Runner: His History of the German Occupation, English translation and introduction by Patrick Leigh Fermor. London, 1955. Greek paperback edition (in English): Efstathiadis Group S.A., 1991. Pbk ISBN 960-226-013-0
  • Shores, Christopher and Cull, Brian with Malizia, Nicola. Air War For Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete 1940-41, Grub Street, 1987 ISBN 0-948817-07-0
  • Thomas, David A. Crete 1941: The Battle at Sea, Andre Deutsch Ltd. Great Britain, 1972. Greek pbk edition (in English): Efstathiadis Group, Athens 1980

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Battle of Crete, the chronicle of the Battle of Crete (656 words)
The Battle of Crete, the chronicle of the Battle of Crete
By May 31st the total occupation of Crete was a fact and the withdrawal of the majority of the ally forces to Egypt marked the end of the Battle of Crete.
The Labyrinth in the south of Crete, a monument of Crete destroyed by the German army
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Battle of Crete (1708 words)
The Battle of Crete was unique in three respects: it was the first-ever mainly airborne invasion; it was the first time the Allies made significant use of intelligence from the deciphered German Enigma code; and it was the first time invading German troops encountered mass resistance from a civilian population.
The battle of Crete was unique in three respects: it was the first mainly airborne invasion in history; it was the first time the Allies made significant use of the decipherment of the German Enigma code; and it was the first time invading German troops encountered mass resistance from a civilian population.
The battle is also especially important to Cretans because of the unexpectedly fierce resistance they put-up against the numerically superior Germans and the terrible toll the invasion and subsequent occupation took on the island's population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m