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Encyclopedia > Battle

Generally, a battle is a specific instance of combat in warfare between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. Battles are most often fought during wars or military campaigns and can usually be well defined in time, space and action. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy whereas battles are the stage on which tactics are employed. German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that "the employment of battles to gain the end of war" was the essence of strategy. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up battle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Battles is an American math rock band. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (IPA: ) (June 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ...

The Battle of Waterloo by William Sadler II
The Battle of Waterloo by William Sadler II

Contents

The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...

Etymology

The word battle is a loanword in English from the Old French bataille first attested in 1297, and is itself a borowing from Late Latin battualia, meaning "exercise of soldiers and gladiators in fighting and fencing," from Latin battuere "beat", from which the English word battery is also derived via Middle English batri. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Characteristics of battle

War

For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

Military History

War Portal   v  d  e 

British military historian Sir John Keegan suggested an ideal definition of battle as "something which happens between two armies leading to the moral then physical disintegration of one or the other of them" though the origins and outcomes of battles can rarely be summarized so neatly. Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. This may range from a dispute between two tribes that come to blow over a plot of land, to a world war. ... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...


The "action" of battle is to reach a decision; the ideal decision is victory but strategy and circumstances often require a compromise. One party is deemed to have achieved victory when its opponent has surrendered, been dispersed, forced to retreat or been rendered militarily ineffective for further combat operations. However, a battle may end in a Pyrrhic victory which ultimately favors the defeated party. If no decision is reached in battle, the result is a stalemate. A conflict in which one side is unwilling to reach a decision in battle often becomes an insurgency. Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ...


Up until the 20th century the majority of battles were of short duration, many lasting a day or less; the Battle of Gettysburg and the Battle of Nations were exceptional for lasting three days. This was mainly due to the difficulty of supplying an army in the field. Typically the means of prolonging a battle was by siege warfare. Improvements in transportation and the onset of trench warfare, with its siege-like nature, saw the duration of battles increase to weeks and months, peaking during the First World War. Nevertheless, in a long battle the regular rotation of units meant that the periods of intensive combat to which an individual soldier was subjected tended to remain brief. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Although the initial meaning of the Latin word signified a small scale combat, involving a handful of individuals, perhaps two squads, the use of "battle" in military history has led to use, or misuse of the word to refer to combat by strategic forces involving hundreds of thousands of troops may be engaged in either a single battle at one time (Battle of Leipzig) of even multiple operations (Battle of Kursk). The space a battle occupies depends on the range of the weapons of the combatants, and may occupy large geographic areas as in the case of the Battle of Britain or the Battle of the Atlantic. Until the advent of artillery and aircraft, battles were fought with the two sides in sight, if not reach, of each other. The depth of the battlefield has also increased in modern warfare with inclusion of the supporting units in the rear areas; supply, artillery, medical, etc.; now outnumbering the front-line combat troops. In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... Belligerents French Empire Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Saxony[1] Russia Austria Prussia Sweden Saxony[1] Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski â€  Frederick Augustus Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Carl Johan Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Strength 195,000[2] 365,000[2] Casualties and losses 38,000... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the World War Two battle. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Canada  United States(1941–5)  Norway Poland Free French Navy  Germany  Italy (1940–3) Commanders  Sir Percy Noble  Sir Max K. Horton  Percy W. Nelles  Leonard W. Murray  Ernest J. King  Erich Raeder  Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ...


Battles are, on the whole, made up of a multitude of individual combats, skirmishes and small engagements within the context of which the participating individuals will usually only experience a small part of the events of the battle's entirety. To the infantryman, there may be little to distinguish between combat as part of a minor raid or a major offensive, nor is it likely that they anticipate the future course of the battle; few of the British infantry who went over the top on the first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916, would have anticipated that they would be fighting the same battle in five months time. Conversely, some of the Allied infantry who had just dealt a crushing defeat to the French at the Battle of Waterloo fully expected to have to fight again the next day. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 8,000 dead or wounded 2,200 prisoners The... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...


Battlespace

Main article: Battlespace

Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ...

The factors of battles

Battles are decided by various factors. The number and quality of men and equipment, the commanders of each army, and the terrain advantages are among the most prominent factors. Battles throughout history have shown that morale and the quality of troops are often more important than quantity. The Persian Wars, for example, show that superior morale can overcome numerical disadvantages, especially in the Battle of Thermopylae. A good example of the opposite is the Battle of Gaugamela. Quality of the army in battle is determined by morale, that is, spirit of the troops; equipment, and training of the troops. A unit may charge with high morale but less discipline and still emerge victorious. This tactic was effectively used by the early French Revolutionary Armies. Weapons and armor may also play as a decisive factor; however, during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Scots emerged victorious over the English despite inferior weaponry. Discipline within the troops is also important; at the Battle of Alesia, the Romans were greatly outnumbered but won because of superior training. A squad that does not retreat is far more valuable than an army that flees upon sight. Battles can also be determined by terrain. Capturing high ground, for example, has been the central strategy in innumerable battles. An army that holds the high ground forces the enemy to climb, and thus wear down. Another advantage is it is physically easier to strike a blow from a higher position than from a lower position. Although this does not hold as much in modern warfare, with the advent of aircraft, terrain is still vital for camouflage, especially for guerrilla warfare. Generals and commanders also play a decisive role during combat. Hannibal, Julius Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte were all legendary generals and, consequently, their armies were extremely successful. An army that can trust the commands of their leaders with conviction in its success invariably has a higher morale than an army that doubts its every move. The British in the naval Battle of Trafalgar, for example, owed its success to the reputation of celebrated admiral Lord Nelson. Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... The French Revolutionary Army is the term used to refer to the military of France during the period between the fall of the ancien regime under Louis XVI in 1792 and the formation of the First French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52... Guerrilla redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ...


Types of battle

The battle of Gettysburg, Pa. July 3d. 1863, by Currier and Ives.
The battle of Gettysburg, Pa. July 3d. 1863, by Currier and Ives.

Battles can be fought on land, sea, and in the modern age, in the air. Naval battles have occurred since before the 5th century BC. Air battles have been far less common, due to its late conception, the most prominent being the Battle of Britain in 1940. However since the Second World War land or sea battles have come to rely on air support. Indeed, during the Battle of Midway, five aircraft carriers were sunk without either fleet coming into direct contact. Download high resolution version (900x569, 409 KB)The battle of Gettysburg, Pa. ... Download high resolution version (900x569, 409 KB)The battle of Gettysburg, Pa. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ... This article is about the World War Two battle. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United States Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 264 carrier aircraft,[1] 16 floatplanes Casualties and... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ...


There are numerous types of battle. A "battle of encounter" is a meeting engagement where the opposing sides collide in the field without either having prepared their attack or defence. The goal of a "battle of attrition" is to inflict greater loss on the enemy than you suffer yourself; many battles of the First World War were intentionally (Verdun) or unintentionally (Somme) attrition battles. A "battle of breakthrough" aims to pierce the enemy's defences, thereby exposing the vulnerable flanks which can be turned. A "battle of encirclement" — the Kesselschlacht of the German Blitzkrieg — surrounds the enemy in a pocket. A "battle of envelopment" involves an attack on one or both flanks; the classic example being the double-envelopment of the Battle of Cannae. A "battle of annihilation" is one in which the defeated party is destroyed in the field, such as the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile. In warfare, a meeting engagement is a combat action that occurs when a moving force, incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time and place. ... Belligerents France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties and losses 378,000; of whom 163,000 died. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... This article is about the military term. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218...


A "decisive battle" is one of particular importance; often by bringing hostilities to an end, such as the Battle of Hastings or the Battle of The Horns of Hittin, or as a turning point in the fortunes of the belligerents, such as the Battle of Stalingrad. A decisive battle can have political as well as military impact, changing the balance of power or boundaries between countries. The concept of the "decisive battle" became popular with the publication in 1851 of Edward Creasy's The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World. British military historians J.F.C. Fuller (The Decisive Battles of the Western World) and B.H. Liddell Hart (Decisive Wars of History), among many others, have written books in the style of Creasy's work. Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4... A belligerent is an individual, group, country or other entity which acts in an aggressive or hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy (1812 - 1878), historian, was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and called to the Bar in 1837. ... The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo is a book written by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy and published in 1851. ... Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. This may range from a dispute between two tribes that come to blow over a plot of land, to a world war. ... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 _ January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ...


The differences among land battles throughout history

There is an obvious difference in the way battles have been fought throughout time. Early battles were probably fought between rival hunting bands as disorganized mobs. However, during the Battle of Megiddo, the first reliably documented battle, in the fifteenth century BC, actual discipline was instilled in both armies. This continued through the Ancient Times and the Middle Ages. However, during the many wars of the Roman Empire, barbarians continued using mob tactics. As the Age of Enlightenment dawned, armies began to fight in highly disciplined lines. Each would follow the orders from their officers and fight as a single unit instead of individuals. Each army was successively divided into regiments, battalions, companies, and platoons. These armies would march, line up, and fire in divisions. Native Americans, on the other hand, did not fight in lines, utilizing instead guerrilla tactics. The United States during the American Revolution also followed suit. Europe, during the Napoleonic Wars, continued using disciplined lines, continuing into the American Civil War. A new style, during World War I, known as trench warfare, developed nearly half a century later. This also led to radio for communication between battalions. Chemical warfare also emerged with the use of poisonous gas during World War I and the Austro-Prussian War[citation needed]. By World War II, the use of the smaller divisions, platoons and companies, became much more important as precise operations became vital. Instead of the locked trench warfare of World War I, during World War II, a dynamic network of battles developed where small groups encountered other platoons. As a result, elite squads became much more recognized and distinguishable. Vehicle warfare also developed with an astonishing pace with the advent of the tank, replacing the archaic cannons of the Enlightenment Age. Artillery has since gradually replaced the use of frontal troops. Modern battles now continue to resemble that of World War II, though prominent innovations have been added. Indirect combat through the use of aircraft and missiles now comprise of a large portion of wars in place of battles, where battles are now mostly reserved for capturing cities. Battle of Megiddo refers to one of three major battles fought near the ancient site of Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... See also Platoon (movie) and platoon (automobile) for the concept for reducing traffic congestion. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The difference of naval battles throughout history

One significant difference of modern naval battles as opposed to earlier forms of combat is the use of marines, which introduced amphibious warfare. Today, a marine is actually an infantry regiment that sometimes fights solely on land and is no longer tied to the navy. A good example of an old naval battle is the Battle of Salamis. Most ancient naval battles were fought by fast ships using the battering ram to sink opposing fleets or steer close enough for boarding in hand-to-hand combat. Troops were often actually used to storm enemy ships as used by Romans and pirates. This tactic was usually used by civilizations that could not beat the enemy with ranged weaponry. Another invention in the late Middle Ages was the use of Greek fire by the Byzantines, which was used to light enemy fleets on fire. Empty demolition ships utilized the tactic to crash into opposing ships and set it afire with an explosion. After the invention of cannons, naval warfare became useful as support units for land warfare. During the 19th century, the development of mines led to a new type of naval warfare. The ironclad, first used in the American Civil War, resistant to cannons, soon made the wooden ship obsolete. The invention of a U-Boat, that is, submarine, during World War I by the Germans brought naval warfare to both above and below the surface. With the development of military aircraft during World War II, battles were fought in the sky as well as below the ocean. Aircraft carriers have since become the central unit in naval warfare, acting as a mobile base for lethal aircraft. France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ...


Aerial battles throughout history

Although the use of aircraft has for the most part always been used as a supplement to land or naval engagements, since their first major military use in World War I aircraft have increasingly taken on larger roles in warfare. During World War I, the primary use was for reconnaissance, and small-scale bombardment, using ineffectual hand-dropped bombs. Aircraft began becoming much more prominent in the Spanish Civil War and especially World War II. Aircraft design began specializing, primarily into two types: bombers, which carried explosive payloads to bomb land targets or ships; and fighter-interceptors, which were used to either intercept incoming aircraft or to escort and protect bombers (engagements between fighter aircraft were known as dog fights. Some of the more notable aerial battles in this period include the Battle of Britain and the Battle of Midway. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... A dogfight or dog fight is a common term used to describe close-range aerial combat between military aircraft. ... This article is about the World War Two battle. ... Belligerents United States Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 264 carrier aircraft,[1] 16 floatplanes Casualties and...


Another important use of aircraft came with the development of the helicopter, which first became heavily used during the Vietnam War, and still continues to be widely used today to transport and augment ground forces. For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...


Today, direct engagements between aircraft are rare - the most modern fighter-interceptors carry much more extensive bombing payloads, and are used to bomb precision land targets, rather than to fight other aircraft. Anti-aircraft batteries are used much more extensively to defend against incoming aircraft than interceptors. Despite this, aircraft today are much more extensively used as the primary tools for both army and navy, as evidenced by the prominent use of helicopters to transport and support troops, the use of aerial bombardment as the "first strike" in many engagements, and the replacement of the battleship with the aircraft carrier as the center of most modern navies.


Battle naming

Battles are almost invariably named after some feature of the battlefield geography, such as the name of a town, forest or river. Occasionally battles are named after the date on which they took place, such as The Glorious First of June. In the Middle Ages it was considered important to settle on a suitable name for a battle which could be used by the chroniclers. For example, after Henry V of England defeated a French army on 25 October 1415, he met with the senior French herald and they agreed to name the battle after the nearby castle and so it was called the Battle of Agincourt. In other cases, the sides adopted different names for the same battle, such as the Battle of Gallipoli which is known in Turkey as the Battle of Çanakkale. Sometimes in desert warfare, there is no nearby town name to use; map coordinates gave the name to the Battle of 73 Easting in the First Gulf War. Download high resolution version (1105x770, 150 KB)Battle of Gibraltar 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1105x770, 150 KB)Battle of Gibraltar 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Jacob van Heemskerk † Juan Álvarez de Ávila † Strength 26 warships 4 merchant ships 21 warships Casualties 100 dead 60 wounded 4,000 dead 21 ships destroyed The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years War when a Dutch... Battle of Gibraltar, oil on canvas. ... Glorious First of June Conflict French Revolutionary Wars Date June 1, 1794 Place 400 miles west of Ushant Result Indecisive The Glorious First of June (also known as the Third Battle of Ushant and in French as the Bataille du 13 prairial An 2) was a naval battle fought in... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Heralds, wearing tabards, in procession to St. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. ... Combatants United States Army British Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Casualties U.S. 12 KIA and FF, 57 wounded 600 killed and wounded The Battle of 73 Easting was a decisive tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between United States and... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


Some place names have become synonymous with the battles that took place there, such as the Passchendaele, Pearl Harbor or the Alamo. Military operations, many of which result in battle, are given codenames, which are not necessarily meaningful or indicative of the type or the location of the battle. Operation Market Garden and Operation Rolling Thunder are examples of battles known by their military codenames. Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn συν = plus and onoma όνομα = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres ( Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack (1,800 in assault-see below) 183 to 250 Casualties 650 killed 974 injured 180 killed The... Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... Belligerents Poland United Kingdom United States Germany Commanders Field Marshal Montgomery Lieutenant-General Dempsey Lieutenant-General Horrocks Major-General Urquhart Major General Taylor Brigadier General Gavin Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 (airborne only) 20,000 Casualties and losses Poland: 1st Polish Brigade: 378 Casualties[1] United... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Joseph H. Moore, William W. Momyer, George S. Brown Phung The Tai (Air Defense), Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force) Casualties United States: ~835 killed, captured, or missing VNAF: Unknown ~20,000 military, ~72,000 civilian Operation Rolling Thunder was...


When a battleground is the site of more than one battle in the same conflict, the instances are distinguished by ordinal number, such as the First and Second Battles of Bull Run. An extreme case are the twelve Battles of the IsonzoFirst to Twelfth — between Italy and Austria-Hungary during the First World War. In set theory, ordinal, ordinal number, and transfinite ordinal number refer to a type of number introduced by Georg Cantor in 1897, to accommodate infinite sequences and to classify sets with certain kinds of order structures on them. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run... During the First World War the Isonzo valley was part of the Alpine sector of the Italian Front, between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... The First Battle of the Isonzo was fought from June 23 through July 7 of 1915 between Italy and Austria. ... The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from October 24 to November 9, 1917, near Kobarid (now Slovenia) on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Some battles are named for the convenience of military historians so that periods of combat can be neatly distinguished from one another. Following the First World War, the British Battles Nomenclature Committee was formed to decide on standard names for all battles and subsidiary actions. To the soldiers who did the fighting, the distinction was usually academic; a soldier fighting at Beaumont Hamel on 13 November 1916 was probably unaware he was taking part in what the committee would call the "Battle of the Ancre". Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. This may range from a dispute between two tribes that come to blow over a plot of land, to a world war. ... The Newfoundland Memorial at Beaumont Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of the Ancre was the final act of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ...


Many combats are too small to merit a name. Terms such as "action", "skirmish", "firefight", "raid" or "offensive patrol" are used to describe small-scale battle-like encounters. These combats often take place within the time and space of a battle and while they may have an objective, they are not necessarily "decisive". Sometimes the soldiers are unable to immediately gauge the significance of the combat; in the aftermath of the Battle of Waterloo, some British officers were in doubt as to whether the day's events merited the title of "battle" or would be passed off as merely an "action". Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...


The effects of a battle

Battles affect the individuals who take part, as well as the political actors. Personal effects of battle range from mild psychological issues to permanent and crippling injuries. Many battle-survivors have nightmares about the conditions they encountered, or abnormal reactions to certain sights or sounds. Some suffer flashbacks. Physical effects of battle can include scars, amputations, lesions, loss of hearing, blindness, and paralysis, and of course, death. A flashback is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually vivid, recollection of a past experience. ...


Battles also affect politics. A decisive battle can cause the losing side to surrender, while a Pyrrhic Victory such as the Battle of Isandlwana, can cause the winning side to reconsider its long term goals. Battles in civil wars have often decided the fate of monarchs or political factions. Famous examples include the War of the Roses, as well as the Jacobite Uprisings. Battles also affect the commitment of one side or the other to the continuance of a war, for example the Battle of Inchon and the Battle of Hue during the Tet Offensive. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pulleine† Anthony Durnford† Ntshingwayo Khoza Strength 1,400 men 22,000 men Casualties 52 officers killed 1,277 other ranks killed 3,000 killed 3,000 wounded The Battle of Isandlwana was a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War in which... ... This article treats the generic title monarch. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones usurped by his... Combatants  United Nations  North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Chesty Puller Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun The Battle of Inchon (Korean spelling: Incheon) (Korean: Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon; code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... Combatants South Viet Nam United States North Viet Nam Viet Cong Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Foster C. LaHue Tran Van Quang Strength Over 30,000 8,000, later 12,000 Casualties ARVN: 452 KIA; 2,123 WIA US: 216 KIA; 1,584 WIA[1] Total: 668 KIA; 3,707 WIA... Belligerents Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength ~120,000[1] ~323 - 595,000[2] Casualties and losses Phase I: 2,788 killed, 8...


See also

This article is about real and historical warfare. ... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ... A pitched battle is a battle where both sides choose to fight at a chosen location and time and where either side has the option to disengage either before the battle starts, or shortly after the first armed exchanges. ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Four Horsemen. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battles
  • Keegan, John (1976). The Face of Battle. Pimlico. ISBN 1-84413-748-1. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2645 words)
Battles may be small scale, only involving a handful of individuals, perhaps two squads, up to battles on army levels where hundreds of thousands may be engaged in a single battle at one time.
A "battle of annihilation" is one in which the defeated party is destroyed in the field, such as the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile.
A "decisive battle" is one of particular importance; often by bringing hostilities to an end, such as the Battle of Hastings, or as a turning point in the fortunes of the belligerents, such as the Battle of Stalingrad.
Battle of Hatfield Chase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (342 words)
The Battle of Hatfield was fought on October 12
Cadwallon continued to wage a war of ruthless slaughter against the Northumbrians, and was not stopped until the Battle of Heavenfield a year later.
Kirby suggested that the defeat of Edwin was the outcome of a wide-ranging alliance of interests opposed to him, including the deposed Bernician line of Aethelfrith; such an alliance must not have survived the battle for long.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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