FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Battery backup
A small free-standing UPS

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), uninterruptible power source or sometimes called a battery backup is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (921x1245, 240 KB) Summary UPS - Front View Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Uninterruptible power supply ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x1621, 362 KB) Summary UPS - Rear View Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Uninterruptible power supply ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...

A UPS is inserted between the source of power (typically commercial utility power) and the load it is protecting. When a power failure or abnormality occurs, the UPS will effectively switch from utility power to its own power source almost instantaneously.

While not limited to safeguarding any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss. UPS units come in sizes ranging from units which will back up a single computer without monitor (around 200 VA) to units which will power entire data centers or buildings (several megawatts). Larger UPS units typically work in conjunction with generators. A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... In the United States the term (Volt-amps) in Electrical terms, means watts. ...

Historically, UPSs were very expensive and were most likely to be used on expensive computer systems and in areas where the power supply is interrupted frequently. However, as prices have fallen, UPS units have become an essential piece of equipment for data centers and business computers, but are also used for personal computers, entertainment systems and more.

In certain countries, where the electrical grid is under strain, providers struggle to ensure supply during times of peak demand (such as summer, during which air-conditioning usage increases). In order to prevent unplanned blackouts, electrical utilities will sometimes use a process called rolling blackouts or load shedding, which involves cutting the power to large groups of customers for short periods of time. Several major blackouts occurred in 2003, most notably the 2003 North America blackout in the north-eastern US and eastern Canada and the 2003 Italy blackout, both of which affected over 50 million people, and brought attention to the need for UPS power backup units. Rolling blackout refers to an intentionally-engineered electrical power outage, caused by insufficient available resources to meet prevailing demand for electricity. ... The 2003 North America blackout was a massive power outage that occurred throughout parts of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003. ... The 2003 Italy blackout was a serious power outage that affected all of Italy, except the island of Sardinia for 9 hours and part of Switzerland near Geneva for 3 hours on 28 September 2003. ...

A UPS should not be confused with a standby generator, which does not provide protection from a momentary power interruption and may result in an interruption when it is switched into service, whether manually or automatically. However, such generators are typically placed before the UPS to provide cover for lengthy outages. Auxiliary power: Electric power that is provided by an alternate source and that serves as backup for the primary power source at the station main bus or prescribed sub-bus. ...


Common power problems

There are various common power problems that UPS units are used to correct. They are as follows (with a typical example of damage that might be caused):

  1. Power failure - Total loss of utility power: causes electrical equipment to stop working.
  2. Voltage sag - Transient (short term) under-voltage: causes flickering of lights.
  3. Voltage spike - Transient (short term) over-voltage ie spike or peak: Causes wear or acute damage to electronic equipment.
  4. Under-voltage (brownout) - Low line voltages for an extended period of time: Cause overheating in motors.
  5. Over-voltage - Increased voltages for an extended period of time: Cause light bulbs to fail.
  6. Line noise - distortions superimposed on the power waveform: Causes electro magnetic interference.
  7. Harmonic Distortion - multiples of power frequency superimposed on the power waveform: Causes excess heating in wiring and fuses.
  8. Frequency Variation - deviation from the nominal frequency (50 or 60 Hz): Causes motors to increase or decrease speed.

UPS units are divided into categories based on which of the above problems their UPS units address. Some manufacturers categorize their UPS's as a level 3, 5, or 9, if it addresses the first 3, 5, or 9 power problems respectively. A power outage is the loss of the electricity supply to an area. ... A power outage is the loss of the electricity supply to an area. ... Voltage spikes are fast, short duration surges in the electric potential in a given circuit. ... Brownout may refer to: A dimming of the vision caused by loss of blood pressure or hypoxia. ... When the voltage in a circuit or part of it is raised above its upper design limit, this is known as overvoltage. ... In science, and especially in physics and telecommunication, noise is fluctuations in and the addition of external factors to the stream of target information (signal) being received at a detector. ... The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental. ...

UPS designs

The general categories of modern UPS systems are on-line or off-line, the latter often referred to as standby. An on-line UPS always powers the load from its own internal energy supply, which is in turn continuously charged by the input power. In a standby ("off-line") system the load is powered directly by the input power and the backup power circuitry is only invoked when the utility power fails. Most UPS below 1 kVA are of the standby variety which are cheaper, though inferior to on-line systems which have no delay between a power failure and backup power being supplied.

A true 'uninterruptible' system is a double-conversion system. In a double-conversion system alternating current (AC) comes from the power grid, goes to the battery (direct current or DC), then is converted back to AC power. Most systems sold for the general market, however, are of the "standby" type where the output power only draws from the battery if the AC power fails or weakens.

For large power units, Dynamic Uninterruptible Power Supply are currently used. A synchronous motor/alternator is connected on the mains via a choke. Energy is stored in a High-speed flywheel. When the mains fails, an Eddy-current regulation maintains the power on the load. DUPS are usually combined or integrated with a diesel-genset.

Fuel cell UPS have also been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source potentially providing long runtimes in a small space. A fuel cell replaces the batteries as energy storage used in all UPS designs. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


Rotary uninterruptible power supply equipment use a motor-generator system to create a perfect sine wave output. These units can be configured as (1) a motor driving a mechanically connected generator, (2) a combined synchronous/synchronous motor/generator wound in alternating slots of the field and stator, or (3) a Hybrid Rotary UPS utilizing a Rectifier and Inverter as found in traditional double conversion UPS with the addition of a motor being driven by the inverter and coupled to a generator. In case #3 the motor generator can be synchronous/synchronous or induction/synchronous. The motor side of the unit in case #2 and #3 can be driven directly by an AC power source (typically when in inverter bypass), a 6-step double-conversion motor drive, or a 6 pulse inverter. Case #1 uses an integrated flywheel as a short-term energy source instead of batteries to allow time for external, electrically coupled gensets to start and be brought online. Case #2 and #3 can use batteries or a free-standing electrically coupled flywheel as the short-term energy source. Sometimes, in case #1, a diesel engine can be run up to speed and then mechanically coupled to the generator, or the flywheel itself can be used to start the diesel engine (which is mechanically coupled as required to the flywheel and generator). Radio station motor-generator, converting from low to the high voltage power supply. ...

Rotary UPS equipment can provide up to 17x fault clearing capabilities (peak current to blow a fuse) without going to bypass. These units provide superior current inrush handling for inductive loads such as motor startup or compressor loads as well as medical MRI and cath lab equipment.

The life cycle of these units is usually far greater than that of their static siblings, up to 30 years or more.

Standby (offline)

With this design, the UPS may simply pass utility power through to the load until either a power failure, sag or spike occurs, at which point, the UPS switches the load onto battery power and disconnects the utility power until it returns to an acceptable level; most such units also have some power conditioning electronics to block fast spikes that might otherwise cause damage during the interval before the switch to battery power. In this design, the UPS unit only charges the battery when it is running on utility power. This design is the most cost effective and typically makes use of a square wave or modified square wave inverter. These units are typically found in units 600 VA and below and designed for home use. This design solves problem 1, however the disadvantage of this is that any of the power problems numbered 2 - 8 will cause the UPS to switch to battery, and may cause it to completely drain the battery and shut off even though line voltage is still present.


Line interactive UPS units are designed so that the inverter is always connected to the output of the UPS. When line power is present, the inverter operates in reverse to charge the battery. When utility power fails, the UPS reverses the power flow from the inverter and provides power to the load. This design provides better filtering than a standby unit because the inverter is always connected to the load.

Line interactive units typically will incorporate an automatic voltage regulator. AVR allows the UPS to effectively step-up or step-down the incoming line voltage without switching to battery power. This allows the UPS to correct most long term over-voltages or under-voltages without draining the batteries. Another advantage is that it reduces the number of transfers to battery which extends the lifetime of the batteries.

Line-interactive UPS units are the most common design for units in the 0.5 kVA to 5 kVA range. They are typically used in small server environments. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Delta conversion online

Delta conversion is a new concept in online technology. Unlike offline technology, no switch-on time is required. Like other True-Online technology, a continuous separation of load and primary power is offered except for the frequency (#8). With Delta Conversion, frequency is synchronized with main input.

Delta conversion, as its name implies, involves having the inverter generate the "difference" between the line voltage and the desired voltage. It does this by magnetically coupling the line on the primary side with the inverter on the secondary. When the line voltage is within the acceptable range, no power is drawn from the inverter and the load is directly powered by the source. This gives delta conversion extremely high efficiencies at this sweet spot. When the line voltage deviates from the acceptable range, the inverter delivers a voltage on the secondary winding of the transformer which induces a voltage across the primary which boosts or trims the source.

The battery is charged by an inverter in parallel with the load. This inverter operates in both directions powering the DC bus from the AC line or vice versa. When the source cuts out, the inverter powering the transformer turns off which turns off the source. This is because no current on the secondary winding means no current through the primary which is connected to the source. The inverter that charges the battery then operates in reverse, powering the load.

Delta conversion is unable to influence the output frequency. If input frequency is outside the acceptable level for the load, the system will draw from the battery. Delta conversion UPS have a static bypass feature that transfers the load to raw mains in case of internal failure, overload or maintenance. Like brakes or air bags in a car, it is a fail-safe; it will help to supply continuous power in case of UPS fault, overload, etc. Within the same range, Delta coversion is cheaper than other True-Online. It can be up to 97% efficient, although this will be influenced by operating conditions, such as input voltage deviations or output currents that are not sinusoidal (harmonic distortion). The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental. ...

Dual conversion online

Dual conversion uninterruptible power supplies operate by converting incoming utility AC power to DC and then convert the DC back to AC power connected to the load. This is also called "double conversion" or "dual conversion." The batteries are directly connected to the DC level, which provides an excellent filter for removing line noise. Effectively, this design isolates the load from the incoming power and regenerates the sine wave. This yields many benefits. First, this design will protect against all 9 of the common power problems. It allows the UPS to use almost any incoming power, including generators. Second, this design allows the UPS to change incoming voltages and even frequencies easily. Third, because the load is always powered by the inverter, when power fails, there is no transfer time while the UPS switches from line power to battery power. While for most computer applications the switching time is not a problem, some industrial equipment can be harmed (air conditioner compressors for example). Fourth benefit is that during a mains failure, the operating condition of the inverter doesn't have to change. All other topologies require a change of current flows when a mains failure occurs. This can reveal hidden internal problems on the exact moment the UPS is most needed. Since a dual conversion UPS is always in full operation, problems will not stay hidden and can be resolved before mains failure occurs. The bypass circuitry will prevent power loss in the mean while.

Online units are typically used in environments with sensitive equipment or environments where a generator is used to provide backup power to the UPS. Almost all UPS units 5 kVA and above are online, although they can be found in capacities as small as 1000 VA.

Because the AC output must be constantly generated by the UPS inverter, any failure of this inverter could potentially cause an interruption to the connected load. This is the very thing that the UPS is designed to avoid in the first place. As a measure of reliability, online UPS units have a sophisticated monitoring system on the output that senses when the voltage or current goes out of specification. On most online UPS units (delta conversion and dual conversion), a solid state based bypass is then activated to shunt incoming AC directly to the attached load without interruption. By shunting raw incoming AC directly to the load, load failures can be avoided but power filtering is eliminated or reduced. Bypass activation can be due to UPS internal UPS failure. Another mode that requires bypass is fault clearing mode. A fault on the connected load, such as a short circuit in a power distribution panel or computer server power supply, may require more current than the UPS inverter can produce, in order for a fuse to blow, or a breaker to trip. During this mode of operation, bypass current is supplied directly to the output until the fault condition is resolved, usually in a matter of milliseconds. Without bypass modes, all of the other attached loads could lose power if even one experiences a fault. In addition to a high speed electronic bypass, most large (greater than 10KVA) UPS units have one or more layers of switches and/or breakers connected to the input and output to allow the entire unit to be bypassed, shut down, and isolated for maintenance without the connected loads being affected.

The ability for a UPS to bypass itself during abnormal conditions drastically increases the reliability of its output. It's very important when a UPS transfers from normal mode to bypass mode not to disturb the power in any way, including not abruptly changing phase or frequency. This can disturb timing circuits (extra zero crosses in the sine wave) or cause jerks in a motor's output. Dual conversion online UPS have their frequency and phase synchronized with their input (normal operation mode) unless input frequency is out of (often configurable) limits or bypass is disabled. Permanently disabling bypass is done to obtain a fixed frequency, or to use the system as a frequency converter.

Larger UPS are expensive but are often better value. Fewer larger UPS tend to be more reliable than many smaller units (that don't contain bypass circuits). These units may be marketed as power conditioners. In data centers, multiple sets of UPS units may run in parallel providing dual sources of conditioned power to static switches that then send power to server loads. In such a system, a complete UPS failure can occur without the loads connected to the switches being affected. A power conditioner (also known as a line conditioner) is an electronic device, commonly taking the form of a powerstrip, that smooths out the peaks and dips of common household AC power. ...

Dual conversion UPS are more expensive and not quite as efficient as line interactive, standby or delta conversion units. Efficiencies reach 94%, but are not influenced by deviations at input and only marginally by non-sinusoidal load currents.


Ferro-resonant units operate in the same way as a standby UPS unit with the exception that a ferro-resonant transformer is used to filter the output. This transformer is designed to hold energy long enough to cover the time between switching from line power to battery power and effectively eliminates the transfer time. Because the transformer typically gives off a lot of heat, these units are typically large, bulky, and inefficient.

While this used to be the dominant type of UPS, they are no longer used for common applications. Power factor correcting equipment found in newer computer systems interacts with the transformer, causing potentially damaging oscillations, and the transformer itself can create distortions which yield power less acceptable than poor quality line AC. These units are still used in some industrial settings, but have mostly disappeared from use with general computer equipment. The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power, and is a number between 0 and 1. ...

DC systems

Many systems used in telecommunications use DC power (often 48 V). Rather than converting AC to DC to charge batteries, then DC to AC and then convert it back to DC again, some equipment accepts 48 V DC power directly. By simply converting AC power to DC power and adding batteries to the DC side, one or more conversion steps can be saved. There has been much experimentation with DC power for computer servers, in the hope of reducing the likelihood of failure and the cost of equipment. Because there is more current to transfer the same amount of energy at the lower DC voltage, larger conductors are needed, and more energy is lost as heat. On the surface, eliminating a conversion step may seem more reliable, but the ability of online double conversion AC systems to entirely remove themselves from operation and transfer to bypass mode during certain UPS failures and maintenance allows for the connected servers to continue to function on unconditioned AC power while the UPS is repaired. DC-based power systems do not have this luxury, as it requires that all equipment has special DC power inputs that cannot utilize AC voltages in the event of a main DC rectifier or power distribution failure. DC has typically been the dominant power source for telecommunications, and AC has typically been the dominant source for computers and servers. Higher voltage DC (380 volts), however, may find an eventual use in data center applications.[1]

Outdoor UPS

When a UPS system is going to be placed outdoors, it should have some specific features that guarantee that is going to be able to support the weather conditions that it is going to encounter with a 'minimal to none' effect in its performance. Factors such as temperature, humidity, rain, and snow among others should have been considered by the manufacturer when designing an outdoor UPS system. Operating temperature ranges for outdoor UPS systems could be around -40ºC to +55ºC.

An outdoor UPS system is normally made of several components designed for this particular task: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

- Outdoor enclosure: it should provide protection against the elements to all the components that are going to be placed inside it. Good quality outdoor enclosures are powder coat finished to provide superior corrosion resistance and long service life. Outdoor enclosures are normally NEMA 3R compliant

- Power Module: It is the UPS itself. The boards of this power module should be conformal coated to avoid damage to the components due to humidity. This UPS unit is normally based on Line Interactive or Double Conversion topology. Some manufacturers prefer Line Interactive because it provides a better Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), and that is a critical part of an outdoor UPS system.

- Batteries: The batteries used in outdoor UPS systems must provide a wide temperature range, usually from -40°C to +60°C. Batteries normally used in outdoor UPS systems are Gel Cell Batteries. The outdoor UPS's Power Module should provide a temperature compensated battery charging mechanism to optimize the life of the batteries.

A proper outdoor UPS system requires that all its components are designed for this kind of environment. As seen from the features of the components above, an outdoor UPS system is not an indoor UPS inside an outdoor enclosure.

Outdoor UPS systems can be pole, ground (pedestal), or host mounted. Outdoor environment could mean extreme cold, in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a battery heater mat, or extreme heat, in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a fan system or an air conditioned system inside the unit.

Typical applications

Outdoor UPS systems are ideal for protection of WiFi/GSM/CDMA/satellite base stations, wireless communications/perimeter surveillance and security/gate control systems, LED traffic light/roadway display systems and remote terminal units (RTUs).

Internal UPS

Internal UPS are a group of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) designed to be placed inside computer chassis. There are two types of Internal UPS. First type is miniaturized regular UPS that are made small enough to fit into a 5.25” CD-ROM slot bay of a regular computer chassis. The other type is re-engineered switching power supplies that utilize dual power sources of AC and/or DC as power inputs and have an AC-DC built-in switching management control units.

The first type often requires extra connection wires between the internal UPS and computer's power supply. Some internal UPS of this group output high voltage (110 V - 220 V) direct current (DC) and some output nine-step table wave AC. Neither design is safe or energy efficient. As of 2006, there are only couple companies still selling this type of internal UPS in Asia and some part of Europe The top cover has been removed to show the internals of a computer Power supply Unit. ...

The second group of internal UPS replaces the regular switching power supplies. There are three main design mechanisms:

  1. Optic-coupling that imitates AC during AC outages. This mechanism was first introduced by American Advanced Power of USA and Magnum Power of UK in 1997, as well as Apollo Power of Taiwan in 1998. This design provides a low-cost solution but its efficiency is low and it has a very low overall wattage limit (<300 W).
  2. An analog-circuitry-controlled AC-DC switching mechanism. This design also provides a low-cost solution. However, because of the bulky component circuit board, little space is available for increasing wattage output. Plus, the final products are very sensitive to factors such as local heat and causing frequent operational errors. Nevertheless, because of its low cost, it is still popular in China. Most Asian internal UPS manufacturers belong to this category.
  3. A CPU controlled AC-DC switching mechanism. This design was first introduced by American Advanced Power Inc. of USA and Amsdell of Canada. It provides error-free switching control and a complicated communication protocol between the power supply and computer.

Using a UPS

Choosing a UPS

The first question to ask when choosing a UPS system should be: is it the unit going to be placed inside a controlled environment? If the answer to this question is yes, choose an indoor UPS. If the answer is no, choose an outdoor UPS. It doesn’t matter that you choose the right topology, power, backup time, etc. If you place an outdoor UPS in a controlled environment, you might be wasting money (exceptions to this could be found when powering small loads during an extended period of time, where outdoor UPS systems are sometimes the only available option). If you place an indoor UPS in a non-controlled environment, the useful life of this system will be considerably shortened, threatening the integrity and backup of the equipment you are protecting with the UPS.

Besides choosing a UPS design, there are 2 key ratings to be aware of when choosing a UPS unit. The first is the load rating, expressed as both volt amps (VA) and watts (W). Both the ratings represent the maximum amount of load that the UPS can support and the connected load typically should not exceed 80% of either. Special considerations must be made when connecting certain equipment such as printers or any type of motorized load.

The second factor in deciding which unit to purchase is the amount of runtime the unit will be able to provide when the power fails. This number will vary with the load amount that is plugged into the UPS. For example, a unit may run a single computer for 30 minutes, but with 2 computers it will generally last less than half that time. Larger units typically can provide more runtime for the same load than smaller units, however that is not always the case. Some UPS units are designed to provide extended runtime or have the ability to have external battery packs connected.

Another consideration is the anticipated usage. If the UPS is only intended to provide enough power to gracefully shut down the computers, serial or USB ports on the UPS and support software are essential. If the purpose of the UPS is to provide power until a standby generator kicks in (typically under a minute), the UPS input capabilities should be matched to the generator outputs. Specifically, most standby generators made for home use (15 kW or less) and most portable generators lack microprocessor voltage-and-frequency control and may not create a smooth sine wave. This can result in voltage and frequency fluctuating by 5% or more. While most UPS systems handle voltage fluctuations gracefully, most do not handle frequency fluctuations well. A UPS with a wide "frequency window" is essential in such cases. However, this can double the cost of the unit. Only a double conversion UPS can deliver a stable output frequency when powered by an unstable input frequency. “Dynamo” redirects here. ...

If the UPS needs to be quiet when running from battery, or will power AC motors (as found in air conditioners and fans), a UPS that outputs a smooth sine wave is needed. For some other uses, a block or quasi-sine wave waveform [2] is acceptable. UPS systems with square wave, or "simulated", "approximated" or "stepped" sine wave output do not give smooth sine waves. In fact, their output voltage contains a lot of harmonic distortion. This is why this type of output exists only in small power ratings standby UPS, where electrical noise and excess heat in wiring is generally not an issue. The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental. ...

Another consideration should be based on the type of load or connected equipment the UPS will support. If the UPS is connected to "mission critical" equipment or sensitive electronics (like lasers), a rotary solution will be more suitable with 100% line to load isolation. This would not only protect the equipment from a power outage, but will also protect the connected equipment from any anomaly that comes from the utility feed. For alternative meanings see laser (disambiguation). ...

Features to look for:

  1. Output frequency regulation within 0.5% (prevents connected equipment from over heating)
  2. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) AC noise suppression (noise filtering).
  3. Reasonable cost for replacement batteries.
  4. If energy efficiency is important avoid "Standby On-Line Hybrid", "Standby-Ferro", and "Double Conversion On-Line" UPS systems.
  5. If the UPS outputs a sine wave, a high quality unit will feature a voltage regulating transformer.
  6. If the UPS outputs a square wave, a high quality unit will use Pulse-width modulation (PWM)

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ... Pulse-width modulation of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle, to either convey information over a communications channel or control the amount of power sent to a load. ...

Replacing batteries

In order to provide the desired protection, UPS units must be properly maintained. Sealed lead/acid batteries have a useful lifetime of 3–5 years. In determining when to replace batteries, it is important to remember that the batteries can be completely bad after 3–5 years and lose their ability to hold a charge gradually over that time. If a UPS started with 1 hour of runtime for the connected load, after 1 year, it may only provide 45 minutes and to replace the batteries. Battery failure can also be caused by temperatures exceeding 25 °C.

Disposing of UPS batteries

Main article: Electronic waste

UPS units contain sealed lead-acid batteries and electronics which can be detrimental to the environment. In the United States, it is illegal to dispose of lead-acid batteries in a landfill, and they must be properly recycled. Sealed lead-acid batteries are recycled in the same manner as car batteries, so any auto shop that accepts used car batteries for recycling will also accept sealed lead acid batteries. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of galvanic cell battery. ...

See also

“Dynamo” redirects here. ... Emergency power systems are a type of device, which may include lighting, generators and other apparatus, to provide backup resources in a crisis or when regular systems fail. ... Distributed generation is a new trend in the generation of heat and electrical power. ... NASA G2 flywheel Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as inertial energy. ... A switched-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, or SMPS, is an electronic power supply unit (PSU) that incorporates a switching regulator — an internal control circuit that switches power transistors (such as MOSFETs) rapidly on and off in order to stabilize the output voltage or current. ... Radio station motor-generator, converting from low to the high voltage power supply. ... // A battery room is a room in a facility used to house batteries for large-scale custom-built backup power systems. ... Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of galvanic cell battery. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A power conditioner (also known as a line conditioner) is an electronic device, commonly taking the form of a powerstrip, that smooths out the peaks and dips of common household AC power. ...


  • Part of this article was originally taken from a public-domain entry in Federal Standard 1037C
  • Part of this article was copied with permission from Uninterruptible Solutions
  • Delta conversion operation information from Understanding Delta Conversion Online - Part 1
  • Delta conversion battery operation information from [3]
  • Hybrid Rotary UPS whitepaper from [4]

Federal Standard 1037C entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a U.S. Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ...

External links



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m