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Encyclopedia > Batman
Batman


Second printing cover to Batman #608 (Oct. 2002).
Art by Jim Lee (pencils) and Scott Williams (inks). Image File history File links Batmanlee. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Scott Williams is an American comic book artist and inker. ...

Publisher DC Comics
First appearance Historical:
Detective Comics #27
(May 1939)
Modern:
Batman #404 -
"Batman: Year One", part 1
(Feb. 1987)
Created by Bob Kane
Bill Finger
Characteristics
Alter ego Bruce Wayne
Affiliations Batman Family
Justice League
Wayne Enterprises
Outsiders
Notable aliases Matches Malone
Abilities Genius-level intelligence,
Master detective,
Peak human physical condition,
Martial arts master,
Escapologist,
Access to high tech equipment.

Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. Batman was co-created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, although only Kane receives official credit. Batman has since become one of the world's most recognized superheroes.[1] DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... In comic books, first appearance refers to first comic book to feature a character. ... Cover of Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... Batman: Year One was the title of a comic book written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzuchelli and colored/painted by Richmond Lewis, released in 1988 by DC Comics. ... Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ... Bill Finger (February 8, 1914–January 18, 1974) was an American writer best remembered (though not officially credited) as the co-creator of the character Batman with Bob Kane as well as the co-architect of the series development. ... Cover to Batman Allies: Secret Files & Origins 2005. ... The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a fictional DC Universe superhero team. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Outsiders are fictional characters, a DC Comics superhero group. ... The comic book character Batman, originally and still sometimes referred to as The Batman, is a fictional character who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Harry Houdini, a famous escapologist and magician. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Alice, a fictional character from the work of Lewis Carroll. ... For the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode, see Super Hero (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode). ... In comic books, the term first appearance refers to first comic book to feature a character. ... Cover of Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). ... Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ... Bill Finger (February 8, 1914–January 18, 1974) was an American writer best remembered (though not officially credited) as the co-creator of the character Batman with Bob Kane as well as the co-architect of the series development. ...


Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a billionaire industrialist, playboy, and philanthropist. Witnessing the murder of his parents as a child leads him to train himself to the peak of physical and intellectual perfection, don a bat-themed costume, and fight crime. Unlike most superheroes, he does not possess superhuman powers or abilities; he makes use of intellect, detective skills, science and technology, wealth, physical prowess, and intimidation in his war on crime. For other uses of this term, please see Secret identity (disambiguation). ... A billionaire is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of currency, such as United States Dollars (USD), Pounds or Euros. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ...

Contents

Publication history

In early 1938, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at the comic book division of National Publications (the future DC Comics) to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man".[2] Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that Kane Superman is a comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Cover of Action Comics #1, which featured the debut of Superman. ... National Publications was one of the companies that would later become DC Comics. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ...

had an idea for a character called 'Batman', and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of ... reddish tights, I believe, with boots ... no gloves, no gauntlets ... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign ... BATMAN.[3]

Finger offered such suggestions as giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, wearing a cape instead of wings, wearing gloves, and removing the red sections from the original costume.[4] Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock ... then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne".[5] Inspirations for Batman's personality, character history, visual design and equipment include[citation needed] movies such as Douglas Fairbanks' The Mark of Zorro, The Bat, and Dracula; characters such as The Shadow, The Phantom, Sherlock Holmes, Dick Tracy, Jimmie Dale, The Green Hornet, Spring Heeled Jack; and Leonardo Da Vinci's drawings of a flying machine. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland (1306 – 1329). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 - December 15, 1796), was a United States Army general and statesman. ... Douglas Fairbanks Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black... The Mark of Zorro is a silent movie released in 1920 by United Artists starring Douglas Fairbanks. ... The second silent version of this spooky house story about people looking for hidden loot while a caped killer bumps them off. ... Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary character the vampire Count Dracula. ... Who knows what evil lurks. ... The Phantom is an American adventure comic strip created by Lee Falk, also creator of Mandrake the Magician. ... Statue of Sherlock Holmes at Meiringen, Switzerland Sherlock Holmes (born 1854, according to William S. Baring-Gould) is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries who made his first published appearance in 1887. ... Dick Tracy is a long-run comic strip featuring a popular and familiar character in American pop culture. ... Jimmie Dale is a fictional character created by Frank Lucius Packard in 1918. ... Al Hodge as Britt Reid in The Green Hornet, 1938 The Green Hornet was an American radio program that ran on WXYZ (Detroit), the Mutual Network and the NBC Blue (later ABC) Network from January 31, 1936 to December 5, 1952. ... For other uses, see Spring Heeled Jack (disambiguation). ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ...


Kane signed away any ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics. This byline did not, originally, say "Batman created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story. The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late 1970s, when Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with William Moulton Marston being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman, Batman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits. Jerome (Jerry) Siegel (October 17, 1914 - January 28, 1996) was the co-creator of Superman, the first of the great comic book heroes and one of the most recognizable fictional characters from the 20th century. ... Joseph Joe Shuster (July 10, 1914 - July 30, 1992) was a Canadian-born comic book artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics character Superman, with writer Jerry Siegel, first published in Action Comics #1 (March 1938). ... Dr. William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893 – May 2, 1947) was a psychologist, feminist theorist, and comic book writer who created the Wonder Woman character with his wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston. ... Wonder Woman is a fictional DC Comics superheroine co-created by William Moulton Marston and wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston. ...


Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman #169 (Feb. 1965) for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler, one of Batman's recurring villains. However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Finger, like Shuster, Siegel, and some other creators during and after the Golden Age of Comic Books, would resent National's denying him the money and credit he felt was owed for his creations. At the time of Finger's death in 1974, DC had not officially credited Finger as Batman co-creator. Kane himself, however, in later years willingly acknowledged Finger's contributions to the character while also insisting on his own role.[6] Julius Schwartz, editor for DC Comics Julius Julie Schwartz (June 19, 1915 - February 8, 2004) was a comic book and pulp magazine editor, and a science fiction agent and prominent fan. ... The Riddler, (Edward E. Nigma, also spelled Nygma by some writers), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Superman, catalyst of the Golden Age: Superman #14 (Feb. ...


Early years (1939-1949)

Batman debuted in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Cover art by Bob Kane.
Batman debuted in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Cover art by Bob Kane.

The first Batman story appeared Detective Comics #27 (May 1939)[7] Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps"[8] and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals and was not above using firearms. The Bat-Man was a breakout hit, with sales on Detective Comics soaring to the point that the character was given his own title in 1940. By that time National was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry, and Batman and National's other major hero Superman were the cornerstones of the company's success.[9] The two characters were featured side-by-side as the stars of World's Finest Comics, which was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940. Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period. Cover of Detective Comics #27 (May 1939) by Bob Kane. ... Cover of Detective Comics #27 (May 1939) by Bob Kane. ... Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... Detective Comics #38 (May 1940), the first appearance of Robin. ... Richard Dick Sprang (b. ...


Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and Kane's artistic depiction of Batman evolved. Kane noted within six issues he drew the character's jaw more pronounced and lengthened the ears on the costume; "About a year later he was almost the full figure, my mature Batman," Kane said.[10] Batman's characteristic utility belt was introduced in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939), followed by the batarang and the first bat-themed vehicle in #31 (Sept. 1939), and the character's origin was revealed in #33 (Nov. 1939). The early pulp-influenced portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics #38 in 1940 with the introduction of Robin, Batman's kid sidekick.[11] Robin — whose name was based on that of Robin Hood — was introduced based on Finger's suggestion to Kane that Batman needed a "Watson" with whom Batman could talk.[12] The first issue of Batman was notable not only for introducing two of Batman's most persistent antagonists, the Joker and Catwoman, but for one of the stories in the issue where Batman shoots some monstrous giants to death, which prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth's decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun.[13] Batman's tone continued to stay light for the next several decades. By the 1950s, many of the familiar elements of the Batman mythos had been introduced. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Don Quixote and Sancho Panza unsuccessfully confront windmills. ... Robin Hood memorial statue in Nottingham. ... Dr Watson (left) and Sherlock Holmes, by Sidney Paget. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... The Joker is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillain widely considered to be Batmans archenemy. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ...


The fifties and early sixties (1950-1963)

In the story "The Mightiest Team In the World" by writer Edmund Hamilton and penciler Curt Swan in Superman #76 (June 1952), Batman first teams up with Superman and learns his secret identity; following the success of this story, the separate Batman and Superman features that had been running in World's Finest Comics instead featured both together; this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986. The stories feature the two as close friends and allies, tackling threats that require both of their talents. Edmond Moore Hamilton (October 21, 1904 - February 1, 1977) was a popular author of science fiction stories and novels throughout the mid-twentieth century. ... Curt Swan (born February 17, 1920 in Minneapolis, Minnesota; died June 16, 1996) was an American comic book artist, most known for his work on the Superman comics. ... Superman began as a feature in Action Comics #1 in June 1938. ... Worlds Finest Comics was a comic book series published by DC Comics from 1941 to 1986. ...


Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s. Starting in the mid-1950s, Batman's stories gradually become more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of the top-selling Superman comics of the time. New characters such as Batwoman, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite (the latter two paralleling Krypto the Superdog and Mr. Mxyzptlk of the Superman titles) were introduced. Batman has adventures involving either odd transformations or dealing with bizarre space aliens. Batman is a highly public figure during the stories of the 1950s, regularly appearing at events such as charity functions and frequently appearing in broad daylight. In 1960, Batman becomes a member of the Justice League of America, which debuts in The Brave and the Bold #28 (Feb. 1960). Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Batwoman (real name Kathy Kane) is the name of a fictional character, the female counterpart to DC Comics popular superhero Batman. ... Aces first appearance in Batman #92, June 1955 The comic book character Ace the Bat-Hound was the canine crime-fighting partner of Batman and Robin in DC Comics of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Bat-Mite, astride Ace the Bat-Hound, on the cover of Batman #133 (August 1960). ... Krypto, also known as Krypto the Superdog, is a fictional character, Supermans pet dog in the various Superman comic books published by DC Comics. ... Mr. ... The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a fictional DC Universe superhero team. ... The Brave and the Bold is a DC Comics comic book that is currently in monthly publication in a second volume. ...


"New Look" Batman and camp (1964-1969)

By 1964 sales on Batman titles had fallen drastically; Bob Kane noted that as a result "[DC] were planning to kill Batman off altogether."[14] Editor Julius Schwartz was soon assigned to the Batman titles and presided over drastic changes. Beginning with 1964's Detective Comics #327 (May 1964) — cover-billed as the "New Look" — Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary and return him to more detective-oriented stories, including a redesign of Batman's equipment, the Batmobile, and his costume (introducing the yellow ellipse behind the costume's bat-insignia), and brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help in this makeover. The space aliens and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired. Batman's erstwhile butler Alfred Pennyworth was even killed off and replaced with Aunt Harriet, who came to live with Bruce and Dick.[15] Julius Schwartz, editor for DC Comics Julius Julie Schwartz (June 19, 1915 - February 8, 2004) was a comic book and pulp magazine editor, and a science fiction agent and prominent fan. ... The Batmobile is the fictional personal automobile of comic book superhero Batman. ... Cover for Spider-Woman #8 (November 1978). ... Alfred Pennyworth is a fictional supporting character in the DC Comics Batman series. ...

Batman #227 (Dec. 1970). An example of Batman's return to a more Gothic atmosphere, in an homage to the cover of 1939's Detective Comics #31. Pencils by Neal Adams; inker unknown.
Batman #227 (Dec. 1970). An example of Batman's return to a more Gothic atmosphere, in an homage to the cover of 1939's Detective Comics #31.[16] Pencils by Neal Adams; inker unknown.

The debut of the Batman TV series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. In addition to initiating the return of Alfred and the introduction of Batgirl, the show's campy nature found its way into the comics. Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was cancelled in 1968. In the aftermath the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books."[17] Image File history File links Batman227. ... Image File history File links Batman227. ... Neal Adams (born June 6, 1941, Governors Island, Manhattan, New York City) is an American comic book and commercial artist best known for his highly naturalistic style of illustration. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Art from Wizard Magazine (2006), featuring Barbara and Cassandra as Batgirl. ... For the baseball player Bert Campaneris, see Bert Campaneris For the prestigious bicycle component manufacturer, see Campagnolo The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ...


O'Neil and Adams (1970-1985)

Writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the 1960s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night."[18] The O'Neil/Adams era began in earnest starting with Detective Comics #395's "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" (1970). Dick Grayson had been sent off to college in a story written by Frank Robbins, making Batman a loner once again. O'Neil's tone influenced Batman comics through the rest of the 1970s and into the 1980s; 1977 and 1978's stories in Detective Comics written by Steve Englehart (with art by Marshall Rogers) are held by many as a high point of this era.[citation needed] Dennis Denny ONeil is a comic book writer and editor, principally for Marvel Comics and DC Comics in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, and Group Editor for the Batman family of books until his retirement. ... Neal Adams (born June 6, 1941, Governors Island, Manhattan, New York City) is an American comic book and commercial artist best known for his highly naturalistic style of illustration. ... Steve Englehart (born April 22, 1947, Indianapolis, Indiana) is an American comic book writer best known for his work for Marvel Comics and DC Comics, particularly in the 1970s. ... Marshall Rogers is a comic book artist who has worked for Marvel and DC Comics since the 1970s. ...


The Dark Knight Returns and modern Batman (1986-present)

Frank Miller's 1986 limited series Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, which tells the story of a 50-year-old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, returned the character to his dark roots. The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the seminal works in comic book history.[19] Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ...

The first issue of Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, which redefined Batman in the 1980s. Pencils by Frank Miller.
The first issue of Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, which redefined Batman in the 1980s. Pencils by Frank Miller.

The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.[20] That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.[21] One outcome of this new approach was the "Year One" storyline in Batman #404-407, where Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli redefined the character's origins. Alan Moore and Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 1988's Batman: The Killing Joke, in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples his daughter Barbara Gordon, kidnaps him, and tortures him physically and mentally. These stories and others like them helped to raise the image of comic books beyond mere children's entertainment. Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and stories following it (such as John Byrne's Superman revamp) also severed the close friendship of Batman and Superman, replacing it with a more complex relationship of mutual antagonism and mutual respect. JPG version of BMP bookcover, originally from fansite, apparently. ... JPG version of BMP bookcover, originally from fansite, apparently. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... Crisis on Infinite Earths was a 12-issue comic book limited series (identified as a 12 part maxi-series) and crossover event, produced by DC Comics in 1985 in order to simplify their fifty-year-old continuity. ... Batman: Year One was the title of a comic book written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzuchelli and colored/painted by Richmond Lewis, released in 1988 by DC Comics. ... Dave Mazzucchelli is a comic book artist. ... Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his influential work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... Cover to Batman: The Killing Joke. ... The Joker is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillain widely considered to be Batmans archenemy. ... There have been several notable figures, both real and fictional, named James Gordon. ... Barbara Gordon is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics and related media. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ... John Lindley Byrne (born July 6, 1950) is a British-born naturalised American author and artist of comic books. ...


Since the publication of "Year One," many creators have set their stories in Batman's formative years, and the Batman title Legends of the Dark Knight in particular often features stories that take place in Batman's early days. Many of the stylistic notes of Year One, specifically text captions designed to look handwritten on note paper, have also been used quite successfully by other authors. In addition, the general concept of a Year One book, taking a fresh look at the origins of an older character, as well as showing their learning process, has been embraced by the comics industry as a whole. Other comics which have since gotten a "Year One" treatment include Spider-Man and the Justice League. Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight, commonly referred to as simply Legends of the Dark Knight is a DC comic book featuring Batman. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a fictional DC Universe superhero team. ...


The Batman comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a 900 number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd, the second Robin, lived or died. Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes.[22] 1993's "Knightfall" series introduces a new villain named Bane, who critically injures Batman. Jean-Paul Valley, known as Azrael, is called upon to wear the Batsuit during Bruce's convalescence. Writers Doug Moench, Chuck Dixon, and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall" and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the 1990s. 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline served as the precursor to 1999's "No Man's Land," a year-long storyline that ran through all the Batman-related titles dealing with the effects of an earthquake-ravaged Gotham City. At the conclusion of "No Man's Land" O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by Bob Schreck. In 2003, writer Jeph Loeb and artist Jim Lee began a 12-issue run on Batman. Lee's first regular comic book work in nearly a decade, the series became #1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman #500 (1993). Lee is currently teamed with Frank Miller on All-Star Batman and Robin, which debuted with the best-selling issue in 2005,[23] as well as the highest sales in the industry since 2003.[24] Batman was featured in major roles in DC's 2005 crossover event Identity Crisis and 2006's Infinite Crisis. As of 2006, the regular writers on Batman and Detective Comics are Grant Morrison and Paul Dini, respectively. Premium-rate telephone numbers are telephone numbers for telephone calls during which certain services are provided, and for which prices higher than normal are charged. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cover to Batman #497: The breaking of the Bat. ... Azrael (Jean-Paul Valley) is a fictional character from DC Comics. ... Doug Moench (born February 23, 1948) is an American comic book writer. ... Chuck Dixon is an American comic book writer, perhaps best-known for long runs on Batman titles in the 1990s. ... Alan Grant is a Scottish comic book writer born in 1949. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Joseph Jeph Loeb III is an American comic book writer, screen and television writer as well as television and motion picture producer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Diamond Comic Distributors, Inc. ... All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is an ongoing comic book series that launched in July 2005, written by Frank Miller, drawn by Jim Lee, and published by DC Comics. ... This article is about the DC Comics series. ... Infinite Crisis was a seven-issue limited series of comic books published by DC Comics, beginning in October of 2005. ... Grant Morrison (born January 31, 1960) is a Scottish comic book writer and artist. ... Paul Dini is an American television producer of animated cartoons. ...


Fictional character biography

Over the years, Batman's origin story, history and tone have undergone various revisions, both minor and major. Some elements have changed drastically; others, like the death of his parents and his pursuit of justice, have remained constant. Consistent across all versions of the Batman mythos, Batman is the alter-ego of Bruce Wayne, a wealthy playboy, industrialist and philanthropist who is driven to fight crime in Gotham City after his parents, the physician Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha Wayne, are murdered by a mugger. Bob Kane said he and Bill Finger discussed the character's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes."[25] Look up muthos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... The Gotham skyline with the Bat-signal. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Thomas Wayne is a fictional character of the Batman series of comic books. ... Martha Wayne is a fictional DC Comics character of the Batman series of comic books. ... Look up Mugging in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Golden Age

Bruce Wayne is inspired to become Batman: Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939). Art by Bob Kane.
Bruce Wayne is inspired to become Batman: Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939). Art by Bob Kane.

Bruce Wayne is born to Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor and its wealthy splendor and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill on their way home from the movie theater. Image File history File links Detective-33-Bat. ... Image File history File links Detective-33-Bat. ... Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ... The Gotham skyline with the Bat-signal. ... Joe Chill is a fictional character in the DC Comics Batman series. ...


Bruce Wayne swears an oath to rid the city of the evil that had taken his parents' lives. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training and studies a variety of areas which would aid him in his endeavors, including chemistry, criminology, forensics, martial arts, and gymnastics, as well as theatrical skills like disguise, escapology, and ventriloquism. He realizes, however, that these skills alone would not be enough. Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Gymnastics is the best sport there is. ... Deception is providing intentionally misleading information to others. ... Harry Houdini, a famous escapologist and magician. ... For the Batman villain, see Ventriloquist (comics). ...


"Criminals are a superstitious and cowardly lot", Wayne remarks,[26], "so my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible..." As if responding to his desires, a bat suddenly flies through the window, inspiring Bruce to assume the persona of Batman. His career as a vigilante in early Batman strips initially earns him the ire of the police. During this period Wayne has a fiancée named Julie Madison.[27] Julie Madison is a DC Comics fictional character who appeared in early issues of Detective Comics featuring Batman. ...


Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat, Dick Grayson, who becomes his sidekick, Robin. Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America,[28] although he, like Superman, is an honorary member[29] and thus only participates occasionally. Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department.[30] During this time Batman first encounters one of his most enduring adversaries, butler Alfred Beagle arrives at Wayne Manor [31] and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities joins their service. Dick Grayson is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Justice Society of America, or JSA, is a DC Comics superhero group, the first team of superheroes in comic book history. ... The Gotham City Police Department (GCPD) is a fictional police department servicing the city of Gotham City in the DC Universe. ... Alfred Pennyworth is a fictional supporting character in the DC Comics Batman series. ...


Silver Age

See also: Batman (Earth-Two)

The Silver Age of comic books in DC Comics is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced Barry Allen as a new, updated version of The Flash. Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature a large number of science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with all science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series. The Batman of Earth-Two is a parallel version of the fictional DC Comics superhero, who was introduced after DC Comics created Earth-Two, a parallel world that was retroactively established as the home of characters which had been published in the Golden Age of comic books. ... Showcase #4 (Oct. ... Barry Allen is a fictional character, a superhero in the DC Comics universe and the second Flash. ... The Flash is a name shared by several DC Comics superheroes. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), debut of the "New Look" Batman. Cover art by Carmine Infantino & Joe Giella.
Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), debut of the "New Look" Batman. Cover art by Carmine Infantino & Joe Giella.

After the introduction of DC Comics' multiverse in the 1960s, it is retroactively established that stories from the Golden Age star the Batman of Earth-Two, a character from a parallel world. This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle (as shown in Superman Family #211) and fathers Helena Wayne, who, as the Huntress, becomes (along with the Earth-Two Robin) Gotham's protector once Wayne retires from the position to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike Flash or Green Lantern, Batman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would on occasion make reference to stories from the Golden Age (such as the Englehart/Rogers run of the late 1970s, which has editorial notes directing readers to issues such as Batman #1). Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman #208, Jan./Feb. 1969) after his parents death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman and Robin, respectively.[32][33] In 1980 then-editor Paul Levitz commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman limited series to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cover for Spider-Woman #8 (November 1978). ... Joe Giella (born 27 June 1928, Manhattan, New York City) is an American comic book artist best known as a DC Comics inker during the Silver Age of comic books. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Batman of Earth-Two is a parallel version of the fictional DC Comics superhero, who was introduced after DC Comics created Earth-Two, a parallel world that was retroactively established as the home of characters which had been published in the Golden Age of comic books. ... First appearance of Earth-Two For other uses, see Earth 2. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ... Superman Family was a DC Comics comic book series which ran from 1974 to 1982 featuring primarily stories starring supporting characters in the Superman comics. ... The Bronze Age Huntress was Helena Wayne, the daughter of the Batman and Catwoman of Earth-Two, an alternate universe established in the early 1960s as the world where the Golden Age stories took place. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Flash is a name shared by several DC Comics superheroes. ... For the DJ, see DJ Green Lantern. ... Paul Levitz (1956 - ) is an American comic book writer, editor and executive. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ...


Batman meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics, starting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986. Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends. Batman becomes a founding member of the Justice League of America, appearing in its first story in 1960s Brave and the Bold #28. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brave and the Bold became a Batman title, in which Batman teams up with a different DC Universe superhero each month. Worlds Finest Comics was a comic book series published by DC Comics from 1941 to 1986. ... The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a fictional DC Universe superhero team. ... The Brave and the Bold was a DC Comics superhero comic book which was published from August 1955 to July 1983. ... Cover to the History of the DC Universe trade paperback. ...


In 1969, Robin attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman comics. Additionally, Batman also moves from Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. Batman spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance (since the early Golden Age) of an insane, murderous Joker, and the arrival of Ra's Al Ghul. In the 80s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing. Dick Grayson is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... Art from Wizard Magazine (2006), featuring Barbara and Cassandra as Batgirl. ... Ras al Ghul, sometimes written Rās al Ghūl (Arabic: رأس الغول), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Nightwing is a name used by at least six fictional characters in the DC Comics Universe. ...


In the final issue of Brave and the Bold in 1983, Batman quits the Justice League and forms a new group called the Outsiders. He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders #32 (1986) and the comic subsequently changed its title. The Outsiders are fictional characters, a DC Comics superhero group. ...


Modern Batman

After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics rebooted the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline Year One from Batman #404-407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character.[34] Though the Earth-Two Batman is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/Earth-One career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. While Dick Grayson's past remains much the same, the history of Jason Todd, the second Robin, is altered, turning the boy into the orphan son of a petty crook, who tries to boost the tires from the Batmobile.[35] Also removed is the guardian Phillip Wayne, leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred. Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period. Various stories from Jeph Loeb and Matt Wagner also touch upon this era. The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Batman: Year One was the title of a comic book written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzuchelli and colored/painted by Richmond Lewis, released in 1988 by DC Comics. ... Dick Grayson is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight, commonly referred to as simply Legends of the Dark Knight is a DC comic book featuring Batman. ... Joseph Jeph Loeb III is an American comic book writer, screen and television writer as well as television and motion picture producer. ... Mage: The Hero Defined cover by Matt Wagner Grendel: Devil Tales cover by Matt Wagner Matt Wagner (born 1961) is an American comic book writer and artist best known as the creator of two irregular series, Mage and Grendel. ...

Bane breaks Batman's back in a splash page from Batman #497 (July 1993). Art by Jim Aparo.
Bane breaks Batman's back in a splash page from Batman #497 (July 1993). Art by Jim Aparo.

In 1987's Batman: Son of the Demon, Batman marries Talia Al Ghul. This story was deemed non-canonical shortly after its publication, though its concept would be revisited in a 2006 storyline. In 1988's "Batman: A Death in the Family" storyline from Batman #426-429 Jason Todd, the second Robin, is killed by the Joker. Subsequently Batman takes an even darker, often excessive approach to his crimefighting. Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin.[36] Image File history File links Bane-breaks-Batman-497pg21. ... Image File history File links Bane-breaks-Batman-497pg21. ... Bane is the DC Comics supervillain, and sometimes ally, best known for having broken Batmans back. ... A splash page is a full page drawing in a comic book. ... Jim Aparo James N. Jim Aparo (1932-July 19, 2005) was a comic book artist best known for his work on various Batman stories for DC Comics. ... Talia al Ghul is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, the now-estranged daughter of the supervillain Ras al Ghul, and a love interest of Batman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Batman: A Death in the Family is a Batman comic book story arc first published in the late 1980s which gave fans the ability to influence the story through voting with a 900 number. ... Timothy Tim Drake is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ...


Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, the same year that DC published the "Death of Superman" storyline, the publisher released the "Knightfall" storyline. In the storyline's first phase, new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains to return to his role as Batman.[37] ... Cover to Batman #497: The breaking of the Bat. ... Bane is the DC Comics supervillain, and sometimes ally, best known for having broken Batmans back. ... Azrael (Jean-Paul Valley) is a fictional character from DC Comics. ...


1994's company-wide crossover Zero Hour changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force. Similarly, the Waynes' killer is never caught or identified, effectively removing Joe Chill from the new continuity, rendering stories such as "Year Two" non-canon. Zero Hour: Crisis in Time was a 1994 comic book miniseries and crossover storyline that ran in DC Comics. ... An urban legend or urban myth is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Joe Chill is a fictional character in the DC Comics Batman series. ...


Batman once again becomes a member of the Justice League during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. While Batman during Morrison's JLA run is depicted as "the most dangerous man on Earth"[38] and contributes greatly to many of the team's successes, the Justice League is largely uninvolved as Batman and Gotham City face catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land." While Lex Luthor rebuilds Gotham at the end of the "No Man's Land" storyline, Bruce Wayne is later framed by Luthor for murder in the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs; Wayne is eventually acquitted. Cover to Batman: No Mans Land Vol. ... Lex Luthor is a fictional DC Comics supervillain. ...


The "Batman: Hush" storyline introduces Tommy Elliot, a childhood friend of Bruce Wayne's, who had significant influence on him during his youth. As Hush, Elliot attacks Batman by coordinating many of the hero's enemies. During the story, Catwoman and Batman become romantically involved for a brief time, but Batman's growing sense of distrust in her ends their relationship. One of Hush's tactics is to trick Batman into believing that Jason has returned from the dead. Although the Jason Todd whom Batman fights in the "Hush" storyline is revealed to be Clayface, Todd does turn up alive later in the guise of the Red Hood. Published 2002-2003 in monthly installments in Batman issues 608-619 by DC Comics Characters Batman (Bruce Wayne), Catwoman (Selina Kyle), Superman (Clark Kent), Nightwing (Dick Grayson), Robin (Tim Drake), The Joker, The Riddler, Hush, Scarecrow, Huntress, Ras al Ghul, Lex Luthor, Two-Face, Commissioner James Gordon, Oracle, Harley... Hush is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Clayface is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, best known as an enemy of Batman. ... Cover to Batman: Under The Hood (2005). ...

Batman and his alleged son, Damian from Batman #657. Art by Andy Kubert.

DC's 2005 limited series Identity Crisis, reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories, leading to his deep loss of trust in the rest of the superhero community. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over the other heroes. Its eventual co-opting by Maxwell Lord, Black King of the government organization known as Checkmate, is one of the main events that leads to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. In Infinite Crisis #7, Alexander Luthor, Jr. mentions that in the newly-rewritten history of the "New Earth", created in the previous issue, the murderer of Martha and Thomas Wayne - again, Joe Chill - was captured, thus undoing the retcon created after Zero Hour. Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs. Image File history File linksMetadata Batsson656yoyo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Batsson656yoyo. ... Damian is a fictional character in the DC Comics Universe. ... Cover of Batman #655, the first issue of Batman & Son Andy Kubert is an American comic book artist, the son of Joe Kubert and brother of Adam Kubert, both of whom are also artists. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... This article is about the DC Comics series. ... Zatanna Zatara is a fictional wizard and a superheroine in the DC universe. ... OMACs are an organization of powerful cyborgs that exist in the DC Universe. ... Maxwell Lord is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... Checkmate is a fictional covert operations agency within the DC Comics universe. ... Infinite Crisis was a seven-issue limited series of comic books published by DC Comics, beginning in October of 2005. ... Alexander Luthor, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, and Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman". In the "Face the Face" storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence.[39] Additionally, Bruce adopts Tim as his son. The follow-up story arc in Batman, "Batman & Son", features Talia al Ghul and a boy who believes Batman to be his father and brings elements of Son of the Demon into continuity. Batman also helps create Wonder Woman's new identity, Diana Prince, and has begun screening other heroes for candidacy in the new Justice League of America. Batman & Son is a story arc by Grant Morrison and Andy Kubert, which debuted July 26, 2006, which follows sometime after the conclusion of James Robinsons Face the Face. ... Damian is a fictional character in the DC Comics Universe. ... Wonder Woman is a fictional DC Comics superheroine co-created by William Moulton Marston and wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston. ... The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a fictional DC Universe superhero team. ...


Personas

Like his close friend Superman, the prominent persona of Bruce Wayne's dual identities varies with time. Modern-age comics have tended to portray "Bruce Wayne" as the facade, with "Batman" as the truer representation of his personality (in counterpoint to the post-Crisis Superman, whose "Clark Kent" persona is the 'real' personality, and "Superman" is the act). Since Infinite Crisis and the portrayal in Batman Begins, Bruce Wayne has been shown as somewhat of an amalgam between the two. Batman Begins is a 2005 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ...


Wayne guards his secret identity well, as only a handful of individuals know of his superhero alter-ego. Several villains have also discovered his true identity over the years, most notably eco-terrorist Ra's al Ghul, as well as Catwoman, Hugo Strange, the Riddler, Bane, and Hush. Ras al Ghul, sometimes written Rās al Ghūl (Arabic: رأس الغول), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ... Hugo Strange is a fictional character in DC Comics and a nemesis of Batman. ... The Riddler, (Edward E. Nigma, also spelled Nygma by some writers), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Bane is the DC Comics supervillain, and sometimes ally, best known for having broken Batmans back. ... Hush is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ...


Bruce Wayne

To the world at large, Bruce Wayne is seen as an irresponsible, superficial playboy who lives off his family's personal fortune (amassed when Bruce's family invested in Gotham real estate before the city was a bustling metropolis) and the profits of Wayne Enterprises, a major private technology firm that he inherits. Forbes Magazine estimated Bruce Wayne to be the 7th-richest fictional character with his $6.8 billion fortune.[40] However, Wayne is also known for his contributions to charity, notably through the Wayne Foundation, a charity devoted to helping the victims of crime and preventing people from becoming criminals. Bruce creates the playboy public persona to aid in throwing off suspicion of his secret identity, often acting dim-witted and self-absorbed to further the act. Batman makes it clear that he considers keeping his secret identity a top priority; on various occasions, he often risks death rather than exposing his skills in public as Bruce Wayne. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Alternate meaning: For the Boston Brahmin family associated with John Forbes Kerry, see Forbes family. ... The Wayne Foundation is a fictional charitable foundation started by Bruce Wayne (better known as Batman) and named for his father, Thomas Wayne. ... A Foundation is a type of philanthropic organization set up by either individuals or institutions as a legal entity (either as a corporation or trust) with the purpose of distributing grants to support causes in line with the goals of the foundation. ...


The Dark Knight

Bruce Wayne creates Batman to strike fear into the hearts of Gotham's underworld. The costume — and the way he acts while wearing it — are meant to be as imposing and intimidating as possible. While Bruce Wayne is lighthearted and irresponsible, Batman is stoic and driven. In addition to the change in costume and personality, Bruce Wayne also changes his voice significantly to become Batman. The Dark Knight's voice is low and raspy, for both disguise and intimidation.


In keeping with the "dark" theme of the comics and the nature of bats, Batman is usually presented as operating primarily at night. After Zero Hour, DC Comics introduced the idea of the general public believing Batman to be urban legend; however, Batman is "outed" in the "War Games" crossover, when his live image is broadcast over the news during a brief daytime appearance in front of a high school under siege in Gotham. In The Long Halloween, Batman himself regards "his appearance to be more effective during the night". Zero Hour: Crisis in Time was a 1994 comic book miniseries and crossover storyline that ran in DC Comics. ... An urban legend or urban myth is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-man, and still sometimes as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional character and superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ...


Matches Malone

Main article: Matches Malone

Batman occasionally works undercover to infiltrate Gotham's criminal element. Matches Malone is introduced in Batman #242 as a former small-time mob leader. When Matches is killed, Batman assumes his identity, utilizing Malone's reputation to gather information. The comic book character Batman, originally and still sometimes referred to as The Batman, is a fictional character who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ...


Skills and abilities

Batman is physically at the peak of human ability in dozens of areas, notably martial arts, acrobatics, strength, and escape artistry. Intellectually, he is just as peerless; Batman is one of the world's greatest scientists, criminologists, and tacticians, as well as a master of disguise. He is regarded as one of the DC Universe's greatest detectives. Rather than simply outfighting his opponents, Batman often uses cunning and planning to outwit them. In his identity as Bruce Wayne, he is also one of the world's foremost businessmen, making Wayne Industries into one of the wealthiest companies in the world. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... Cover to the History of the DC Universe trade paperback. ...


He also abstains entirely from drinking alcohol, though he presents Bruce Wayne, his alter ego, as a borderline alcoholic (he creates this illusion by drinking ginger ale and pretending it is champagne). Batman's refusal to drink is directly linked to keeping his body in its absolute best physical condition.[41] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Blanc de noirs be merged into this article or section. ...


Equipment

The 1966 television Batmobile was built by George Barris from a Lincoln Futura concept car.
The 1966 television Batmobile was built by George Barris from a Lincoln Futura concept car.

Batman designs or modifies the majority of costumes, equipment, and vehicles he uses as Batman, producing them through various divisions of Wayne Enterprises, including Kordtronics. At various times, characters such as Oracle, Harold, and Toyman III create, modify, or repair Batman's equipment. Additionally, sometimes Batman adapts or reverse-engineers the technology of other villains and heroes, such as Mister Terrific's T-spheres. The Batcopter from Batman: The Movie. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Batmobile is the fictional personal automobile of comic book superhero Batman. ... The Batboat from Batman: The Movie[1]. The Batboat is the fictional personal boat of comic book superhero Batman. ... The Batcycle from Batman: The Movie. ... Batmans utility belt is the most characteristic portion of Batmans costume, much like Wonder Womans Lasso of Truth, or Green Lanterns power ring. ... Batman surrounded by batarangs. ... U.S. Patent D205998 The text of U.S. patents is in the public domain [1]. Patent illustrations may be copyrighted, but U.S. patent regulations explicitly require applicants to allow the facsimile reproduction by any­one of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the... U.S. Patent D205998 The text of U.S. patents is in the public domain [1]. Patent illustrations may be copyrighted, but U.S. patent regulations explicitly require applicants to allow the facsimile reproduction by any­one of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the... George Barris is the best-known designer of custom cars in the world. ... 1955 Lincoln Futura Concept The Lincoln Futura was never a production model, but was instead a concept car designed by the Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Automotive design. ... Edward (or Theodore) Ted Kord, was created by Steve Ditko, and first appeared as a back-up feature in Captain Atom #83 (Nov. ... Barbara Gordon is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics and related media. ... Harold was an aide of Batmans, helping to design and build much of his equipment. ... The Toyman is a fictional comic book supervillain in the DC Comics universe and an enemy of Superman. ... Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... Michael Holt is a fictional character in the DC Comics Universe. ...


Over the years, Batman accumulates a large arsenal of specialized gadgets (compare with the later James Bond), the designs of which usually share a common theme of dark coloration and a bat motif. A notable example is Batman's primary vehicle, the Batmobile, usually depicted as an imposing black car with large tailfins that suggest a bat's wings; another is his chief throwing weapon, the batarang, a bat-shaped boomerang/throwing star. Batman's other vehicles include the Batplane (aka the Batwing), Batboat, Bat-Sub, and Batcycle. An Apple iPod, a popular gadget A True Utility LockLite, a gadget invention to turn a key into a flashlight. ... Flemings commissioned image of James Bond to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... The Batmobile is the fictional personal automobile of comic book superhero Batman. ... The height of the tailfin era; the 1959 Cadillac. ... Batman surrounded by batarangs. ... This article is about the wooden implement. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | East Asian weapons | Throwing weapons ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Batboat from Batman: The Movie[1]. The Batboat is the fictional personal boat of comic book superhero Batman. ... The Bat-Sub is another fictional watercraft along with the Batboat used by the comic superhero Batman for alternative transportation purposes. ... The Batcycle from Batman: The Movie. ...


In proper practice, the "bat" prefix (as in batmobile or batarang) is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals (primarily the 1960s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series) stretched the practice to camp proportions. The 1960s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such ridiculous, satirical "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, shark repellent bat-spray, and bat-rope. The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own. Burt Ward as Robin and Adam West as Batman Batman was the title of an exceptionally popular TV series based on the comic-book character Batman that aired on ABC TV for 2 1/2 seasons from 12 January 1966 to 14 March 1968. ... The title card for the first Super Friends series. ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... For the baseball player Bert Campaneris, see Bert Campaneris For the prestigious bicycle component manufacturer, see Campagnolo The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... Hiatts Speedcuffs in holster, as used by UK police A model wearing handcuffs, waist chain, and thumbcuffs Old handcuffs Handcuffs are restraints designed to secure an individuals wrists close together. ... Large format camera lens. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Symmoriida(extinct) Shark (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ...


Batman keeps most of his field equipment in a signature piece of apparel, a utility belt. Over the years it is shown to contain a virtually limitless variety of crimefighting tools. Different versions of the belt have these items stored in either pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it. Batmans utility belt is the most characteristic portion of Batmans costume, much like Wonder Womans Lasso of Truth, or Green Lanterns power ring. ...


In some of his early appearances, Batman uses side arms (see especially Detective Comics #32, September 1939), but he uses them less over time, later eschewing their use because a gun was used to murder his parents. Some stories relax this rule, allowing Batman to arm his vehicles for the purpose of disabling other vehicles or removing inanimate obstacles. In two stories, The Dark Knight Returns and The Cult, Batman used machine guns loaded with rubber bullets rather than live ammunition. In the 1989 Batman film, firearms figure more prominently in the Dark Knight's arsenal; machine guns and grenades are mounted on the Batmobile, and missiles and machine cannons on the Batwing. A side arm is a small personal weapon that is typically worn on the body in a holster in such a way to permit immediate access and use. ... Batman is an American Academy Award-winning superhero film based on the DC Comics character Batman created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. ...


Costume

Main article: Batsuit

The details of the Batman costume change repeatedly through the character's evolution, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a black scallop-hem cape, a cowl covering most of the face featuring a pair of batlike ears, and a stylized bat emblem on the chest, plus the ever-present utility belt. His gloves also typically feature three scallops that protrude from the sides. The most significant costume variations over the years involve the chest emblem–a yellow ellipse was added in 1964, and has come and gone since then; and the color scheme, alternately lighter colors (medium blue and light gray) or darker (black and dark gray). The length of the cowl's ears and of the cape vary greatly depending on the artist. On film, his uniform varies from its comic versions. Batmans current costume, as shown in the Hush story arc. ... A Roman Catholic monk wearing a cowl The cowl (from the Latin, cuculla) is a long, outer garment, with wide sleeves, worn by Catholic monks when participating in the liturgy. ... Batmans utility belt is the most characteristic portion of Batmans costume, much like Wonder Womans Lasso of Truth, or Green Lanterns power ring. ...


In his earliest appearances, Batman wears a bulletproof vest, but it was dropped soon after, in order to make the character even more human. However, later writers reintroduced the idea. To that end, in Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, Batman explains that the bright yellow ellipse on an otherwise dark costume provides an attractive target, drawing shooters away from a headshot and to a region of his costume that can better take the blow. The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ...


Bat-Signal

Main article: Bat-Signal

One of the best-known elements of the Batman mythos is the Bat-Signal. When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens that shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham. The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium. The Bat-Signal in Jim Lees cover art from Batman #608. ... Edisons classical searchlight cart. ...


In various incarnations, most notably the 1960s Batman TV series, Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone (in the TV series) which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent cake cover on top. The line connects directly to Wayne Manor, specifically to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Batcave

Main article: Batcave

The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of subterranean caves beneath his residence, Wayne Manor. It serves as his command centre for both local and global surveillance, as well as housing his vehicles and equipment for his war on crime. It also is a storeroom for Batman's memorabilia. In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat issue #45, and the 2005 film Batman Begins, the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad. Of the heroes and villains who see the Batcave, few know where it is located. The cave is also home to a large colony of bats which Batman can summon to a scene with a sonic device. Batman also has several little caches throughout the city, linked together through his computer, where he stores extra equipment. The Batcave. ... Wayne Manor in 1989s Batman. ... Batman Begins is a 2005 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Gotham City

Main article: Gotham City

Modeled after cities such as Chicago, New York City, Boston, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh, Gotham is positioned on the northeast coast of the United States. Suffering from urban blight, Gotham is generally portrayed as dirty, crime-ridden, and corrupt, in stark contrast to the bright, clean, futuristic feel of Superman's Metropolis. It has been said that Gotham is "New York at night", in reference to New York's former reputation as a city struggling with crime. Thomas and Martha Wayne are gunned down in 'Crime Alley', formerly Gotham's ritzy Park Row but now a slum. Batman originally operated out of New York, but later on the character was portrayed as having always lived in Gotham City, which was, like Metropolis for Superman, created specifically to be a reflection of the character in many ways. The Gotham skyline with the Bat-signal. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Nickname: Steel City, Iron City, Steel Town, City of Champions, City of Bridges, City of Colleges, The Burgh Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Allegheny County Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18... For other usages of Metropolis, see Metropolis. ...


Supporting characters

Batman with his sidekick Robin on the cover to All Star Batman and Robin #1 (July 2005). Pencils by Jim Lee.
Batman with his sidekick Robin on the cover to All Star Batman and Robin #1 (July 2005). Pencils by Jim Lee.

Despite his reputation as a loner, Batman works with many people in his fight against crime. For much of Batman's history, a teenager serves as the youthful sidekick Robin. The first Robin, Dick Grayson, eventually leaves his mentor and becomes the hero Nightwing. The second Robin, Jason Todd, is beaten to death by the Joker but later returns as an adversary. Tim Drake, the third Robin, first appears in 1989 and aspires to be as good a detective as Batman. Alfred Pennyworth is Bruce Wayne's loyal butler and father figure, and also aids Batman by maintaining the Batcave while Lucius Fox sees to his business and charitable interests. Police Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon works closely with Batman despite their differences on how to best enforce the law. Cover to Batman Allies: Secret Files & Origins 2005. ... Image File history File links Allstarbatmanandrobin01. ... Image File history File links Allstarbatmanandrobin01. ... Don Quixote and Sancho Panza unsuccessfully confront windmills. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is an ongoing comic book series from DC Comics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Don Quixote and Sancho Panza unsuccessfully confront windmills. ... Dick Grayson is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... Nightwing is a name used by at least six fictional characters in the DC Comics Universe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Timothy Tim Drake is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... Alfred Pennyworth is a fictional supporting character in the DC Comics Batman series. ... // For other uses see Butler (disambiguation) The butler is a senior servant in a large household . ... Lucius Fox is a fictional character appearing in Batman comic books by DC Comics. ... Chief of Police is the title typically given to the head of a police department, particularly in the United States and Canada. ... James Worthington Jim Gordon is a supporting character in DC Comics Batman series. ...


While primarily operating either alone or with Robin, Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. Batman has often been paired in adventure with his Justice League teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest and the current Superman/Batman series. In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they have a mutually respectful but uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crimefighting and justice. In recent years, Batman's relationship with Superman warms, making Superman his closest ally in the Justice League. Batman keeps a Kryptonite ring, given to him by Superman, in case one of the world's most powerful beings is ever manipulated or goes rogue. Superman is a comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Superman/Batman is a monthly comic book series published by DC Comics that features the publishers two most popular characters: Superman and Batman. ... Lex Luthor in front of a displays of kryptonite and holding Green Kryptonite. ...


Batman is involved romantically with many women throughout his various incarnations. These include villainesses such as Catwoman and Talia al Ghul; reporters Vicki Vale and Vesper Fairchild; superheroines Wonder Woman and Zatanna; former sidekick Sasha Bordeaux; and others, including Silver St. Cloud, Julie Madison, physician Shondra Kinsolving, nurse Linda Page and even Lois Lane. While these relationships tend to be short, Batman's attraction to Catwoman is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear. Authors have gone back and forth over the years as to how Batman manages the 'playboy' aspect of Bruce Wayne's personality; at different times he embraces or flees from the women interested in attracting "Gotham's most eligible bachelor". Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ... Talia al Ghul is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, the now-estranged daughter of the supervillain Ras al Ghul, and a love interest of Batman. ... Vicki Vale is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, a reporter who was the most prominent and longest lasting love interest of Bruce Wayne and his alter-ego, Batman. ... Wonder Woman is a fictional DC Comics superheroine co-created by William Moulton Marston and wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston. ... Zatanna Zatara is a fictional wizard and a superheroine in the DC universe. ... Sasha Bordeaux is a comicbook character in the DC Universe, who was at first primarily associated with Batman, and has subsequently evolved an association with Checkmate in two of its incarnations. ... Silver St. ... A ficitonal character featured in the DC Comic books, specifically the Knight Saga storyline, Shondra Kinsolving is a 59 doctor with a secret, she has a hidden ability to cure people but has neither told anyone nor ever used it. ... Lois Joanne Lane-Kent is a fictional character who appears in DC Comics’ Superman stories. ...


Other characters in Batman's world include former Batgirl Barbara Gordon, Commissioner Gordon's daughter who, now confined to a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, serves the superhero community at large as the computer hacker Oracle; Azrael, a would-be assassin who replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman for a time; Cassandra Cain, an assassin's daughter whose allegiance is put in scrutiny after a stint as Batgirl, Batwoman, a young socialite who operates in Gotham City during Batman's absence following Infinite Crisis; Huntress, a sole surviving member of a mob family turned Gotham vilgilante who has worked with Batman on occasion, but due to her more violent and extreme methods, has yet to gain his full acceptance; Ace the Bat-Hound, Batman's pet dog; and Bat-Mite, an extra-dimensional imp who adores Batman. Barbara Gordon is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics and related media. ... In a security context, a Hacker refers to a type of computer hacker who is involved in computer security/insecurity, specializing in the discovery of exploits in systems (for exploitation or prevention), or in obtaining or preventing unauthorized access to systems through skills, tactics and detailed knowledge. ... Cassandra Cain, is a fictional character in the DC Universe, and the most recent Batgirl. ... Batwoman (real name Kathy Kane) is the name of a fictional character, the female counterpart to DC Comics popular superhero Batman. ... The Huntress is also the title of a television series about a female bounty hunter. ... Aces first appearance in Batman #92, June 1955 The comic book character Ace the Bat-Hound was the canine crime-fighting partner of Batman and Robin in DC Comics of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Bat-Mite, astride Ace the Bat-Hound, on the cover of Batman #133 (August 1960). ...


Batman villains

A gathering of villains. Art by Jim Lee.
A gathering of villains. Art by Jim Lee.

Batman's foes form one of the most distinctive rogues galleries in comics. The most familiar Batman villains were created in the 1930s and 1940s: the Joker, Catwoman, the Penguin, Two-Face, the Riddler, the Mad Hatter, Scarecrow, and Clayface. Other well known villains emerge in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s including Mister Freeze, Killer Moth, Poison Ivy, Man-Bat, and Ra's Al Ghul. Killer Croc, Black Mask, and the Ventriloquist first appear in the 1980s, and Bane and Harley Quinn in the 1990s. Enemies introduced since 2000 include Hush, David Cain, and Jason Todd as the second Red Hood.
Image File history File links Batmanfoes. ... Image File history File links Batmanfoes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this comics-related article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of Batmans major and minor enemies. ... Rogues gallery is a term in comics referring to a specific hero or superheros reoccuring and most notable enemies, as opposed to nameless thugs and mooks. ... The Joker is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillain widely considered to be Batmans archenemy. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ... The Penguin (Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Two-Face is a DC Comics supervillain, an enemy of Batman. ... The Riddler, (Edward E. Nigma, also spelled Nygma by some writers), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... The Mad Hatter is a supervillain in the Batman comics, published by DC Comics. ... The Scarecrow (Dr. Jonathan Crane) is a DC Comics supervillain, an enemy of Batman. ... Clayface is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, best known as an enemy of Batman. ... Mister Freeze(Victor Fries) is of the Batman arch nemesis. ... Killer Moth is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... Poison Ivy (Pamela Lillian Isley) is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillain who is primarily an enemy of Batman. ... Man-Bat (real name Dr. Kirk Langström) is a fictional character in DC Comics universe who first appeared in Detective Comics #400, illustrated by Neal Adams. ... Ras al Ghul, sometimes written Rās al Ghūl (Arabic: رأس الغول), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Killer Croc is a fictional character in DC comics. ... Black Mask is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... The Ventriloquist is a DC Comics villain, an enemy of Batman. ... Bane is the DC Comics supervillain, and sometimes ally, best known for having broken Batmans back. ... Harley Quinn (real name Dr. Harleen Quinzel) is a fictional character in the animated series Batman: The Animated Series, as well as the DC Comics Batman series and its spin-offs, and subsequently in various Batman-related comic books. ... Hush is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... David Cain is the name of a comic book character associated with the Batman mythos. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cover to Batman: Under The Hood (2005). ...


Homosexual interpretations

See also: Seduction of the Innocent

Psychologist Fredric Wertham's general assertion in his 1954 book Seduction of the Innocent is that readers imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupt the morals of the youth. The most notorious charge in the book, however, is leveled at Batman, in a four-page polemic claiming that Batman and Robin are lovers. "They live in sumptuous quarters, with beautiful flowers in large vases, and have a butler," Wertham wrote. "It is like a wish dream of two homosexuals living together." Wertham asserted, "the Batman type of story may stimulate children to fantasies." [42] First U.S. printing, 1954 First U.K. printing, 1954 Seduction of the Innocent was a book by Dr. Fredric Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that comic books were a bad form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. ... Fredric Wertham Dr. Fredric Wertham (March 20, 1895 – November 29, 1981) was a German-American psychiatrist and crusading author who protested the purportedly harmful effects of mass media—comic books in particular—on the development of children. ... First U.S. printing, 1954 First U.K. printing, 1954 Seduction of the Innocent was a book by Dr. Fredric Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that comic books were a bad form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... See fantasy for an account of the literary genre involving the development of common or popular fantasies. ...

Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson. Panel from Batman #84 (June, 1954), page 24.
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson. Panel from Batman #84 (June, 1954), page 24.

Wertham became aware of this alternative reading through his conversations with fans of Batman in the 1950s, who brought the comic book to his attention as an example of the idealization of a "homosexual lifestyle." Burt Ward has also remarked upon this interpretation in his autobiography Boy Wonder: My Life in Tights, noting the relationship could be interpreted as a sexual one, with the show's double entendres and lavish camp also possibly offering ambiguous interpretation. [43] Image File history File links Batbed. ... Image File history File links Batbed. ... Burt Ward as Robin Burt Ward (born July 6, 1945) is best remembered for his work as Robin, the Boy Wonder, in the 1960s television series, Batman. ...


The fact that the original Robin costume is made up of tiny green shorts and pixie boots also lead to some homosexual suggestions; however, Robin's costume was designed in the late 1930s, and he was meant to appeal to children as a colorful, fun character in contrast to the darker Batman. The current Robin dresses in a more modern costume that is not as skimpy as the original design.

Bat-girl, from Batman #144 (December 1961). Story by Bill Finger, art by Sheldon Moldoff.

Despite the lack of any concrete cause-and-effect link between reading comics and "deviance", these suggestions raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of the Comics Code Authority. It has also been suggested by scholars that the characters of Batwoman (in 1956) and Bat-Girl (in 1961) were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman and Robin were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel.[44] Julius Schwartz has said that when he became editor of the series he was conscious of the inferences that could be drawn from Batman's living arrangements, and that because of this he and writer Bill Finger had Batman's butler Alfred killed and his role in the stories filled by Dick Grayson's Aunt Harriet, providing in effect a female chaperone at Wayne Manor. [45] Image File history File links Batgirlbettebatmite. ... Image File history File links Batgirlbettebatmite. ... Bill Finger (February 8, 1914–January 18, 1974) was an American writer best remembered (though not officially credited) as the co-creator of the character Batman with Bob Kane as well as the co-architect of the series development. ... Sheldon Shelly Moldoff (born April 14, 1920, New York City, New York) is an American comic book artist best known for co-creating such DC Comics characters as Hawkgirl and Poison Ivy, and as one of Bob Kanes primary ghost artists (uncredited collaborators) on the superhero Batman. ... The seal of the Comics Code Authority, which appears on the covers of approved comic books. ... Batwoman (real name Kathy Kane) is the name of a fictional character, the female counterpart to DC Comics popular superhero Batman. ... Bette Kane is a fictional character in DC comics. ...


Commenting on homosexual interpretations of Batman, writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman I wrote for 13 years isn't gay. Denny O'Neil's Batman, Marv Wolfman's Batman, everybody's Batman all the way back to Bob Kane... none of them wrote him as a gay character. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view." Devin Grayson has commented, "It depends who you ask, doesn't it? Since you're asking me, I'll say no, I don't think he is ... I certainly understand the gay readings, though." [46] Alan Grant is a Scottish comic book writer born in 1949. ... Joel Schumacher (born August 29, 1939) is an American film director, writer, and producer. ... Devin Kallie Grayson is a comic book writer. ...

From Justice League of America #44, published in 1966. Story by Gardner Fox, pencils by Mike Sekowsky.

While changing morals have made the issue less important today, popular culture and a number of artists continue to play off the homosexual connotation of the Batman-Robin relationship against the wishes of the publisher. [47] One notable example occurred in 2000, when DC Comics refused to allow permission for the reprinting of four panels (from Batman issues 79, 92, 105 and 139) to illustrate Christopher York's paper All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s. [48] Another happened in the summer of 2005, when painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of watercolors depicting both Batman and Robin in suggestive poses. DC threatened both artist and gallery with legal action if they did not cease selling the works and demanded all remaining art, as well as any profits derived from them. [49] Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Gardner Francis Fox (May 20, 1911, Brooklyn, New York – December 24, 1986) was an American writer best known for creating numerous comic book characters for DC Comics. ... The cover of Brave and the Bold #28, 1960, featuring the first appearance of the Justice League and art by Mike Sekowsky. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ...


Most recently, George Clooney said in an interview with Barbara Walters that in Batman & Robin he played Batman as gay. "I was in a rubber suit and I had rubber nipples. I could have played Batman straight, but I made him gay." Barbara Walters laughed, then asked, "George, is Batman gay?" To which he responded, "No, but I made him gay." [50] George Clooney (born May 6, 1961) is an Academy Award- and two-time Golden Globe winning American actor, director, producer and screenwriter, known for his role in the first five seasons of the long-running television drama ER (1994–99), and his rise as an A-List movie star in... Barbara Jill Walters[1] (born September 25, 1929- [2]) is an American journalist and media personality who has been a regular fixture on morning television shows (Today and The View), evening news magazine (20/20), and on The ABC Evening News, as the first female evening news anchor. ... The correct title of this article is Batman & Robin (1997 film). ...


Batman, both as a superhero and in his identity as Bruce Wayne, has been portrayed throughout his years in comics and other media as having enjoyed a number of romantic relationships with women, and his encounters with his female adversaries have also occasionally used sexual tension to add to the narrative. Batman's sexuality has been intended by most authors to be predominantly heterosexual. Homosexual readings of the texts are the product of non-canonical reader interpretations.


Bibliography

Main article: List of Batman comics

The modern Batman of the DC Universe is the main character in current comic book series Detective Comics, Batman, Batman Confidential, The Brave and the Bold and Superman/Batman. Series in which Batman starred, but have ceased publication include Legends of the Dark Knight, Batman: Shadow of the Bat, Batman: Gotham Knights and World's Finest Comics. He appears regularly in many other DC titles, including Justice League of America, Robin, Nightwing, and Catwoman. Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... Cover to the History of the DC Universe trade paperback. ... Cover of Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... Batman Confidential is an upcoming monthly comic book series from DC Comics and set to debut its first issue on November 2006. ... The Brave and the Bold is a DC Comics comic book that is currently in monthly publication in a second volume. ... Superman/Batman is a monthly comic book series published by DC Comics that features the publishers two most popular characters: Superman and Batman. ... Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight, commonly referred to as simply Legends of the Dark Knight is a DC comic book featuring Batman. ... Batman: Gotham Knights was one of several alternate titles for Batman: The Animated Series. ... Worlds Finest Comics was a comic book series published by DC Comics from 1941 to 1986. ... The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a fictional DC Universe superhero team. ... Timothy Tim Drake is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... Dick Grayson is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ...


Alan Moore and Brian Bolland's notable Batman: The Killing Joke was intended to be non-canon, but the effects of its narrative have become canon. The revolutionary limited series Batman: The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller is also notable and considered non-canon. Miller's current series All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is likewise not set in continuity. Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his influential work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... Bollands cover to Hellstorm: Prince Of Lies #16. ... Cover to Batman: The Killing Joke. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is an ongoing comic book series from DC Comics. ...


In addition to Miller and Moore, comic book creators who have contributed significantly to the development of the Batman mythos are Bill Finger and Bob Kane's run on the series in the 1930s and 1940s; Dennis O'Neil, Len Wein, and Neal Adams's work in the 1970s; and more recent stories by creators such as Grant Morrison and Jeph Loeb. Len Wein (born June 12, 1948, New York City, New York) is an American comic book writer and editor best known for co-creating DC Comics Swamp Thing and for reviving Marvel Comics X-Men. ... Joseph Jeph Loeb III is an American comic book writer, screen and television writer as well as television and motion picture producer. ...


From time to time, Batman appears in intercompany crossovers with characters from other comic book publishers, most frequently with Marvel Comics. Many of these stories are not canon for the companies involved, although the events of the JLA/Avengers crossover appear to have affected both universes. He meets the Hulk, the Punisher, Captain America, Spider-Man, and Daredevil. In the Amalgam Comics titles, Batman is merged with the popular Marvel character Wolverine; the resulting character is called "Dark Claw". Bruce Wayne is a separate character merged with Nick Fury in Bruce Wayne Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. Batman has also been featured in inter-company crossovers with characters including The Darkness, Judge Dredd, Spawn, Grendel, Predators, Aliens, Tarzan, Planetary, The Spirit, and Scooby-Doo. In comic books, an intercompany crossover (also called cross-company or company crossover) is a comic or series of comics where characters published by one company meet those published by another (for example, DC Comics Superman meeting Marvels Spider-Man). ... Marvel Comics (Stan Lee is behind many of the superheros) is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... JLA/Avengers was a 4-issue comic book mini-series jointly published by Marvel Comics and DC Comics in late 2003 through early 2004. ... The Hulk (Dr. Robert Bruce Banner), sometimes referred to as The Incredible Hulk, is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in the Marvel Comics Universe. ... The Punisher is a fictional vigilante and anti-hero in the Marvel Comics Universe. ... Captain America, the alter ego of Steve Rogers,[2] is a fictional comic-book superhero in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... This article is about the Marvel Comics superhero. ... Amalgam Comics was a metafictional American comic book publisher, and part of a collaboration between Marvel Comics and DC Comics, in which the two comic book publishers merged their characters to create new ones (e. ... For other uses, see Wolverine (disambiguation). ... Dark Claw is a fictional character and an Amalgam Comics superhero. ... For the French hip hop artist, see Nikkfurie. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... The Darkness is a series of comics produced by Top Cow Productions (TCP). ... For the 1995 film, see Judge Dredd (film). ... Spawn is the most recognizable character in the Image Comics comic book universe. ... Grendel:Devil Tales cover by Matt Wagner For the monster from the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf, see Grendel. ... This article or section may need to be cleaned up and rewritten because it describes a work of fiction in a primarily in-universe style. ... The xenomorph as it appears in Alien vs. ... James H. Pierce and Joan Burroughs Pierce starred in the 1932-34 Tarzan radio series 1964 Edition of Tarzan of the Apes Tarzan, a fictional character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first appeared in the 1912 novel Tarzan of the Apes, and then in twenty-three sequels. ... Planetary is an adjective meaning relating to a planet or planets. ... For the religious or spiritual meaning of The Spirit, see Spirit. ... Scooby-doo is also British naval divers slang for civilian sport scuba diver. Scooby-Doo is an important character in animation up to this day Scooby-Doo is a long-running animated series produced for television by Hanna-Barbera Productions from 1969 to 1986, 1988 to 1991, and from 2002...


In other media

In addition to comic books, Batman has appeared in newspaper syndicated comic strips, books, radio dramas, television and several theatrical feature films. These include the 1943 theatrical serial, the campy television series and theatrical film of the 1960s starring Adam West and the 1989 Tim Burton film Batman starring Michael Keaton as Batman and Jack Nicholson as the Joker, which was followed by the sequels Batman Returns, Batman Forever and Batman and Robin (with the latter two having been directed by Joel Schumacher rather than Burton, and featuring Val Kilmer and George Clooney in the title role). As portrayed by Keaton in 1989's Batman, Batman is ranked at no. 46 on The AFI's Top 50 Heroes list. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... [1]#redirect Book ... Radio drama, which had its greatest popularity in the U. S. and in most other countries before the widespread access to television programming, depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to help the listener imagine the story in her or his minds eye--in this sense, it resembles reading... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... For the baseball player Bert Campaneris, see Bert Campaneris For the prestigious bicycle component manufacturer, see Campagnolo The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Adam West (born September 19, 1928) is an American actor, best known for playing the role of Batman on the original television program that ran from 1966 to 1968. ... Timothy William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award-nominated American film director, writer and designer known for his off-beat and quirky style. ... Batman is an American Academy Award-winning superhero film based on the DC Comics character Batman created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. ... Michael Keaton (born Michael John Douglas on September 5, 1951) is an American actor best known for his roles in the films Batman, Batman Returns and Beetlejuice. ... This article refers to the actor. ... Batman Returns is a 1992 motion picture based on the Batman character created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. ... Batman Forever is the third of the Batman movies which began with Tim Burtons 1989 version of the character, although it is a major departure from its predecessor in the franchise, Batman Returns. ... Batman and Robin, see Batman and Robin (serial). ... Joel Schumacher (born August 29, 1939) is an American film director, writer, and producer. ... Val Edward Kilmer[1] (born December 31, 1959) is an American actor. ... George Clooney (born May 6, 1961) is an Academy Award- and two-time Golden Globe winning American actor, director, producer and screenwriter, known for his role in the first five seasons of the long-running television drama ER (1994–99), and his rise as an A-List movie star in... AFIs 100 Years. ...

In 2005, the film Batman Begins, starring Christian Bale, took the character back to his early years, unconnected to the previous film franchise. This series will continue with The Dark Knight, which will be released in 2008. A Broadway show called Batman: The Musical was set to premiere in 2005, with Tim Burton signed on to direct; however, the project was never produced. The Six Flags theme parks feature Batman stunt shows and rides. Warner Bros. Movie World also has a Batman-themed simulator ride called Batman Adventure - The Ride, with a vertical ride named Batwing Spaceshot opening on 26 December 2006, exactly one year after another Movie World Attraction, Superman Escape. Image File history File links Batman_keaton_89. ... Image File history File links Batman_keaton_89. ... Michael Keaton (born Michael John Douglas on September 5, 1951) is an American actor best known for his roles in the films Batman, Batman Returns and Beetlejuice. ... Batman Begins is a 2005 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... Christian Charles Philip Bale (also known professionally as Christian Morgan Bale; born 30 January 1974) is an English [2] actor who is known for his roles in the films American Psycho, Batman Begins and The Prestige, among others. ... The Dark Knight is a 2008 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... Timothy William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award-nominated American film director, writer and designer known for his off-beat and quirky style. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Other Stunt Shows Knotts Berry Farms Wild West Stunt show opened on October 8, 1974. ... The parks entrance gate. ... A motion platform is a type of amusement ride with a seating platform remaining parallel to the ground while being moved in a circular motion along a vertical plane. ... Batman Adventure: The Ride is a Batman-themed attraction at the Warner Bros. ... The 61metre tall tower of the Batwing Spaceshot The Batwing Spaceshot is a thrill ride located at Warner Bros. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Superman Escape Superman Escape is an Intamin Rocket Coaster at Warner Bros. ...

Batman is featured in every DC animated universe animated series, from Batman: The Animated Series to Justice League Unlimited, all voiced by Kevin Conroy. In Batman Beyond, a companion series set in the future, an aged Bruce Wayne (also voiced by Conroy) passes on the mantle of Batman to a young man named Terry McGinnis, who is voiced by Will Friedle. In 2004, an animated series titled The Batman, with a new voice cast and new continuity, made its debut with Rino Romano as the title character. Image File history File links Batman_bale_small. ... Image File history File links Batman_bale_small. ... Christian Charles Philip Bale (also known professionally as Christian Morgan Bale; born 30 January 1974) is an English [2] actor who is known for his roles in the films American Psycho, Batman Begins and The Prestige, among others. ... Batman Begins is a 2005 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... The DCAU or DC Animated Universe is a general term made by fans of the animated television series based off of DC Comics, usually heavily developed by Bruce Timm and Paul Dini. ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... The animated Batman shoots his grappling gun from a rooftop in a scene from the episode, On Leather Wings. ... Justice League Unlimited (or JLU) is the name of an American animated television series that was produced by and aired on Cartoon Network. ... Kevin Conroy Kevin Conroy (born November 30, 1955) is an American actor of stage, screen, and voice, best known for his portrayal of DC Comics superhero Batman in numerous animated series and features. ... Batman Beyond (known as Batman of the Future in Europe, Latin America, Australia, and New Zealand) was an American animated television series created by WB Network in collaboration with DC Comics as a continuation of the Batman legacy. ... Terrence Terry McGinnis is a fictional character and the protagonist of the DC animated universe television series Batman Beyond. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Batman is an American animated television series produced by Warner Bros. ... Rino Romano (born 1969) is a Canadian voice actor probably best known for his voice roles as Bruce Wayne on the television show The Batman and as Darien Shields (Chiba Mamoru) in the dub of the popular anime Sailor Moon. ...


Given Batman's cultural ubiquity and long-standing iconic status, references to Batman — either as homage, influence, or parody — are common. Several other comic companies have created their own versions of the character, such as Marvel's Nighthawk and Image Comics' Shadowhawk. Batman has appeared in both video games and board games, as well as Heroclix sets, the DC Overpower card game, and the DC Heroes roleplaying game. Both of the Raven NPCs from the Mutants and Masterminds role-playing game's Freedom City campaign setting are variant homages to Batman. Marvel Comics (Stan Lee is behind many of the superheros) is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ... Nighthawk is a comic book superhero in the Marvel Comics universe, and a member of the Squadron Supreme of Earth-712. ... Image Comics Logo Image Comics is an American comic book publisher. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... A board game is any game played with a premarked surface, with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. ... HeroClix is a collectible miniatures game produced by WizKids, Inc. ... Marvel OverPower card back OverPower is a collectible card game produced by Fleer Corporation originally featuring characters from Marvel Comics and later from DC Comics and Image Comics as well. ... An NPC from the video game The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion. ... Mutants & Masterminds (abbreviated M&M or MnM) is a superhero tabletop role-playing game by Green Ronin Publishing based on the d20 System by Wizards of the Coast. ... A role-playing game (RPG, often roleplaying game) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. ... Freedom City is a fictional, city-based campaign setting for the roleplaying game Mutants and Masterminds. ... A campaign setting is a fictional fantasy world which serves as a setting for a role-playing game or wargame. ...


References

  • DC Comics: Batman official site
  • Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0
  • Daniels, Les. DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch, 1995. ISBN 0-821-22076-4
  • Jones, Gerard. Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books, 1995. ISBN 0-465-03657-0
  • Beatty, Scott, et al., The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual. Quirk Books, 2005. ISBN 1-59474-023-2

Les Daniels (born 1943) is an American writer of historical horror fiction. ... Gerard Jones is an American writer, born July 10, 1957 in Cut Bank, Montana, raised in Los Gatos and Gilroy, California. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Guardian (March 15, 1999): "Batman's Big Birthday: He's brave, he's hooded and now he's 60", by David Finkelstein and Ross Macfarlane, refers to Batman as "the perfect cultural artifact for the 21st century".
  2. ^ Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0, pg. 18.
  3. ^ The Steranko History of Comics 1, by Jim Steranko (Supergraphics, Reading, Pa., 1970; ISBN 0-517-50188-0)
  4. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 21, 23
  5. ^ Kane, Bob; Tom Andrae (1989). Batman & Me. Forestville, CA: Eclipse Books, 44. 1-56060-017-9. 
  6. ^ Kane and Andrae, Ibid.
  7. ^  Bill Finger (w),  Bob Kane (p), "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate" Detective Comics #27 May 1939  DC Comics
  8. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 25
  9. ^ Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation. Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5, pg. 19
  10. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 29
  11. ^ Wright, pg. 17
  12. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 38
  13. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 42
  14. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 94
  15. ^ Detective Comics #328 (June 1964)
  16. ^ Grand Comics Database: Detective Comics #31 and Batman #227
  17. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 115
  18. ^ Wright, pg. 233
  19. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 147, 149
  20. ^ Wright, pg. 267
  21. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 155, 157
  22. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 161
  23. ^ Diamond's 2005 Year-End Sales Charts & Market Share (http). newsarama.com (2006). Retrieved on October 26, 2006.
  24. ^ July 2005 Sales Charts: All-Star Batman & Robin Lives Up To Its Name (http). newsarama.com (2005). Retrieved on October 26, 2006.
  25. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 31
  26. ^ Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939)
  27. ^ She first appears in Detective Comics #31 (Sept. 1939)
  28. ^ DC Special #29 (Sept. 1977), "The Untold Origin of the Justice Society"
  29. ^ All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940/41)
  30. ^ Batman #7 (Nov. 1941)
  31. ^ Batman #16 (May 1943); his original last name, Beagle, is revealed in Detective Comics #96 (Feb. 1945)
  32. ^ Detective Comics #235 (September 1956)
  33. ^ Detective Comics #226
  34. ^ Miller, Frank; David Mazzucchelli and Richmond Lewis (1987). Batman: Year One. DC Comics, 98. ISBN 1-85286-077-4. 
  35. ^ Batman #408
  36. '^ Batman #457, 1990
  37. ^ Dixon, Chuck. et al. Batman: Prodigal. Batman 512-514, Shadow of the Bat 32-34, Detective Comics 679-681, Robin 11-13. New York: DC Comics, 1995.
  38. ^ JLA #4 (1997)
  39. ^ Batman #651
  40. ^ Noer, Michael; David M.Ewalt (2006-11-20). The Forbes Fictional 15. Forbes. Retrieved on 2006-11-22.
  41. ^ Frank Miller (1986). Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. DC Comics. ISBN 1563893428.
  42. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 84
  43. ^ Bruce Wayne: Bachelor. Ninth Art: Andrew Wheeler Comment. Retrieved on June 21, 2005.
  44. ^ York, Christopher (2000). "All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s". The International Journal of Comic Art 2 (2): 100–110. 
  45. ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 99
  46. ^ Is Batman Gay?. Retrieved on December 28, 2005.
  47. ^ Ennis, Garth. "Midnighter is the Gay Batman", Newsarama, March 2006. 
  48. ^ Beatty, Bart (2000). "Don't Ask, Don't Tell: How Do You Illustrate an Academic Essay about Batman and Homosexuality?". The Comics Journal (228): 17–18. 
  49. ^ "Gallery told to drop 'gay' Batman", BBC, 19 August 2005. 
  50. ^ "Brokebat Mountain: "Batman is gay", says George Clooney", PinkNews.co.uk, 3 March 2006. Retrieved on 2006-03-12. 

Les Daniels (born 1943) is an American writer of historical horror fiction. ... Captain America #111 (March 1969): Sterankos signature surrealism. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Bill Finger (February 8, 1914–January 18, 1974) was an American writer best remembered (though not officially credited) as the co-creator of the character Batman with Bob Kane as well as the co-architect of the series development. ... Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Cover of Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). ... This article is about the 1940s comic book series. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... Dave Mazzucchelli is a comic book artist. ... Batman: Year One was the title of a comic book written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzuchelli and colored/painted by Richmond Lewis, released in 1988 by DC Comics. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:



Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The DC Database Project came online October 7th, 2005 as a non-profit site, with the goal of becoming the largest online database pertaining only to DC Comics. ...

Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book artist and writer credited as the creator of Batman. ... Bill Finger (February 8, 1914–January 18, 1974) was an American writer best remembered (though not officially credited) as the co-creator of the character Batman with Bob Kane as well as the co-architect of the series development. ... Although Bob Kane achieved renown for creating the fictional superhero Batman, he and others have acknowledged the contributions of Bill Finger for fleshing the character out, writing many of his early stories, and creating the characters origin. ... Cover to Batman Allies: Secret Files & Origins 2005. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Timothy Tim Drake is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... Nightwing is a name used by at least six fictional characters in the DC Comics Universe. ... Dick Grayson is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... Art from Wizard Magazine (2006), featuring Barbara and Cassandra as Batgirl. ... Batwoman (real name Kathy Kane) is the name of a fictional character, the female counterpart to DC Comics popular superhero Batman. ... Alfred Pennyworth is a fictional supporting character in the DC Comics Batman series. ... Lucius Fox is a fictional character appearing in Batman comic books by DC Comics. ... Barbara Gordon is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics and related media. ... James Worthington Jim Gordon is a supporting character in DC Comics Batman series. ... This article is about the DC Comics character. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this comics-related article or section may require cleanup. ... Bane is the DC Comics supervillain, and sometimes ally, best known for having broken Batmans back. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ... Clayface is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, best known as an enemy of Batman. ... Harley Quinn (real name Dr. Harleen Quinzel) is a fictional character in the animated series Batman: The Animated Series, as well as the DC Comics Batman series and its spin-offs, and subsequently in various Batman-related comic books. ... The Joker is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillain widely considered to be Batmans archenemy. ... Killer Croc is a fictional character in DC comics. ... Mister Freeze (Dr. Victor Fries) (Pronounced as Victor Freese or Freeze) is a DC Comics supervillain, an enemy of Batman. ... The Penguin (Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Poison Ivy (Pamela Lillian Isley) is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillain who is primarily an enemy of Batman. ... Ras al Ghul, sometimes written Rās al Ghūl (Arabic: رأس الغول), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... Cover to Batman: Under The Hood (2005). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Riddler, (Edward E. Nigma, also spelled Nygma by some writers), is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. ... The Scarecrow (Dr. Jonathan Crane) is a DC Comics supervillain, an enemy of Batman. ... Two-Face is a DC Comics supervillain, an enemy of Batman. ... This is a list of fictional characters from DC Comics who are or have been enemies of Batman. ... Arkham Asylum as it appeared on Batman: The Animated Series. ... The Batcave. ... The Gotham skyline with the Bat-signal. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Wayne Manor in 1989s Batman. ... Batman surrounded by batarangs. ... The Batmobile is the fictional personal automobile of comic book superhero Batman. ... Batmans current costume, as shown in the Hush story arc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Batman #1 Spring 1940 Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Lewis Wilson (1920 - 2000) was an American actor from New York City who was most famous for being the first actor to play the DC Comics character Batman in live action (1943s Batman). ... Motion picture and stage actor; born Kansas City, Missouri, October 17, 1913; passed away December 26, 1971 in Hollywood, California. ... Adam West (born September 19, 1928) is an American actor, best known for playing the role of Batman on the original television program that ran from 1966 to 1968. ... Olan Soule, born February 29, 1909, was a voice actor, best known for providing the voice of Batman/Bruce Wayne in the Super Friends cartoons of the 1960s before giving the role over to former TV Batman Adam West. ... Michael Keaton (born Michael John Douglas on September 5, 1951) is an American actor best known for his roles in the films Batman, Batman Returns and Beetlejuice. ... Kevin Conroy Kevin Conroy (born November 30, 1955) is an American actor of stage, screen, and voice, best known for his portrayal of DC Comics superhero Batman in numerous animated series and features. ... Val Edward Kilmer[1] (born December 31, 1959) is an American actor. ... George Clooney (born May 6, 1961) is an Academy Award- and two-time Golden Globe winning American actor, director, producer and screenwriter, known for his role in the first five seasons of the long-running television drama ER (1994–99), and his rise as an A-List movie star in... Rino Romano (born 1969) is a Canadian voice actor probably best known for his voice roles as Bruce Wayne on the television show The Batman and as Darien Shields (Chiba Mamoru) in the dub of the popular anime Sailor Moon. ... Christian Charles Philip Bale (also known professionally as Christian Morgan Bale; born 30 January 1974) is an English [2] actor who is known for his roles in the films American Psycho, Batman Begins and The Prestige, among others. ... List indicator(s) (x) indicates the actor portrayed a character that did not originate in the comic book. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Legends of the Superheroes was an umbrella title for two one-hour Hanna-Barbara TV specials based on the Super Friends cartoon show that aired on NBC in January 1979. ... Birds of Prey is a live action American television series produced in 2002. ... Batman was a 15-chapter serial released in 1943 by Columbia Pictures. ... Batman and Robin was a 15-chapter serial released in 1949 by Columbia Pictures. ... For the 1989 version starring Michael Keaton, see: Batman (1989 film). ... Batman is an American Academy Award-winning superhero film based on the DC Comics character Batman created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. ... Batman Returns is a 1992 motion picture based on the Batman character created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. ... Batman Forever is the third of the Batman movies which began with Tim Burtons 1989 version of the character, although it is a major departure from its predecessor in the franchise, Batman Returns. ... Batman and Robin, see Batman and Robin (serial). ... Batman Begins is a 2005 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... The Dark Knight is a 2008 superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman. ... The Batman/Superman Hour was a Filmation animated series that was broadcast on CBS from 1968–1969. ... Bat-Mite, Batman, and Robin from The New Adventures of Batman. ... The animated Batman shoots his grappling gun from a rooftop in a scene from the episode, On Leather Wings. ... The New Batman Adventures promotional image. ... Batman: Mask of the Phantasm is an animated film first released in 1993. ... Batman & Mr. ... Batman Beyond (known as Batman of the Future in Europe, Latin America, Australia, and New Zealand) was an American animated television series created by WB Network in collaboration with DC Comics as a continuation of the Batman legacy. ... Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker is a direct-to-video animated film featuring the comic book superhero Batman. ... Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman is an animated movie based on the DC Comics character Batman and set in the same world as Batman: The Animated Series. ... The Batman is an American animated television series produced by Warner Bros. ... The Batman vs. ...





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