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Encyclopedia > Batch file
BAT
File extension: .bat, .cmd (Windows NT only)
Type of format: Scripting
Wikibooks
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In MS-DOS, OS/2 and Windows, a batch file is a text file containing a series of commands intended to be executed by the command interpreter. When a batch file is run, the shell program (usually COMMAND.COM or cmd.exe) reads the file and executes its commands, normally line-by-line. A batch file is analogous to a shell script in Unix-like operating systems. Image File history File links Bat_file_icon. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... Scripting languages (commonly called scripting programming languages or script languages) are computer programming languages that are typically interpreted and can be typed directly from a keyboard. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Plain text. ... In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task. ... A command line interpreter is a computer program which reads lines of text that the user types and interprets them in the context of a given operating system or programming language. ... In computing, a shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users (command line interpreter). ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ... cmd. ... A shell script is a script written for the shell, or command line interpreter, of an operating system. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


Batch files are useful for running a series of executables automatically. Many system administrators use them to automate tedious processes. Although batch files support elementary program flow commands such as if and goto, they are not a full-fledged programming language -- for example, if statements cannot be nested. A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person employed to maintain, and operate a computer system or network. ... Program flow is the path of execution through a computer program. ... Then redirects here. ... Goto may mean: GOTO (also known as Goto or Go to) – a branching construct in programming languages, infamous for its role in unstructured dialects of BASIC Goto, Nagasaki – a Japanese city G0-T0 (note: the characters following the G and T, respectively, are zeros), alias his coverup identity of Goto... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Then redirects here. ...


DOS batch files have the filename extension .BAT. Batch files for other environments may have different extensions, e.g. .CMD in Windows NT and OS/2, or .BTM in 4DOS and related shells. A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 4DOS is a command line interpreter by JP Software originally designed to replace the DOS default command. ...


History

Microsoft DOS and Windows batch programming has evolved along with the product releases of these operating systems. The command interpreters that come with these operating systems provide two distinct modes of work: interactive mode (in which the user types commands at a prompt which are then executed immediately) and batch mode (which executes a predefined sequence of commands). The original concepts for both modes draw ideas from Unix shells, as well as other text-based command line interfaces from the early 1980s such as CP/M. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... An interpreter is a computer program that executes other programs. ... There are several conceptual views of interactivity, the most general being the contingency view. ... Command Prompt on Windows XP. A command prompt (or just prompt) is a character or string of characters used in a command line interface to indicate that the computer is ready to accept typed input. ... Batch processing is the execution of a series of programs (jobs) on a computer without human interaction, when possible. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... CP/M was an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ...


The MS-DOS operating system's batch program interpreter is COMMAND.COM. Batch programs for MS-DOS are composed of a relatively simple set of commands interpreted directly by COMMAND.COM (internal commands), and utilities that exist as separate executables (external commands). The evolution of this branch of batch programming proceeded through the releases of MS-DOS, and into Windows 95, Windows 98, and finally Windows Me. In MS-DOS, the most commonly used batch file was AUTOEXEC.BAT, a special batch file that is executed during the booting process. Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... AUTOEXEC.BAT is the name of a system file found originally on the MS-DOS operating system. ... In computing, booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ...


The newest versions of Windows, Windows 2000 and XP,and Windows Vista are not based on MS-DOS, but on Windows NT. NT-based systems include the cmd.exe command-line interpreter, which is somewhat compatible with COMMAND.COM. Some MS-DOS features are not available, but there are many additional features and commands not included with MS-DOS or MS-DOS-based versions of Windows. COMMAND.COM is still present under Windows NT operating systems for better backward compatibility. Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptible, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows XP is a line of proprietary operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... cmd. ...


Various non-Microsoft command interpreters exist that provide enhanced batch program command syntax. An example of these is the 4DOS product. 4DOS is a command line interpreter by JP Software originally designed to replace the DOS default command. ...


Several non-Microsoft implementations of batch compilers exist to convert batch programs to directly executable programs. The quality-of-implementation of these compilers varies widely. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


The IBM OS/2 operating system contains a text based command facility that is related to the ones supplied with Microsoft operating systems. However, OS/2 evolution assumed replacement of .BAT files to REXX scripting. International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... REXX (REstructured eXtended eXecutor) is an interpreted programming language which was developed at IBM. It is a structured high-level programming language which was designed to be both easy to learn and easy to read. ...


Example

An example of a simple batch file:

 rem echo off prevents the printing of each command to standard output. @echo off rem echo. prints a blank line. echo. echo Hello World, press any key to start AProgram.exe! pause > nul rem The first argument to the batch file can be referenced with "%1" AProgram.exe %1 if errorlevel 1 goto error echo. echo AProgram has finished whatever it was doing. goto end :error echo. echo Something went wrong with AProgram. :end 

The standard streams are a set of input and output channels featured in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, and provided by the standard I/O library (stdio. ... A hello world program is a computer program that prints out Hello, world! on a display device. ... Parameters are a way of allowing the same sequence of commands to operate on different data without re-specifying the instructions. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Batch File Help (1797 words)
Batch files are files that allow MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows users to create a lists of commands and/or programs to run once the batch file has been executed.
For example, a batch file could be used to run frequently run commands, deleting a series of files, moving files, etc. A simple batch file does not require any special programming skills and can be done by users who only know DOS commands.
A good example of a batch file for someone who is more familiar with Windows or the MacOS is to think of a batch file as a shortcut in Windows or an icon on the MacOS.
Help: Batch File Parameters (366 words)
The command tail (everything on the command line after the batch file or alias name) is separated into individual positional parameters (also called parameters or batch variables) by scanning for the spaces, tabs, and commas that separate them.
Parameters that are referred to in a batch file, but which are missing on the command line, appear as empty strings inside the batch file.
For example, if you start a batch file and put two parameters on the command line, any reference in the batch file to %3, or any higher-numbered parameter, will be interpreted as an empty string.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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