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Encyclopedia > Batavii

The Batavii (or Batavi, Batavians) were a Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area which is currently the Netherlands, "an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast of Gaul, and also of a neighbouring island, surrounded by the ocean in front, and by the river Rhine in the rear and on either side" (Tacitus, Historiae iv). This led to the Latin name of Batavia for the area. The same name is used for several military units, originally raised among the Batavii. The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Finds of wooden tablets also suggests at least some of them were literate.



They were mentioned by Julius Caesar in his commentary Gallic Wars, as living on an island formed by the Rhine River after it splits, one arm being the Waal the other the Old Rhine. The strategic position, to wit the high bank of the Waal which offerred an unimpeded view far into Germania Transrhenanum, was recognized first by Drusus who built a massive casta and a headquarter (praetorium) in imperial style. The latter was in use until the batavian revolt. Combatants Roman Republic Gallic tribes, including Helvetii, Arvernii Commanders Julius Caesar Quintus Cicero Mark Antony Among others, Vercingetorix The Gallic Wars were a series of wars fought between the Romans and the people of Gaul during the mid-first century BC, culminating in the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... Edited Satellite image of the Rhine-Waal fork, showing the beginning of river Waal (green). ... Satellite close-up of the Utrecht region showing the Leidse Rijn-Oude Rijn stream (d). ... Edited Satellite image of the Rhine-Waal fork, showing the beginning of river Waal (green). ...

Archeological evidence suggests they lived in small villages, comprised of 6 to 12 houses in the very fertile lands between the rivers and lived of agriculture and raising cattle. Finds of horse skeletons in graves suggest an strong equestrian preoccupation. On the south bank of the Waal (in what is now Nijmegen) a roman administrative center was built called Oppidum Batavorum. This centre was razed during the Batavian Revolt.

The Batavians falsely became regarded as the eponymous ancestors of the Dutch people. The Netherlands were briefly known as the Batavian Republic. Moreover, in the time Indonesia was a Dutch colony, the capital (now Jakarta) was named Batavia. From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... Motto: Jaya Raya (Indonesian): Prosper and Great Founded 22 June 1527 Governor Sutiyoso Area 661. ...

Military units

Funerary stela of one of Nero's Corporis Custodes (imperial bodyguard). The bodyguard, Indus, was of the Batavian tribe.
Funerary stela of one of Nero's Corporis Custodes (imperial bodyguard). The bodyguard, Indus, was of the Batavian tribe.

The first Batavian commander we know of is named Chariovalda, who lead an charge across the Visurgin (Weser) against the Cherusci lead by Arminius during the campaigns of Germanicus in Germania Transrhenanum (Annales II, 11). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1524x2032, 1060 KB) Funerary stela of a Batavian member of the Corporis Custodes (imperial bodyguard) of Nero, from Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di Diocleziano. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1524x2032, 1060 KB) Funerary stela of a Batavian member of the Corporis Custodes (imperial bodyguard) of Nero, from Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di Diocleziano. ... Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe inhabiting the Rhine valley and the plains and forests of northwestern Germany (between near modern Osnabrück and Hanover) during the 1st century BCE and 1st century CE. They were first allies and then enemies of Rome. ...

Tacitus (De origine et situ Germanorum XXIX) described the Batavians as the bravest of the tribes of the area, hardened in the German wars, with cohorts under their own commanders transferred to Britannia. They retained the honour of the ancient association with the Romans, not required to pay tribute or taxes and used by the Romans only for war: "They furnished to the Empire nothing but men and arms", Tacitus remarked. Well-regarded for their skills in horsemanship and swimming—for men and horses could cross the Rhine without losing formation, according to Tacitus. Dio Cassius describes this surprise tactic employed by Aulus Plautius against the "barbarians"—the British Celts— at the battle of the River Medway, 43: Britannia, the British national personification. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... Aulus Plautius (lived 1st century) was the first governor of Roman Britain, serving from 43 to 47. ... For the battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, see raid on the Medway. ...

The barbarians thought that Romans would not be able to cross it without a bridge, and consequently bivouacked in rather careless fashion on the opposite bank; but he sent across a detachment of Germans, who were accustomed to swim easily in full armour across the most turbulent streams. [...] Thence the Britons retired to the river Thames at a point near where it empties into the ocean and at flood-tide forms a lake. This they easily crossed because they knew where the firm ground and the easy passages in this region were to be found; but the Romans in attempting to follow them were not so successful. However, the Germans swam across again and some others got over by a bridge a little way up-stream, after which they assailed the barbarians from several sides at once and cut down many of them. (Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 60:20)

The Batavians also provided a contingent for the Emperor's Imperial Horse Guard.

Numerous altars and tombstones of the Batavii, dating to the 2nd century and 3rd century, have been found along Hadrian's Wall, notably at Castlecary and Carrawburgh, Germany, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania and Austria. After the 3rd century, however, the Batavians are no longer mentioned, and they are assumed to have merged with the neighbouring Frisian and Frankish people. // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Pieces of Hadrians Wall remain near Greenhead and along the route, though large sections have been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects. ... This is article is about the village near Cumbernauld in Scotland, for the village in Somerset see Castle Cary. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...

Batavian Rebellion

Main article: Batavian rebellion.

Despite the alliance, one of the high-ranking Batavii, Julius Paullus, to give him his Roman name, was executed by Fonteius Capito on a false charge of rebellion. His kinsman Gaius Julius Civilis was paraded in chains in Rome before Nero; though he was acquitted by Galba, he was retained at Rome, and when he returned to his kin in the year of upheaval in the Roman Empire, AD 69, he headed a Batavian rebellion which was defeated by the Romans the following year, a narrative told in great detail in Tacitus' History, book iv, although, unfurtunately, the narrative breaks off abruptly at the climax. Following the uprising, Legio X Gemina was housed in a stone castra to keep an eye on the batavians. The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD. By his name, it can be told that he (or one of his male ancestors) was made a Roman citizen (and thus, the tribe a Roman vassal) by either Augustus Caesar or Caligula. ... Events The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius are all Roman emperor a short time before eventually Vespasian takes over. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Tacitus (1655 words)
Tacitus' information was not, in general, based on first-hand knowledge, and more recent research has shown that many of his assumptions were incorrect.
In fact, contemporary historians debate whether all these tribes were really Germanic in the sense that they spoke a Germanic language - some of them, like the Batavii, may have been Celts.
He is also to blame for the misnaming of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, which did not quite take place in the saltus Teutoburgiensis, as he claimed in the Germania.
Batavii (284 words)
The Batavii (or Batavi, Batavians) were a Germanic, or possibly Celtic tribe reported by Julius Caesar and Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area which is currently the Netherlands.
This led to the Latin name of Batavia.
The Netherlands were briefly known as the Batavian Republic.
  More results at FactBites »



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