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Encyclopedia > Bastille
The Bastille
The Bastille

The Bastille (48°51′12″N, 2°22′9″ECoordinates: 48°51′12″N, 2°22′9″E) was a prison in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine—Number 232, Rue Saint-Antoine—best known today because of the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, which along with the Tennis Court Oath is considered the beginning of the French Revolution. The event was commemorated one year later by the Fête de la Fédération. The French national holiday, celebrated annually on 14 July is officially the Fête Nationale, and officially commemorates the Fête de la Fédération, but it is commonly known in English as Bastille Day. Bastille is a French word meaning "castle" or "stronghold"; used with a definite article (la Bastille in French, the Bastille in English), it refers to the prison. Combatants French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay â€  Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender) 98 The Storming of the Bastille in Paris occurred on... Bastille Linux is an interactive hardening script for selected Linux distributions and other operating systems. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Combatants French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay â€  Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender) 98 The Storming of the Bastille in Paris occurred on... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Bastille Day is the French national holiday, celebrated on 14 July each year. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Battlestar Galactica episode, see Bastille Day (Battlestar Galactica). ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early history of the Bastille

Plan of the Bastille
Plan of the Bastille

The Bastille was built as the Bastion de Saint-Antoine during the Hundred Years' War under Charles V of France. The Bastille originated as the Saint-Antoine gate, but from 1370-1383, this gate was extended to create a fortess, to defend the east end of Paris and the Hôtel Saint-Pol royal palace. After the war, it was reused as a state prison and (King Louis XIII was the first king to send prisoners there). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1046x1394, 468 KB) Summary Bastille - Project Gutenberg eText 16962. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1046x1394, 468 KB) Summary Bastille - Project Gutenberg eText 16962. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Bastille was built as Fred's mental asylum these buildings were against the walls. Pairs of towers on the east and west facades served as gates through which the rue Saint-Antoine passed. In the 1400s, these were blocked up, and a new city gate was created to the north on the present day rue de la Bastille. A bastion on the eastern approaches was built later. A significant military feature of the building was that the walls and towers were of the same height and connected by a broad terrace. This enabled soldiers on the wall head to rapidly move to a threatened sector of the fortress without having to descend inside the towers, as well as allowing placement of artillery. A similar provision can be seen today at Château de Tarascon. The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ... Tarascon Castle from front. ...


Storming

Prise de la Bastille, by Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Houel
Prise de la Bastille, by Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Houel

The archives of the Bastille show that it largely held common criminals (forgers, embezzlers, swindlers, etc.), as well as people imprisoned for religious reasons (Protestants and Convulsionists) and those responsible for printing or writing forbidden pamphlets. [1]. People of high rank were sometimes held there too, and so the prison (which could only hold a little over 50 people) was far less sordid a place than most of the Parisian prisons. But the secrecy maintained around the Bastille and its prisoners gave it a sinister reputation. Combatants French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay â€  Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender) 98 The Storming of the Bastille in Paris occurred on... Image File history File links Prise_de_la_Bastille. ... Image File history File links Prise_de_la_Bastille. ... Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Hoüel Born 1735, Died 1813 Painter, Engraver, Draftsman French ...


However the confrontation that led to the people of Paris storming the Bastille on 14 July 1789, following several days of disturbances, resulted from the fact that gunpowder and arms had been stored there, and the people (whose fears had been raised by a number of rumors) demanded access to these - the later idea that they wanted to free the prisoners (only 7 of whom remained) is a myth. The regular garrison consisted of about 80 invalides (veteran soldiers no longer capable of service in the field) under Governor Bernard-René de Launay. They had however been reinforced by a detachment of 32 grenadiers from one of the Swiss mercenary regiments summoned to Paris by the Monarchy shortly before 14 July. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bernard René Jourdan, marquis de Launay (1740-1789) was a French governor of the Bastille, the son of a previous governor, and commander of its garrison when it was stormed on July 14, 1789 (see Storming of the Bastille). ...


A crowd of around 1,000 people gathered outside around mid-morning, calling for the surrender of the prison, the removal of the guns and the release of the arms and gunpowder. Two people chosen to represent those gathered were invited into the fortress and slow negotiations began.


In the early afternoon, the crowd broke into the undefended outer courtyard and the chains on the drawbridge to the inner courtyard were cut. A spasmodic exchange of gunfire began; in mid-afternoon the crowd was reinforced by mutinous Gardes Françaises of the Royal Army and two cannons. De Launay ordered a ceasefire; despite his surrender demands being refused, he capitulated and the vainqueurs swept in to liberate the fortress at around 5:30. Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... Founded in 1563, the Gardes françaises regiment counted 30 companies en 1635 with 300 fusiliers per company. ...


When the rioters had gotten inside the Bastille, they collected cartridges and gun powder for their weapons and then freed the seven prisoners (which they had to do by breaking down the doors, since the keys had already been taken off and paraded through the streets). Later, the governor and some of the guards of the Bastille were killed (the governor stabbed to death) under chaotic circumstances, despite having surrendered under a flag of truce, and their heads paraded on pikes.


Demolition

Place de la Bastille, with the July Column in the center, and the Opéra Bastille on the right.
Place de la Bastille, with the July Column in the center, and the Opéra Bastille on the right.

The propaganda value of the Bastille was quickly seized upon, notably by the showy entrepreneur Pierre-François Palloy, "Patriote Palloy." The fate of the Bastille was uncertain, but Palloy was quick to establish a claim, organising a force of demolition men around the site on the 15th. Over the next few days many notables visited the Bastille and it seemed to be turning into a memorial. But Palloy secured a license for demolition from the Permanent Committee at the Hôtel de Ville and quickly took complete control. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 380 KB)Place de la Bastille, 2004-09-14. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 380 KB)Place de la Bastille, 2004-09-14. ... The Place de la Bastille ( ) is a square in Paris, where the Bastille prison stood until it was stormed and subsequently torn down between July 14, 1789 and July 14, 1790 during the French Revolution; no vestige of it remains. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Opéra Bastille L’Opéra de la Bastille (Bastille Opera) is a modern opera house in Paris, France. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ...


Palloy secured a fair budget and his crew grew in number. Palloy had control over all aspects of the work and the workers, even to the extent of having two hanged for murder. He put much effort into continuing the site as a paying attraction and producing a huge range of souvenirs, including much of the rubble. The actual demolition proceeded apace — by November, 1789, the structure was largely demolished.


The area today

The former location of the fort is currently called the Place de la Bastille. It is home to the Opéra Bastille. The large ditch (fossé) behind the fort has been transformed into a marina for pleasure boats, the Bassin de l'Arsenal, to the south, and a covered canal, the Canal Saint Martin, extending north from the marina beneath the vehicular roundabout that borders the location of the fort. The Place de la Bastille ( ) is a square in Paris, where the Bastille prison stood until it was stormed and subsequently torn down between July 14, 1789 and July 14, 1790 during the French Revolution; no vestige of it remains. ... The Opéra Bastille L’Opéra de la Bastille (Bastille Opera) is a modern opera house in Paris, France. ... A small marina at Brixham, Devon, England. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The northern portion of the canal A bridge over the canal The canal as it goes underground to return to the Seine Canal Saint-Martin is a 4. ...


Some undemolished remains of one tower of the fort were discovered during excavation for the Métro (rail mass-transit system) in 1899, and were moved to a park a few hundred metres away, where they are displayed today. The original outline of the fort is also marked on the pavement of streets and sidewalks that pass over its former location, in the form of special paving stones. A cafe and some other businesses largely occupy the location of the fort, and the rue Saint Antoine passes directly over it as it opens onto the roundabout of the Bastille. Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Prisoners in Bastille

Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...

In fiction

The Comte de Rochefort is a secondary, but important, fictional character in Alexandre Dumas dArtagnan Romances. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... Twenty Years After (Vingt ans après) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... Doctor Manette is a character in Charles Dickens novel, A Tale of Two Cities. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... The Thénardiers (commonly referred to as Thénardier and Madame Thénardier) are two of the primary villains in Victor Hugos novel Les Misérables and the musical inspired by it. ... Les Misérables is an 1862 novel by the famous French novelist Victor Hugo, set in the Parisian underworld. ...

References

  • Lorentz, Phillipe; Dany Sandron (2006). Atlas de Paris au Moyen Âge. Paris: Parigramme, 238 pp. ISBN 2840964023. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bastille
  • Welcome to the Bastille - fun facts, myths and more about the Bastille
  • Satellite view of the Place de la Bastille place today - NOTE: The actual Bastille was not at the current Place, but slightly to the west of it (left in the photo), right where the rue Saint-Antoine ends.
  • Remains of the Bastille - photo of the salvaged remains of one tower, with a brief description
  • À bas la Bastille!: how the Encyclopædia Britannica has written about the Bastille in various editions since 1768.
  • http://members.klosterneuburg.net/handerle/BASTILLE.HTM

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bastille - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1427 words)
The Bastille was a prison in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine—Number 232, Rue Saint-Antoine which became well-known for the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789.
Bastille is a French word meaning "castle" or "stronghold"; used as a single word ("la Bastille" in French), it refers to the prison.
The propaganda value of the Bastille was quickly seized upon, notably by the showy entrepreneur Pierre-François Palloy, "Patriote Palloy." The fate of the Bastille was uncertain, but Palloy was quick to establish a claim, organising a force of 500 demolition men around the site on the 15th.
Bastille Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1345 words)
Bastille Day also falls during the running of the Tour de France, and is traditionally the day upon which French riders will make a special effort to take a stage victory for France.
Thus the Bastille was a symbol of the absolutism of the monarchy.
Shortly after the storming of the Bastille, on 26 August, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was proclaimed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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