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Encyclopedia > Basra
Basra
Arabic:
البصرة
Al Baṣrah
Location of Basra
Coordinates: 30°30′N 47°49′E / 30.5, 47.817
Country Iraq
Governorate Basrah Governorate (pop 2.6 million)
Founded AD 636
Population (2003 Est)
 - Total 1,700,000

Basra (Arabic: البصرة; BGN: Al Baṣrah) is the third-largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 1,700,000.[1] . Basra is the capital of Basrah Province with population of 2,600,000. It is the country's main port and the capital of the Basra Governorate. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Location of Basra highlighted. ... Basra is a card-game similar to Cassino played in Eastern Mediterranean countries such as Lebanon and Egypt. ... Basra, Morocco, nicknamed Basra al-Hamra (Basra the Red), is an archaeological site in Morocco. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is an American federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the U.S. government. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ...


Baṣra played an important role in early Islamic history, and it was the first city built in Islam 14 A.H (After Hijra) The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ...

Contents

Overview

The city is located along the Shatt al-Arab waterway near the Persian Gulf, 55 kilometers (34 mi) from the Persian Gulf and 545 kilometers (339 mi) from Baghdad, Iraq's capital and largest city. The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


The area surrounding Basra has substantial petroleum resources and many oil wells. The city also has an international airport, which recently began restored service to Baghdad with Iraqi Airways - the nation's flag airline. Basra is in a fertile agricultural region, with major products including rice, maize corn, barley, pearl millet, wheat, dates, and livestock. The city's oil refinery has a production capacity of about 140,000 barrels a day (22,300 m³). Petro redirects here. ... An oil well is seen in Texas. ... Iraqi Airways (Arabic: الخطوط الجوية العراقية; also known as Air Iraq) is the national carrier airline of Iraq, based in Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) R. Br. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... To help compare different orders of magnitudes this page lists volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 ( to ) cubic metres. ...


Muslim adherents of the area are primarily members of the Jafari Shi`a sect. A sizable number of Sunnis, 35%[2] of Basra, also live there - although after the war it decreased to less than 10%,[3] as well as a small number of Christians. There are also remnants of the pre-Islamic gnostic sect of Mandaeans, whose headquarters were in the area formerly called Suk esh-Sheikh. Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ...


A network of canals flowed through the city, giving it the nickname "The Venice of the Middle East" at least at high tide. The tides at Basra fall by about 2.7 meters (9 ft).[citation needed] For a long time, Basra was known for the superior quality of its dates.[4] For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...

A Canal in Basra circa 1950
A Canal in Basra circa 1950
Basra city
Basra city

Download high resolution version (1151x769, 131 KB)basra canal File links The following pages link to this file: Basra Categories: Images with unknown source ... Download high resolution version (1151x769, 131 KB)basra canal File links The following pages link to this file: Basra Categories: Images with unknown source ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Islamic theology and scholarship

Wael Hallaq notes that by contrast with Medina and to a lesser extent Syria, in Iraq there was no unbroken Muslim population dating back to the Prophet's time. Therefore Maliki (and Azwaʿi) appeals to the practice (ʿamal) of the community could not apply. Instead the people of `Iraq relied upon those Companions of the Prophet who settled there, and upon such factions of the Hijaz whom they respected most. Wael B. Hallaq is a professor of Islamic studies and is regarded as one of the leading scholars in the field of Islamic Law. ...


Shirazi's "Tabaqat", which Wael Hallaq labels "an important early biographical work dedicated to jurists", covered 84 "towering figures" of Islamic jurisprudence; to which Basra provided 17. It was therefore a center surpassed only by Medina (22) and Kufa (20). Among the Companions who settled in Basra were Abu Musa and `Anas ibn Malik. Among its jurists, Hallaq singles out Muhammad ibn Sirin, Abu `Abd Allah Muslim ibn Yasar, and Abu Ayyub al-Sakhtiyani. Qatada ibn Di`ama (680-736) attained respect as a traditionist and Qur'anic interpreter. In the late 750s, Sawwar ibn Abd Allah began the practice of paying salaries to the court's witnesses and assistants, ensuring their impartiality. Hammad ibn Salama (d. 784), mufti of Basra, was a teacher of Abu Hanifa. Abu Hanifa's student Zufar ibn al-Hudayl later moved from Kufa to Basra. Basran and Kufan law, under the patronage of the early `Abbasids, became a shared jurisprudence called the "Hanafi Madhhab"; as opposed to others, like the practice of Medina which became the Maliki Madhhab. Wael B. Hallaq is a professor of Islamic studies and is regarded as one of the leading scholars in the field of Islamic Law. ... Anas bin Malik ibn Nadar al-Khazraji (c. ... Muhammad Ibn Sirin (Arabic,محمد بن سيرين),(born in Basra, Iraq) was a Muslim interpreter of dreams who lived in the 8th century. ... Imam Abu Hanifa (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanifi school of fiqh. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...


Sufyan al-Thawri and Ma`mar ibn Rashid collected many legal and other teachings and traditions into books, and migrated to the Yemen; there 'Abd al-Razzaq included them into his Musannaf during the 9th century. Back in Basra, Musaddad ibn Musarhad compiled his own collection arranged in "Musnad" form. Sufyan al-Thawri ibn Said (d. ... Musannaf hadīth collections are defined by their arrangement of content according to topic and constitute a major category within the class of all such works. ... Musnad is a term used in the science of hadith to classify a certain type of hadith. ...


Basra also spawned heterodox interpretations of Islam. Rabi`ah al-`Adawiyya al-Qaysiyya (born 717), lived there and became popular as poet, mystic, and teacher. It was also among the first bases of the Qadariyya. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Qadarism in Islam corresponds to the doctine of human free will in Christianity, as opposed to such doctrines of predestination as later proposed by, e.g., John Calvin. The traditionist Yahya ibn Ya`mar attributed the introduction of Qadari doctrines into Basra to a Ma'bad al-Juhani (d. 80). Al-Hasan (scholar) developed a moderate form of this in his Risala: God may command, forbid, punish, and test; but He does not force ordinary mortals to evil or good despite that He has the power. According to al-Dhahabi (Siyar A`lam al-Nubala 6:330 #858), al-Hasan's student Abu `Uthman `Amr ibn `Ubayd (d. ~144) left al-Hasan's teaching circle and "isolated" himself by taking these doctrines further. In Syria, the reigning Marwanids relied on predestination to justify their hold on secular authority. Imam Malik in his Muwatta recorded (with approval!) that caliph `Umar ibn `Abd al-Aziz had recommended putting Qadarists "to the sword". Syrian hadith transmitters invented traditions of the Prophet that denounced Qadarism as a heresy, and labeled its believers and Basra as a whole as "monkeys and swine" - as sura 5 had said of the Jews. John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Mabad ibn Kalid al-Juhani (d. ... al-Hasan al-Basri (Arabic:الحسن البصري) (Abu Said al-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Yasar al-Basri), (642 - 728 or 737), was a well-known Arab theologian and scholar of Islam who was born at Medina. ... For other uses, see Risala (disambiguation). ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ... Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakir. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr (714 - 796) was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in the Sunni sect of Islam. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ...


Under Abu 'l-Hudhayl al-`Allaf (d. 841), the Basrans are also credited (or blamed) for the Mutazilist school, a form of rationalism which included the Qadari doctines of al-Hasan and attracted the support of `Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ...


According to Arthur Jeffery, Basra also at first held to an idiosyncratic pronunciation of the Qur'an, which they put to paper as the "Lubab al-Qulub" and attributed to Abu Musa. For instance, this codex used the more Biblically correct "Ibraham", as against the "Ibrahim" which is forced by sura 21's rhyme; in addition there are no Abu Musa variants recorded for sura 21. This was also the reading of Ibn Al-Zubayr when he came to Mecca (although his variants did encompass sura 21). The likely solution is that the first Qur'an text at Basra was "defective", which is to say it lacked long vowel signs; and that Basra accepted sura 21 as part of Qur'an later than it accepted other suras - most likely during or after the mid-680s. Abd Allah az-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr (624 - 692) was the son of Zubayr, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr. ...


History

First millennium

636: Founding

Shanasheel of the old part of Basra city,1954
Shanasheel of the old part of Basra city,1954

The present city was founded in 636 as an encampment and garrison for the Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of amir `Umar ibn al-Khattab, a few kilometres south of the present city, where a tell still marks its site. While defeating the Sassanid forces there, the Muslim commander Utba ibn Ghazwan first set up camp there on the site of an old Persian settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, which was destroyed by the Arabs [5]. The name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means "the over watching" or "the seeing everything", was given to it because of its role as a Military base against the Sassanid empire. Other sources however say its name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together" [6]. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


639: Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari

Umar established this encampment as a city with five districts, and appointed Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari as its first governor. Abu Musa led the conquest of Khuzestan from 639 to 642. After this, `Umar ordered him to aid `Uthman ibn Abu al-`As, then fighting Iran from a new, more easterly misr at Tawwaj. For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Abd-Allah ibn Qays, better known as Abu Musa al-Ashari (Arabic: ابوموسی) (d. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


650: `Abdallah ibn `Amir

In 650, the amir `Uthman reorganised the Persian frontier, installed `Abdallah ibn `Amir as Basra's governor, and put the invasion's southern wing under Basra's responsibility. Ibn `Amir led his forces to their final victory over Yazdegard III, king of Persia. Basra accordingly had few quarrels with `Uthman and so in 656 sent few men to the embassy against him. On `Uthman's murder, Basra refused to recognise `Ali ibn Abu Talib; instead supporting the Meccan aristocracy then led by `Aisha, al-Zubayr, and Talha. `Ali defeated this force at the Battle of the Camel. Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... In 655 a Muslim force led by Caliph Ali defeated a superior force of rebel Arabs in the Battle of Bassorah (Bassorah = Basra). ...


In 656 The Sayabiga (Possibly of Indian/Indonesian origin) are ordered to guard the treasury.


6??: `Uthman ibn Hanif

Ali first installed `Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor and then `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas. These men held the city for `Ali until the latter's death in 661.


661: Umayyad `Abd Allah

The Sufyanids held Basra until Yazid I's death in 683. Their first governor there was an Umayyad `Abd Allah, who proved to be a great general (under him, Kabul was forced to pay tribute) but a poor mayor. Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ...


661: Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan

In 664 Mu`awiyah replaced him with Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan, often called "Ibn Abihi (son of his own [unknown] father)", who became famed for his Draconian methods of public order. The Sufyanids held Basra until Yazid Is death in 683. ...


673: Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad

On Ziyad's death in 673, his son Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad became governor. In 680, Yazid I ordered Ubayd Allah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to Hussein ibn `Ali's popularity there; Hussein had already fled, and so Ubayd Allah executed Hussein's cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel. Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


684: Abd-Allah ibn al-Harith

In 683, Abd Allah ibn Zubayr was hailed as the new caliph in the Hijaz. In 684 the Basrans forced Ubayd Allah to take shelter with Mas'ud al-Azdi and chose Abd Allah ibn al-Harith as their governor. Ibn al-Harith swiftly recognised Ibn al-Zubayr's claim, and Ma'sud made a premature and fatal move on Ubayd Allah's behalf; and so `Ubayd Allah felt obliged to flee. Abd Allah az-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr (624 - 692) was the son of Zubair, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan. Islamic tradition condemns him as feckless abroad and corrupt at home, but praises him on matters of doctrine and prayer. Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


684: Umar ibn Ubayd Allah

In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr required a practical man, and so appointed Umar ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar [7]


684: Mus`ab ibn al-Zubayr

Finally Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus`ab. In 686, the self-proclaimed prophet Mukhtar led an insurrection at Kufa, and put an end to Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad near Mosul. In 687, Mus`ab defeated Mukhtar, with the help of Kufans whom Mukhtar had exiled [8]. Mukhtar, meaning chosen in Arabic, refers to the head of a village or mahalle (urban district) in many Arab countries. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...


684: Al-Hajjaj

`Abd al-Malik reconquered Basra in 691, and Basra remained loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ash`ath's mutiny 699-702. However Basra did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab against Yazid II during the 720s. In the 740s, Basra fell to al-Saffah of the `Abbasids. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724. ... Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. ...


Abbasid dynasty

During the time of the Abbasid dynasty Basra became an intellectual center as it was the home city of the Arab universal genius Ibn al-Haytham, the Arab literary giant al-Jahiz, and the Sufi mystic Rabia Basri. Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... RābiÊ»a al-Ê»Adawiyya al-Quaysiyya (Arabic: رابعة العدوية القيسية) or simply Rabia Al-Basri (717–801 C.E.) was a female Sufi saint. ...


Zanj Rebellion led by Ali bin Muhammad, or Sahib az-Zanji

this was a rebellion by the low land slaves who were agricultural slaves..brought from different fringes of the empire The Zanj Rebellion was a slave uprising that took place initially in the Euphrates-Tigris delta (modern-day Iraq) and later spread east to modern day Iran between 869 and 883. ...


Could someone supply the missing 700 years of history? Heres my poor effort


871 the Zanj sacked Basra


923 The Qarmatians, an extremist Muslim sect, invaded and devastated Basra (Encyclopedia Britannica)


965 Alhazen, was born in Basra


945-1055, a Buwayhid dynasty ruled Baghdad and most of Iraq (from Buwayhid page) Abu al Qasim al Baridis, who still controlled Basra and Wasit, were defeated and their lands taken by the Buyids in 947


Daylamid period Sanad Al-Daula (al-habashi) is governer of Basra, Builds a library of 15000 books. Diya' al-Daula was the Buyid ruler of Basra during the 980s. He was the son of 'Adud al-Daula: see Samsam al-Daula page for more details as there appears to have been a great deal of rivalry in the al-Daula group.


Seljuk period Great Friday Mosque constructed in Basra 1122 Zengi receives Basra as a fief (Penny Encylopedia) 1126 Zengi suppresses a revolt


1129 Dabis loots basra state treasury


1200 Map 'on the eve of the Mongol invasions' shows the Abbasid Caliphate as ruling lower Iraq and presumably Basra


1258 Mongols sack Bagdhad and end Abbasid reign. By some accounts Basra capitulates to the Mongols to avoid a massacre.


Mongol Dominions map 1300-1405 shows Basra under their control, I assume this was not for the entire period of their rule


Mamluk Bahri Dynasty map 1250 - 1382 shows Basra as being under their area of control, I assume this was not for the entire period of their rule


1290 Buscarello_de_Ghizolfi page: internal fight erupted at the Persian Gulf port of Basra among the Geneose (between the Guelfe and the Gibelin families)


1327 Ibn Battuta visits Basra: It was in decline with the great mosque being 2 miles out of town. An Ilkhanid Governor received him.


Jalayrids 1411 Jalayrid leader ousted from Basra by Kara Koyunlu of the Black Sheep Turkmen


1523 The Portuguese Antonio Tenreiro crosses from Aleppo to Basra


1546 Turks reached Basra.


1550 Portuguese threaten Basra


1624 Portuguese assist Basra Pasha in repelling a Persian invasion, Portuguese granted a share of customs and freedom from tolls.


From about 1625 until 1668, Basra and the Delta marshlands were in the hands of local chieftains independent of the Ottoman administration at Baghdad


Second millennium

1668: Ottoman Empire

It was long a flourishing commercial and cultural center, until it was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1668, after which it declined in importance, but was fought over by Turks and Persians and was the scene of repeated attempts at resistance. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


1911: Ottoman Empire

In 1911, the Encyclopaedia Britannica reported some Jews and a few Christians living in Basra, but no Turks other than Ottoman officials. The wealthiest and most influential personage in Basra was the nakib, or marshal of the nobility (i.e. descendants of the family of the prophet, who are entitled to wear the green turban). In 1884 the Ottomans responded to local pressure from the Shi'as of the south by detaching the southern districts of the Baghdad vilayet and creating a new vilayet of Basra. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


1914 : World War I

After the Battle of Basra (1914) during World War I the occupying British modernized the port (works designed by Sir George Buchanan), which became the principal port of Iraq. The Battle of Basra was a battle of World War I which took place in the city of Basra (modern-day Iraq) between British and Ottoman troops on December 10, 1914. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Sir George Buchanan (engineer) was a British civil engineer particularly associated with harbour works in Burma, Iraq and Bombay, during the early years of the 20th century. ...


1939 : World War II

During World War II it was an important port through which flowed much of the equipment and supplies sent to Russia by the other allies. At the end of the second world war the population was some 93,000 people. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


1945-1990: peacetime and the Iran-Iraq War

The University of Basrah was founded in 1967. The University of Basrah is situated in the city of Basra, Iraq. ...


By 1977 the population had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. The population declined during the Iran-Iraq War, being under 900,000 in the late 1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000 during the worst of the war. The city was repeatedly shelled by Iran and was the site of many fierce battles, such as Operation Ramadan. Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


1991: Persian Gulf War

After the first Persian Gulf War in 1991 Basra was the site of widespread revolt against Saddam Hussein, which was violently put down with much death and destruction inflicted on the city. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


1999: Second revolt

A second revolt in 1999 led to mass executions in and around Basra, subsequently the Iraqi government deliberately neglected the city and much commerce was diverted to Umm Qasr. These alleged abuses are to feature amongst the charges against the former regime to be considered by the Iraq Special Tribunal set up by the Iraq Interim Government following the 2003 invasion. Cranes at Umm Qasr await cargo. ... The Iraq Special Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity (IST) was set up by the Iraqi Governing Council under Iraqi national law in December 2003, following the deposing of Saddam Hussein. ... The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until elections are conducted on January 30th, 2005. ...


Third millennium

Workers in Basra's oil industry have been involved in extensive organization and labor conflict. They held a two-day strike in August 2003, and formed the nucleus of the independent General Union of Oil Employees (GUOE) in June 2004. The union held a one-day strike in July 2005, and publicly opposes plans for privatizing the industry. Founded in October of 2005 from unions that had begun organizing after the invasion, the Federation of Oil Unions of Iraq is the largest independent union consortium in Iraq, fully opposes the Occupation, and represents militant class war unionism in the occupied country with tens of thousands of members. ...


2003: Iraq War and occupation

In March through May of 2003, the outskirts of Basra were the scene of the heaviest fighting in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. British forces, led on foot by units of the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment and supported by 7th Armoured Brigade, took the city on 6 April 2003. This city was the first stop for the United States and the United Kingdom, during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The 7th Armoured Brigade is a unit of the British Army. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


2004: Car bomb

On 21 April 2004, a series of bomb blasts ripped through the city, killing 74 people. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On April 21, 2004, a series of large car bomb explosions ripped through Basra, Iraq. ...


The Multi-National Division (South-East), under British Command, is engaged in Security and Stabilization missions in Basra Governorate and surrounding areas. Multi-National Division (South-East) (MND(SE)) is a British commanded division responsible for security in the south east of Iraq. ... Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ...


2005

January: Elections

Political groups and their ideology which are strong in Basra are reported to have close links with political parties already in power in the Iraqi government, despite opposition from Iraqi Sunnis and the more secular Kurds. January 2005 elections saw several radical politicians gain office, supported by religious parties. Politics of Iraq includes the social relations involving authority or power in Iraq. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


2007

September 3rd: UK troops withdraw to Basra Airport

British troops pull out of Basra city and the palace and move to a base at Basra International Airport.


December 16th: UK troops transfer control to Iraqi authorities

British troops transfer control of Basra province to the Iraqi authorities, four-and-a-half years after the invasion.[9] A BBC survey of local residents finds that 86% think the presence of British troops since 2003 has had an overall negative effect on the province.[10]


New Police Chief

Abdul Jalil Khalaf was appointed Police Chief by the central government with the task of taking on the militias. He has been outspoken against the targetting of women by the militias.[11]. Talking to the BBC, he said that his determination to tackle the militia has led to almost daily assassination attempts [12]. This has been taken as sign that he is serious in opposing the militias[13].


2008

Main article: Battle of Basra (2008)

In March 2008, the Iraqi Army launched a major offensive, code-named Saulat al-Fursan (Charge of the White Knights), aimed at forcing the Mahdi Army out of Basra. The assault is being organized directly by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.[14] Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... Kingdom of Iraq (1921-1959) The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated Nūrī Kāmil al-Mālikī; born July 20, 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki, is the Prime Minister of Iraq and the secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party. ...


H.G. Wells and Basra

The city of Basra has a major role in H.G. Wells's 1934 future history "The Shape of Things to Come" where the Iraqi city is at the center of a world state emerging after a collapse of civilization and becomes in effect the capital of the world (see [2]). H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... Universe was a 1941 story from Heinleins Future History series (shown here in the 1951 Dell edition). ... The Shape of Things to Come is a work of science fiction by H. G. Wells, published in 1933, which speculates on future events from 1933 until the year 2106. ... NOTE: some users are seeking to replace this article by another with the title Federal World Government. ...


Sister Cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Thomas Brinkhoff: City Population, http://www.citypopulation.de/Iraq.html
  2. ^ موقع فيصل نور - نسبة السنة والشيعة في العراق
  3. ^ موقع فيصل نور - نسبة السنة والشيعة في العراق
  4. ^ Produced the finest dates known 1st paragraph. [1] retrieved 08/26/2007
  5. ^ according to Encyclopædia Iranica, E. Yarshater, Columbia University, p851
  6. ^ See Mohammadi Malayeri, M. Dil-i Iranshahr.
  7. ^ (Madelung p. 303-4)
  8. ^ (Brock p.66)
  9. ^ "UK troops return Basra to Iraqis", BBC News, 2007-12-16. 
  10. ^ "Basra residents blame UK troops", BBC News, 2007-12-14. 
  11. ^ "Basra militants targeting women", BBC News. 
  12. ^ "Basra: The Legacy", BBC News. 
  13. ^ "Uncertainty follows Basra exit", BBC News. 
  14. ^ "Iraqi Army’s Assault on Militias in Basra Stalls", New York Times, 2008-03-27. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  15. ^ From Basra to Detroit: Sister Cities

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Hallaq, Wael. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press, 2005
  • Hawting, Gerald R. The First Dynasty of Islam. Routledge. 2nd ed, 2000
  • Madelung, Wilferd. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. 1981. pp.291-305.
  • Vincent, Stephen. Into The Red Zone: A Journey Into the Soul of Iraq. ISBN 1-890626-57-0.

See also

This is a list of places in Iraq. ... Basrah International Airport (IATA: BSR, ICAO: ORMM) is the second largest international airport in Iraq, and is located in the southern city of Basra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name (Hartlaub, 1891) The Basra Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) is a warbler of the genus Acrocephalus. ... The University of Basrah is situated in the city of Basra, Iraq. ...

External links

Coordinates: 30°30′N 47°49′E / 30.5, 47.817 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Basra (Iraq Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (309 words)
Basra is Iraq's second largest city and principal port.
The port was further bombed by western coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War (1991), primarily to thwart covert trade.
Basra is the seat of a branch of the Univ. of Baghdad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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