FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Basque rural sports
A harrijasotzaile lifting the stone

Basque rural sports, known as Herri Kirolak in Basque, is the term used for a number of sports competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyles of the Basque people. They are called deporte rural vasco or simply deportes vascos in Spanish and force basque in French. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ...

All herri kirolak have their origin in the two main historical occupations, the baserritarra (farmer) and arrantzalea (fisher), with a larger percentage hailing from a rural background. The sociological changes in the Basque Country have led many of these becoming technically obsololete in the 19th and 20th century. Few continue to exist as rural or marine activities connected to everyday life and have become rare but many have managed to transform themselves into popular sports instead, some of which have become extremely popular. Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque County domain. ...

Betting, both by the competitors and the audience, is very common and popular at such sporting events. Gambling (or betting) is any behavior involving risking money or valuables (making a wager or placing a stake) on the outcome of a game, contest, or other event in which the outcome of that activity depends partially or totally upon chance or upon ones ability to do something. ...


The H18K rural sports

In 2006 the Eusko Jaurlaritza, the government of Euskadi, identified 18 particular rural sports, called H18K, in its Strategic Plan for promotion. These 18 categories are (in alphabetical order): Capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Official languages Basque and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 14th  7 234 km²  1,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 7th  2 124 846  4,9%  293,73/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€“ Basque  Basque  Vasco/a Euskal Herritar, Euskaldun GDP GDP/Cápita 30. ... Basque Country (Basque Euskadi, Spanish País Vasco) is an autonomous community of Spain whose capital is Vitoria (Basque Gasteiz). ...

Aizkora proba (wood chopping)

Main article: Aizkolaritza
An aizkolari

Literally "axe test", this rural sport more commonly knowa as aizkolaritza, from the Basque word for a wood-cutter. This is a very popular sport today but its origins are to be found in the rural wood cutting and charcoal burning communities of earlier periods. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (752x1178, 136 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wood chopping Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (752x1178, 136 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wood chopping Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

In this competition, the wood cutter has to chop through a number of tree trunks arranged on the ground in rows as quickly as possible while standing on the log to beat his competitors.

This sport is often seen in summer at local festivities and open-air dances, held in towns all over the country.

Giza-abere probak (dragging games)

Idi probak in Erandio

This sport translates as Human-animal tests and is a collective term for a number of sports in which humans and animals are involved in dragging heavy weights. There are four main categories: Erandio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. ...

  • Giza probak (human tests) where people attempt to drag a heavy weight, usually a large rock, across a certain distance
  • Zaldi probak (horse tests) - same as giza probak but with horses
  • Idi probak (oxen tests) - same as giza probak but with oxen
  • Asto probak (donkey tests) - same as giza probak but with donkeys

These normally take place on specially built trial grounds. The aim is to cover a certain distance within a given time or to cover as many circuits as possible. The idi probak are by far the most popular in this category. This article is about modern humans. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...

Harri jasotzea (stone lifting)

Main article: Harrijasotzaileak

The lifting of stones is one of the most widely known Basque rural sport outside the Basque Country, largely thanks to the prowess of Iñaki Perurena, a harrijasotzaile (stone-lifter) from Leitza, in Nafarroa, the first on record to lift stone over 300kg. Leitza is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...

There are usually two stone-lifters competing in each event, taking turns in one or several attempts, to perform the greatest possible number of lifts. A lift is considered complete when the stone has been properly balanced on the shoulder.

The four types of stone most frequently used are rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and square and were established at the beginning of the 20th century. The stones are traditionally made of granite, their weight normally ranging from 100kg to 212kg.

Together with aizkolaritza (wood chopping), stone lifting is another example a widely performed rural sport at local festivities all over the Basque Country.

Harri zulaketa (hole drilling)

Harri zulaketa competition

The rock boring competition involves having to punch holes into a rock. Teams of three compete against each other. They take turns in using a long metal pole (called laztabin) to punch and drill a hole into a large rock upon which they are standing, pouring water onto the working area while the third person gets to rest.

This tradition goes back to the quarrying activities around the Basque Country, in particular in Bizkaia. In Spanish it is called barrenadores "drillers" and occasionally barrenatzaileak (drillers, from the Spanish word) in Basque as well. A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... Vizcaya province Vizcaya (Basque Bizkaia) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ...

Ingude altxatzea (anvil lifting)

The lifting of anvils requires competitors to lift an iron anvil or ingude weighing 18kg 30cm above the height of their own head as many times as possible in a set time period. The anvil has the shape of an obtuse triangle with a stump at one point or an elongated T and is traditionally used in shoeing horses. Champions manage some 80 lifts in 2 minutes. For other uses, see Triangle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Horseshoe (disambiguation). ...

In Spanish this is called alzamiento de yunque and in French lever d’enclume.

Lasto altxatzea (bale lifting)

Hay-bale lifting

Literally hay bale lifting, this sport involves raising a hay-bale with the aid of a pulley. A round baler A baler is a piece of farm machinery that is used to compress a cut, raked, crop (such as hay or straw) into bales and bind the bales with twine. ...

The competition is usually about lifting the bale as often as possible withint a given period of time, most commonly 2 minutes. The bale weighs 45kg in the men's competitions and 30kg in the women's competition.

The most difficult part is to get to bale to the required height for the first time. Once that has been achieved, the competitors allow the bale to drop in free fall, grabbing the rope and jumping up at the appropriate moment to use their own body weight to lift up the bale again when coming down. A lot of skill is needed to avoid rope burn. The visual appearance is not dissimilar to swinging on a church bell rope. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

In Spanish this is called levantamiento de fardo and in French lever de paille.

Lasto botatzea (bale tossing)

Hay bale tossing in Barakaldo

Hay bale tossing is related to lasto altxatzea. Here the hay-bales have to be thrown over a bar set a certain height with the help of a pitchfork. For men the height is normally 7m, for women 5m and the bale has to hit a bell for the toss to be valid. Coat of arms Location of Barakaldo in Biscay. ... A round baler A baler is a piece of farm machinery that is used to compress a cut, raked, crop (such as hay or straw) into bales and bind the bales with twine. ...

This sport is very similar to the Scottish sheaf toss. In Spanish this is called lanzamiento de fardo. The sheaf toss event at the 2005 Skagit Valley Highland Games. ...

Lokotx biltzea (cob gathering)

In cob gathering competitions, also called buskail biltzea, cobs are placed at 1.25m distances in a line, 25 in a line at the most. The game can be played to 50, 75 or 100 cobs in which case they are placed in sets of 2, 3 or 4. The competitors have to collect these in order (the nearest first) and place them into a basket at one end of the row of cobs. This article is about the maize plant. ...

It is called recogida de mazorcas in Spanish and course des épis de maïs in French.

Ontzi eramatea (churn carrying)

The churn carrying competition usually involves milk-cans and is very similar to the txinga eramatea competition. Competitors have to carry a 41kg milk-churn in each hand as far as possible. This game is also called esneketariak "milk carrying" or ontziketariak "can carrying".

Orga jokoa (cart game)

Orga joko

The "oxcart game" is a display of strength. Contestants have to lift the back of an ox cart weighing 360kg 40cm above ground. The cart is pivoted to the ground at the front end and competitors must rotate it, trying to around as many times as possible. A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ...

It is also called andartza in Basque. In Spanish this is called levantamiento de carro and in French lever de charette.

Sega jokoa (scything)

Literally "scythe game", this sport is also known as segalariak (scythers), sega proba (scythe test), sega apustua (scythe bet) or segalaritza (scything). The earliest record of this sport comes from a bertso dating back to 1880 about a competition in Iturriotz. Bertsolaritza is the art of singing bertso, a type of musical verse in Basque Country. ...

In this sport competitors (called segalari) either compete to cut the most grass in a given space of time (usually one hour) or they are each given plots of grass of the same size and the competition is to see who can scythe theirs the fastest. Today the competition usually lasts one hour but two hour competitions also are still held. At the end, the grass is raked, weighed and baled to establish the winner. Traditionally, as with most Basque sports, the competitors would make a profit by betting but monetary prizes have been put up since the 1950's.

There are few actual records in this sport as it very much depends on the terrain and is thus difficult to compare. But a number of segalari have achieved fame nonetheless, for example the legendary Pedro Maria Otaño Ezeitza, commonly knows as Santa Ageda from Beizama who was also an aizkolari and competed up until 1915. Another famed event was the competition of 1925 in Iturriotz when, before a crowd of 6000, Pedro Mendizabal from Aia and Jose Arrieta from Urnieta battled each other. Legend has it that more than 150,000 pesetas in bets were placed. Menizabal won, cutting 4294kg of grass in two hours against his rival's 3957kg. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Beizama (Guipúzcoa). ... Village of Aia, Gipuzkoa Province Aia (pronounced eye-a) is a small village situated on the slopes of Mount Pagoeta in the Basque Province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. ... Urnieta is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... The peseta is the former currency of Spain and, (along with the French Franc), of Andorra. ...

The use of scythes is still widespread today as many pastures are to steep for modern farm machinery so scythes are used to cut grass or bracken. Working scythes have blades between 0.9-0.95m long but competition scythes range from 1.18-1.24m in length. A decent segalari can manage some 5000m2 in a day.

In Spanish this is simply called siega.

Sokatira (tug-of-war)

Tug-of-war is also traditional in the Basque Country. Usually two teams of eight compete, trying to drag the other team over a line by pulling on the rope. This article is about the sport. ...

There are free competitions in which the weight of the competitors is ignored and more structured events where there are weight categories of 525kg, 560kg, 640kg and 720kg per team. Juvenile teams are always under 560kg. Three lines are marked on the ground, a middle line and parallel to that at 2m distance two more. The maximum length of the rope is 32m with a circumference between 10-12.5cm. There are 5 markers on the rope, a red marker in the middle, 2m away from the red marker on either side are white markers and 5m on either side of those are blue markers. The aim is to get the opposing team's blue marker over your own 2m line. Hands must always be on the rope and you may not support it with any other part of your body or let it slacken. Only the last member of the team is allowed to wind the rope around their body.

In Spanish this is called sogatira and in French tir à la corde.

Trontza (sawing)

Sawing competitions, also called trontzalaritza or arpana, are seen as a variation of aizkolaritza and involve sawing through pieces of wood. The log is either fixed horizontally on sawhorses at a height of 40cm or at an angle with one end over the sawhorse and two members of the sawing team sitting on the lower end to stabilise the log, with two other handling the saw. The saw is usually 2m long, the logs vary but can be over 1m in circumference and usually between 10-20 in number. Delinquent sawed in two (Drawing by Lucas Cranach the Elder) Delinquent sawed in two while other condemned watch (Mediaeval drawing) Example of a two-man saw used for execution This article describes the method of execution. ... a sawhorse A sawhorse is a beam with four legs. ...

In Spanish this is called corte de troncos con tronza or just tronza and in French scieur de bois.

Txinga eramatea (weight carrying)

In the weight carrying competition weights have to be carried in both hands as far as possible. There usually is no time limit but the weights weigh between 50-100kg each and may not be put down or supported by any other part of your body. Competitors may only hold them by the rope handles but are not allowed to put their hands through them. It is possible to bring your own, favourite weights but they are checked by judges beforehand. The aim is to complete as many plaza of 28m as possible. You set your own pace and may stop (without putting the weights down) and champions manage between 400-500m.

The word eramatea variously shows in in dialect forms such as erutea or eroatea. In Spanish this is called prueba de txingas or carreras marmitas.

Zaku eramatea (sack carrying)

The sack carrying, also called zaku lasterketa (sack race) requires participants to have both speed and stamina. It usually takes the form of a relay race in teams of 3 where the runners have to carry heavy sacks across their shoulders. Depending on the area, the sacks contain a variety of things from bread to beans and usually weigh 60kg, 75kg or 80kg. During a relay race, members of a team take turns swimming or running (usually with a baton) parts of a circuit or performing a certain action. ...

In Spanish this is called carreras de contrabandistas or carrera con saco and in French course de sac.

Other rural sports

The above categories included in the H18K group aside, there are a number of other rural and traditional Basque sports, some of which are extremely popular both in and outside the Basque Country. Some are indigenous, some also occur in aread adjacent to the Basque country or other cultures around the world.

Ahari topeka (ram fighting)

Ram fights, also variously called ahari apustuak (ram bets) and ahari talka (ram bump) are very popular around the Urola basin in towns like Azpeitia (between October and June) and Arroa. They test the strength and endurance of the rams, using their natural inclination to fight other rams. Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipúzcoa Azpeitia is a city within the province of Guipúzcoa, in the Basque Country. ...

The rams are trained and fed on a variety of secret diets involving things like beans, apples, red wine, carrots or egg yolk[1]. A basic fight goes over at least 8 ekintaldi (attacks), also called kintze (from Spanish quince "15"), with the best of 8 winning. To score a point, a ram has to land a square hit on his opponent's head or horns. If the ram runs away at the start, the owner is allowed to bring him back into the ring once. There are records of bets way over 100 attacks but these are rare now.

Although the strongest rams are said to come from the Aralar Mendilerroa mountain range between Gipuzkoa and Nafarroa, they are also said to be too placid so the preference is for rams from the region around Urbasa, Andia and Gorbeia. Guipuscoa province. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Gorbea or Gorbeia is a mountain and massif, the highest one of Biscay and Alava (Basque Country,Spain) with a height of 1,481 m AMSL. The massif covers a wide area between the two provinces. ...

The Eusko Jaurlaritza controversially banned the Iurreta ahari topekas in 2007 on animal welfare grounds.[2] Capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Official languages Basque and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 14th  7 234 km²  1,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 7th  2 124 846  4,9%  293,73/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€“ Basque  Basque  Vasco/a Euskal Herritar, Euskaldun GDP GDP/Cápita 30. ... Iurreta is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ...

This sport is called peleas de carneros in Spanish.

Aitzur jaurtiketa (hoe throwing)

A game of throwing hoes. Hoe may refer to: Look up hoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In Spanish this is called lanzamiento de azada, in French as lancer de houe.

Antzar jokoa (goose game)

There are two variations of this game depending on whether it is played at a seaside town or inland. In a seaside town, a long rope is suspended between a pole on the quay and the mast of a boat. A dead goose (previously live geese were used too) is suspended head down in the middle of the rope. Teams now have to row out and a designated person must jump up, grab the goose, hang on to it and try to remove the head before falling off. At the same time, sailors at both ends of the rope try their best to shake the person clinging to the goose off. The team that collects the most heads wins. Inland, the rope is suspended over the ground and the same goal must be achieved from horseback.

The most famous of these is held in Lekeitio on Antzar Eguna (goose day), held between the 1-8 September goes back at least to the year 1877 when it was played only by sailors. It has also been celebrated on other days in other villages, sometimes (for example in Gernika) using chicken instead of geese. Location of Lekeitio in Biscay. ... Flag of Gernika-Lumo. ...

In Spanish this is called juego de gansos and in French as jeu d'oie.

Ardi ile moztea (sheep shearing)

Sheep shearing also features in Basque rural sports and works along similar lines as other sheep shearing contests. Ardi ile moztea translates as "the shearing of sheep's wool" and it is also known as ardi moztea "sheep shearing". Medium fine Merino shearing Lismore, Victoria Sheep shearing, typically just called shearing, is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is removed. ...

Asto arineketan (donkey races)

Similar to horse racing but with donkeys. Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ...

Blankolari (shooting)

Shotgun shooting is particularly popular in the area around Eibar in the Basque Country. For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipúzcoa Eibar is a city within the province of Guipúzcoa, in the Basque Country. ...

In Spanish this is called puntería con escopeta, in French as compétition avec escopette.

Bola jokoa (bowls)

Main article: Bola jokoa

Basques have also their own variants of dirt-track and lawn bowls.[3] There is a large number of variations of the game but most are similar to skittles and centre around a set of pins that must be knocked down with a ball. Men playing bowls Bowls (or Lawn Bowls) is a precision sport where the goal is to roll slightly radially asymmetrical balls (called bowls) closer to a smaller white ball (the jack) than ones opponent is able to do. ... Pins and ball Large scale game Skittles is an old European target sport, a variety of bowling, from which Ten-pin bowling, Duckpin bowling, and Candlepin bowling in the United States, and Five-pin bowling in Canada are descended. ...

Espadrila jaurtiketa (espadrilles tossing)

A game of throwing espadrilles, a kind of shoe with a straw sole. A shelf of Catalonian Espadrilles found in Barcelona Espadrilles are casual flat or high-heel fashion sandals originating from the Pyrenees. ...

In Spanish this is called lanzamiento de alpargata, in French as lancer d'espadrille .

Estropadak (rowing competitions)

Main article: Estropadak
Competing for the Kontxako Bandera.

A very popular rowing competition all along the coast of the Bay of Biscay and the Northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

This sport hails back to the days when fishermen had to reach fishing grounds quickly and return to port as quickly as possible to achieve the best price.

The crew is made up of thirteen oarsmen and the cox, who faces them at the stern. The boats are called traineru (trainera in Spanish) and are derived from 19th century fishing boats. Cox may mean: hot man Coxswain. ... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ...

The most important competition in the Bay of Biscay in summer takes place the first two Sundays in September where the best teams compete against each, the Kontxako Bandera, following a tradition which is over a hundred years old. There is a regatta in almost every seaside town between July and October.

Giza gazteluak (human castles)

Castell in Barcelona on the Plaça Sant Jaume

This is essentially the same tradition as the Catalan castell building where people build a human pyramid. Image File history File links 4_de_9_amb_folre. ... Image File history File links 4_de_9_amb_folre. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Castell (disambiguation). ...

Goitibeherak (soapbox cars)

In the Basque Country the tradition of building soapbox cars goes back at least to the early 20th century. The name is a contraction of goitik-behera which means "from the top to the bottom". Unlike most European soapbox car, the goitibeherak are three-wheelers and the early versions simply consisted of a triangular frame on three wheels with a plank to sit upon, which children would race down slopes. Children racing soapbox cars A soapbox car (also variously known as a soapbox cart, and especially in Australia, billy cart) is a motorless vehicle capable of holding a driver (usually a child) built for the purpose of racing or recreation. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ...

The earliest documented races date back to the mid 1970's when races were held during local festivals. The first Basque national competition was held in 1976 and are common events all over the Basque Country today. One of the biggest events, the Goitibehera Munduko Txapelketa (World Goitibehera Championship) was first held in 1985 in Iruñea during the San Fermínes and has been held at irregular intervals since, the last time in 2007 when the VIII championship was held. For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ... Bulls running on July 7, 2005, Consistorial Square, Pamplona The festival of San Fermín in the city of Pamplona (Navarre, Basque Country, Spain), is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from noon 6 July, when the opening of the fiesta is marked by setting off the pyrotechnic chupinazo accompanied...

The normal soapbox races are called carreras de cajas de jabón in Spanish but this version is called goitiberas even in Spanish. They occur in the Basque Country and Uruguay to where they were exported by Basque emigrants.

Igel jokoa (frog game)

The frog game

The frog game is played both in the Basque Country and some adjacant areas such as Asturias, in particular in Basque sagardotegiak (cider houses) and taverns. The aim of the game is to score as many points as possible by aiming 10 metal disks at the frog chest. Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ...

The chest can be placed at a number of distances away from the players, usually 8-15 paces. On top of the chest there is an iron frog with an open mouth, a mill and a bridge. Underneath are more empty compartments. In most variants if one manages to hit the frog's mouth, you are awarded 50 points, 25 for getting the disc under the mill, 10 for the bridge and 5 for any of the compartments below. Other score systems also exist.

Some frog chests have obstacles built into the frog, mill and bridge to make the game more difficult. Disks that have hit the mark are collected at the back of the chest via a set of metal tubes.

In Spanish this game is called juego de la rana and in French jeu de la grenouille.

Korrika (racing)

Also a popular sport in the Basque country. There are broadly speaking two categories:

  • races held in bullrings where a circle with a 15m radius. Competitors try to complete a set number of laps as fast as possible.
  • cross country races, usually of more than 10km.

A highly popular race, the Korrika, is held once a year in aid of Basque schools and crosses all parts of the Basque Country. Bullring in Málaga, Spain A bullring is the location where bullfighting is performed. ... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ... The term cross-country, when used by itself, can refer to: Sports Cross-country running, a sport in which teams of runners compete to complete a course over open or rough terrain Cross-country skiing, a winter sport for skiing Fell running also known as hill running and mountain running...

A variant of the korrika are the ibiltariak (walkers), a fast walking race that was particularly popular in Nafarroa in the 19th and 20th century with the walkers wearing the abarketa, a traditional Basque leather shoe, and a hazel stick. “Navarra” redirects here. ...

The traditional forms of running korrika have been largely supplanted by modern forms of running and racing.

Kukaina (yard climbing)

This game is usally played on a yard that is suspended horizontally over water. A piece of cloth is attached to the far end of the yard and competitors have to try and reach it and retrieve it. It can also be spelled kukaña, a word which derives from the Spanish word cucaña, in French monter du mât. The fore royal yard on the Prince William. ...

Laiariak (laia competitions)

This is a competition involving the laia, a farming implement that resembles a two-pronged heavy pichtfork with an off-centre handle, either with a long or short handle. Traditionally four or five members of either gender of a baserri family are picked to compete as a team, the task being to turn over a plot of land as quickly as possible.

A variation of this is laia lasterketa, a laia race where the competitors stand on a pair of laiak and race, not dissimilar to a race on stilts.

The laia was a very widespread instrument used to loosen soil. With the advent of modern farming machinery, its use is now restricted to area machines cannot reach, for example on high slopes, and kitchen gardens. The traditional kitchen garden, also known as a potager, is a seasonally used space separate from the rest of the residential garden--the ornamental plants and lawn areas. ...

In Spanish this is called layadores or layar, in French as bêcher.

Makil tira (stick pulling)

In this game two players sit on the ground with their feet touching, separated by a plank. Both players also hold onto a makila and the aim is to lift your opponent to their feet. The makila (sometimes spelled makhila) is a traditional Basque walking stick, and is notable as both a practical tool and a cultural symbol of authority and strength. ...

In Spanish this is called Tiro del palo, in French as tir au bâton.

Oilar jokoa (chicken game)

This term in Basque covers two sorts of chicken games:

  • cockfighting, which was outlawed in 1926.
  • a game where a chicken is buried to the neck and blindfolded. Competitors, themselves blindfolded too, have to locate the chicken guided by the music of a txistulari or drummer. In the old days the goal was to remove the head from the chicken once it was located but when played today, it is sufficient to touch the head. The most famous oilar jokoa is held in Legazpi in June today but the game used to be more widespread.

The Cock Fight by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1847) A cockfight is a contest, held in a cockpit between two fighting cocks (roosters) trained to severely injure and/or kill one another. ... See: Legazpi, Spain Legazpi City, Albay, Philippines This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Palanka jaurtiketa (metal bar throwing)

The throwing of a metal bar was once one of the most popular and widerspread of Basque sports. Its popularity waned during the 19th century. Having died out in most areas, it survived the longest in parts of Gipuzkoa until its ultimate demise in the 20th century. Guipuscoa province. ...

The palankari (thrower) throws a palanka, a traditional mining tool weighing between 8-25kg as far as possible. Various throwing techniques were employed, most involving the palankari twisting around before launching the palanka. Some techniques by name are:

  • bueltaerdiz "with half a turn"
  • bularretik "from the chest"
  • hankartetik "from between the legs"

The origins of this sport are in the mining industry where the palanka was traditionally used to prepare the holes into which explosives were then placed from the 15th century onwards. As a pastime, the miners would see who could throw the heavy tool the furthest in their breaks.

Curiously, the Spanish athlete Miguel de la Quadra-Salcedo used a javelin throwing technique based on the Basque techniques of throwing the palanka at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Initially breaking the world record in javelin throwing, his record was later annulled when the IAFF amended to rules to exclude techniques that at any point in time involve the athlete or the javelin face or point towards the audience. Look up Javelin on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Javelin can refer to several things: For the spear-like object,used as a thrown weapon in ancient times see Javelin Ancient For the modern athletic discipline see Javelin throw. ... The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, were celebrated in 1960 in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics (known in the US as track and field). It was founded in 1912 at its first Congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation. ...

In Spanish this is called lanzamiento de barra and in French lancement de bar de mine.

Pegarra lasterketa (pitcher race)

This sport involves a pitcher variously called pegarra, bera, pedarra and kantarue in Basque. It is a traditional ceramic pitcher that resembles a fat teapot, with a diameter at the base of around 20cm, a lid on the top with about 10cm diameter and about 30cm tall and a fairly large spout. It can either be glazed or unglazed, with one or three handles (if it was designed to be hung) that was traditionally used to carry water.

It is carried on a head chushion called burutea and the aim of a race is to get to the finish line without dropping the pegarra. It is difficult to ascertain how old the sport is but one of the earliest records of the pegarra being used to carry water on the head dates back to a Dutch book from 1603 called Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Abraham Ortelius which has an illustration of a Basque woman carrying a pegarra.

In Spanish this is called carrera de pedarras and in French course de pedarras.

Esku Pilota (Basque pelota)

Main article: Basque Pelota
Playing pilota with wooden bats.

The Basque sport best known outside the Basque Country is Basque pelota. It is a Basque version of the family of ball games that covers squash, tennis, and real tennis, all of them thought to derive from the Jeu de paume and hence a relative of Valencian pilota. A game of pelote as played in Ustaritz Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x534, 41 KB) Frontón de pelota vasca (juego típico de España) originally uploaded to spanish wikipedia by Usuario:JMSE el 8 de julio de 2003 Trinquete (tipo de frontón para pelota vasca) en Elizondo en la provincia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x534, 41 KB) Frontón de pelota vasca (juego típico de España) originally uploaded to spanish wikipedia by Usuario:JMSE el 8 de julio de 2003 Trinquete (tipo de frontón para pelota vasca) en Elizondo en la provincia... A game of pelote as played in Ustaritz Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor... Alternate uses: See Ball (disambiguation) A ball is a round object that is used most often in sports and games. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ... Jeu de paume was originally a French precursor of tennis played without racquets. ... Pilota Valenciana or Valencian pilota (pilota means ball in Valencian) is a traditional handball sport played in the Valencian Community. ...

But the main innovation of Basque pilota is that players share a common playground and throw the ball to a wall, making it an indirect game, while the other games in this family are generelly direct games where the players face each other in two separate fields separated by a net or line on the ground. The Basques began playing pelota indirectly during the middle of the 19th century. For the different variations of Basque pelota, see the main article on Basque pelota. A game of pelote as played in Ustaritz Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor...

While most of the best world players are Basque (in either the Spanish or the French federations), it is by no means limited to the Basque Country and is also played in Castile, Rioja and places where Basques have emigrated to such as Mexico (home of frontenis), Florida and the Philippines. A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. ... Frontenis is a variation on the game of Jai Alai and found primarily in Mexico. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...

As such it has been an Olympic exhibition sport in Paris, Mexico and Barcelona. At the 1900 Summer Olympics, a pelota tournament was contested. ...

It is called pelota vasca in Spanish and pelote basque in French.

Pulsolariak (arm wrestling)

Basque arm wrestling follows broadly the same rules as anywhere else. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Soka-muturra (bull-herding)

The name of this sport literally translates as snout rope (soka "rope" and mutur "snout")- It derives from a tradition where bulls destined for slaughter were led through the town on long ropes regularly on a particular day of the week (which varies from town to town). Occasionally a bull would break free on run wild, an event called karrera egitea (to make a run), while the crowds made sport of the bulls. From the 14th century onwards bulls were increasingly let loose on purpose, ultimately leading to the tradition of running the bulls. It's also known as soka-mutilen jokoa, the game of the rope boys. Runners hiding behind the protection of an iron barricade. ...

Sometimes this would happen at night, with lights attached to the bulls, the most likely forerunner of the zezen-suzko or "fire bull".[4] In the zezen-suzko, a contraption of fireworks is strapped to a bull and lit at night.

Today this is sometimes also practised in bullrings, either temporary or permanent and it also a regular feature of the Running of the Bulls in Iruñea/Pamplona. Runners hiding behind the protection of an iron barricade. ... For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ...


This is game involves throwing small objects like pebbles, balls or coins across a distance, trying to hit the target, a vertical metal pole.

It is called juego de la raya in Spanish and jeu de la raie in French.

Txakur probak (sheepdog trials)

Sheepdog trials are another lively example of the Basque traditional pastoral lifestyle. Tey're also called artzain txakurren trebetasun lehiaketak or "shepherd dogs skill competitions". A Sheepdog trial (or simply dog trial) is a competitive dog sport in which herding dog breeds move sheep around a field, fences, gates, or enclosures as directed by their handlers. ...

Sheepdog trials in the Basque Country are very similar to those held in other countries and involves a sheepdog having to herd a flock of ewes into a fold. Traditionally the euskal artzain txakurra or Basque shepherd dog is kept but border collies are also increasingly popular. Identifying the best dogs for breeding is an important part to these competitions. A major Basque sheepog trial event is held in Oñati in September. A pen is an enclosure for domestic animals. ... Young Basque shepherd dog Basque Shepherd Dogs (Basque: Euskal artzain txakurra) are a breed of dogs originating in the Basque Country and traditionally used by the local shepherds to help them taking care of the cattle. ... The Border Collie is a breed of herding dog that originated in the border country of England and Scotland. ... The Antigua Universitad del Pais Vasco Oñati is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain. ...

In Spanish this is called concursos de perro pastor and in French concours de chien de berger.


  • Rural Basque Sports
  • The Basque Federation for Rural Sports
  • Kulki (a sports culture organisation)
  • Department of Culture (in Basque and Spanish)
  • Agirre, R. Juegos y deportes vascos, Auñamendi, Donostia 1978
  • Etxegoien, J. Orhipean, Xamar 1996
  • Feliu, C. Gure Herria: Tradiciones y Costumbres del País Vasco
  1. ^ http://www.euskonews.com/0045zbk/gaia4503eu.html
  2. ^ http://www.elcorreodigital.com/vizcaya/20070920/duranguesado/gobierno-vasco-prohibe-peleas-20070920.html
  3. ^ Bola jokoa/El juego de bolos, exhibition brochure compiled by Juan José Zorrilla for the Culture Section of the Foral Government of Biscay, Bilbao, 2006, ISBN 84-88916-96-5.
  4. ^ Mugika, G. Tradiciones y Costumbres, Congreso de Estudios Vascos 1919

Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ...

See also

Basque Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ...



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m