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Encyclopedia > Basque people
Basques
Euskaldunak
Total population

approx. 18,000,000 worldwide

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country[1]
          Alava 279,000
          Biscay 1,160,000
          Guipuscoa 684,000
           Total (Basque Country) 2,123,000
Flag of Navarre Navarre[2] 560,000
Flag of Spain Spain Total (Spain) 2,304,000
Flag of France France
          Labourd 225,000
          Lower Navarre 40,000
          Soule 20,000
          Total (France) 285,000
          TOTAL 2,589,000
Basque Patronyms in other French and Spanish regions
           Spain 4,000,000
           France 1,000,000
Diaspora
Flag of Mexico Mexico 4.1 million [citation needed]
Flag of Chile Chile 1.5 million [citation needed]
Flag of Brazil Brazil 800.000 - 1.500.000 [citation needed]
Flag of the United States United States 57,793 [citation needed]
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay 35,000 [citation needed]
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 6,000 [citation needed]
Language(s)

Basque - few monoglots
Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots
French - 150,000 monoglots
Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers
Basque-French - 76,000 speakers
[citation needed] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Guipuscoa province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Navarre. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... The Basque diaspora is the name given to describe people of Basque origin living outside their traditional homeland on the borders between Spain and France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ...

other native languages
Religion(s)
Traditionally Roman Catholic

The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


The name Basque derives from Medieval French and from the ancient tribe of the Vascones,[3] described by Ancient Greek historian Strabo as living south of the western Pyrenees and north of the Ebro River, in modern day Navarre and northern Aragon. This tribal name, of unknown etymology, was extended in late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages to cover all Basque-speaking people on either side of the Pyrenees. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about the Spanish river. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Basques are now mainly found in an area traditionally known as Euskal Herria, which is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ...


The Basques are known in local languages as:

  • Euskaldunak ("Basque speakers", also used loosely to describe all ethnic Basques) or euskotarrak ("Natives of the Basque Country", a rarely used neologism) in Basque
  • Vascos in Spanish
  • Basques in French
  • Bascos in Gascon

This article discusses the Basques as an ethnic group or, as some view them, a nation, in contrast to other ethnic groups living in the Basque area. The history of the Basque region as covered here will focus on how that history bears on the Basques as a people. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


Recent genetic studies have confirmed that many western Europeans, including the great majority of Spaniards, Portuguese, Britons, Irish and French, have a common ancestry with modern Basques that can be traced to inhabitants of the Basque areas of Spain and France based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA analysis.[4] The originators of these genes are thought to have traveled up the Atlantic Coast in the Upper Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic period. Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... The Upper Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. ...

Contents

Etymology of the word "Basque"

The English word "Basque" comes from French Basque (pronounced /bask/), which itself comes from Gascon Basco (pronounced /ˈbasku/) and Spanish Vasco (pronounced /ˈbasko/). These, in turn, come from Latin Vasco (pronounced /wasko/), plural Vascones (see History section below). The Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ generally evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish, probably under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity (similarly the Latin /w/ evolved into /v/ in French, Italian and other languages). This explains the Roman pun at the expense of the Aquitanians (ancestors of the Gascons): 'Beati Hispani quibus vivere bibere est", which translates as "Blessed (are the) Spaniards, for whom living is drinking'. The Romans considered the Aquitanians akin to the Spaniards. The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... Betacism is a linguistic phenomenon in which the consonant b sound shifts to become a v sound. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ...

Barscunes coin. Roman period
Barscunes coin. Roman period

Several coins from the 1st and 2nd centuries BC found in the north of Spain bear the inscription barscunes written in the Iberian alphabet. The place where they were minted is not certain but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones. Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a pre-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march".[5] Image File history File links Barscunes. ... Image File history File links Barscunes. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Iberian alphabet was an alphabet, with some of the features of a syllabary, that was used to write the Iberian and Celtiberian languages. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ...


Others suggest that Latin Vasco comes from a Basque and Aquitanian root used by these people to refer to themselves, eusk-, pronounced /ewsk/, which is rather similar to Latin /wasko/.[citation needed] The name of an Aquitanian people which the Romans recorded as Ausci (pronounced /awski/ in Latin) appears to represent from the same root. The basque word for hand/grasp is similar to the root "eusk" in Basque as well, with the sense that other ethnic groups have also for self referral as "those who grasp(thought,word),those who understand (us)". Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ...


In modern Basque, Basques call themselves euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal- (i.e. "Basque (language)") and -dun (i.e. "one who has"); euskaldun literally means a Basque speaker. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers, and not all Basque speakers are Basques; foreigners who have learned Basque can also be called euskaldunak. Therefore the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the nineteenth century to mean an ethnically Basque person whether Basque-speaking or not. These Basque words are all derived from euskara, the Basque name for the Basque language. A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Alfonso Irigoyen claimed that the word euskara comes from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" (cf. modern Basque esan) and the suffix -(k)ara ("way (of doing something)"). Thus euskara would literally mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, who records the native name of the Basque language as "enusquera". It may be however a writing mistake.

In the nineteenth century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko "of the sun" on the assumption of an original solar religion). On the basis of this putative root Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation. Arana's etymology is discredited today, but his neologism Euzkadi, in the regularized spelling Euskadi, is still widely used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiritaŕ Sabin (January 26, 1865 – November 25, 1903), Spain, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party and a inventor of previously non-existent Basque nationalism. ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Euzkadi is a name coined for the Basque Country by Sabino Arana, ideologue of Basque nationalism, first registered in 1896 and still used by his followers. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ...


In fact the root eusk- might come from the name of the aquitanian tribe Ausci that gave its name to the french city of Auch that was called before Elimberrum 'new town' (from basco-aquitanian ili-berri). Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ... Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ...


History

Basque and other pre-Indo-European tribes at the time of Roman arrival (in red)

It is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe, specifically those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were already mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani and others. There is enough evidence that they already spoke Basque in that time (see: Aquitanian language, Iruña-Veleia). Image File history File links Basque_tribes. ... Image File history File links Basque_tribes. ... The Basque people are an indigenous people inhabiting both Spain and France. ... the inhabitants of the Franco-Cantabric region produced some of the finest Paleolithic mural art, as this horse at Lascaux cave Franco-Cantabric region (also Franco-Cantabrian region) is a term applied in Archaeology and History to refer to an area that stretches from Asturias, in northern Spain, to Provence... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... Location of Veleia and other Roman cities in the context of ancient Basque tribes and the modern Basque Country Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country. ...


In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, being united under the Castillian noblesse. After Muslim invasions and Frankish expansion under Charlemagne, the territory was fragmented and eventually the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Pamplona arose as the main states with basque population in the ninth century. For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... This article is about the historical region. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ...


This state, later known as Navarre, experienced feudalization and was subjected to the influences of its vaster Aragonese, Castilian and French neighbours, with Castile annexing parts of it in the eleventh and twelfth century and from 1512 to 1521. The remainder of Navarre would end up being united to France. “Navarra” redirects here. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Nevertheless the Basque provinces enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution in the North and the mainly religious wars named Carlist Wars in the South trying to establish a catholic theocratic monarchy. Since then, a violent fragment of Basque society has been attempting to stablish a socialist State (see Basque nationalism) in spite of the actual self-government of the Basque Country settled by the Spanish Constitution. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ...


Geography

Political and administrative divisions

The autonomous community (a concept established in the Spanish constitution of 1978) that is known as Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa or EAE in Basque, and as (la) Comunidad Autónoma Vasca or CAV in Spanish (in English: Basque Autonomous Community or BAC),[6] is composed of the three Spanish provinces of Alava, Biscay and Guipuscoa. The corresponding Basque names of these territories are Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa and their Spanish name is Álava, Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa. Constitution of Spain - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Guipuscoa province. ...


Although the BAC only includes three of the seven provinces of the currently called "historical territories", it is sometimes referred to simply as "the Basque Country" (or Euskadi), at times by writers only considering those three provinces, but also on occasions merely as a convenient abbreviation when this does not lead to confusion in the context; others reject this usage as inaccurate and are careful to specify the BAC (or an equivalent expression such as "the three provinces") when referring to this entity or region. Likewise, terms such as "the Basque Government" for "the government of the BAC" are commonly though not universally employed. In particular it should be noted that in common usage the French term Pays Basque ("Basque Country"), in the absence of further qualification, refers either to the whole of Euskal Herria or, not infrequently, to the northern (or "French") Basque Country specifically.


Under Spain's present constitution, Navarre (Nafarroa in actual Basque, Navarra historically in Spanish) constitutes a voluntarily separate entity, called in actual Basque Nafarroako Foru Erkidegoa, in Spanish Comunidad Foral de Navarra (the autonomous community of Navarre). The government of this autonomous community is the Government of Navarre. Note that in historical contexts Navarre may refer to a wider area, and that the present-day northern Basque province of Low Navarre may also be referred to as (part of) Nafarroa, to distinguish it from which the term "High Navarre" (Nafarroa Garaia in Basque, Alta Navarra in Spanish) is also encountered as a way of referring to the territory of the present-day autonomous community.


There are other three provinces claimed by the nationalist basque parties as parts of an expanded Basque Country: Labourd, Lower Navarre and Soule (Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea and Zuberoa in Basque; Labourd, Basse-Navarre and Soule in French), have no official status within France's present-day political and administrative territorial organization and there is only a marginal political support to the Spanish basque nationalists.


Population, main cities and languages

There are 2,123,000 people living in the Basque Autonomous Community (279,000 in Alava, 1,160,000 in Biscay and 684,000 in Gipuscoa). The most important cities in this region, which serve as the provinces' administrative centers, are Bilbao (Bilbo/Bilbao) (in Biscay), San Sebastian (Donostia/San Sebastián) (in Gipuscoa) and Vitoria (Gasteiz/Vitoria) (in Alava). The official languages are Basque and Spanish. Knowledge of Spanish and Basque are equally compulsory according to the Spanish constitution, and virtually universal. Knowledge of Basque, after declining for many years during Franco's dictatorship owing to official persecution, is again on the rise due to favourable official language policies and popular support. Currently about 27 per cent of the BAC's population speaks Basque. La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Location Location of Donostia-San Sebastian in Spain Coordinates : 43º 19 17 w. ... Haec est Victoria quae vincit (This is Victoria which triumphed) Location Location of Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spain Coordinates : 42°51′ N 2°41′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish) Spanish name Vitoria-Gasteiz Founded 1181 Postal code 01001-01080... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ...


Navarre has a population of 601,000; its administrative capital and main city, also regarded by many nationalist Basques as the Basques' historical capital, is Pamplona (Iruñea in modern Basque). Although Spanish and Basque are official languages in this autonomous community, Basque language rights are only recognised by current legislation and language policy in the province's northern region, where most Basque-speaking Navarrese are concentrated.


Approximately a quarter of a million people live in the part of claimed French Basque Country. Nationalists politicians in Basque Country generally refer to this as the "north" (Iparralde), and therefore to the Spanish provinces as the "south" (Hegoalde). Much of this population lives in or near the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (BAB) urban belt on the coast (in Basque these are Baiona, Angelu and Miarritze). The Basque language, which was traditionally spoken by most of the region's population outside the BAB urban zone, is today losing ground to French at a fast rate. Associated with the northern Basque Country's lack of self-government within the French state is the absence of official status for the Basque language throughout this region.


The Basque diaspora

Main article: Basque diaspora

Large numbers of Basques have left the Basque Country for other parts of the world in different historical periods, often for economic or political reasons, and in some cases to escape imprisonment or death. The Basque diaspora is the name given to describe people of Basque origin living outside their traditional homeland on the borders between Spain and France. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...


A great many Basques emigrated to Argentina, where they represent about 10% of the national population,[7] and substantial numbers settled elsewhere in North and South America, particularly in Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, and the United States, where Basque place names are to be found, such as New Biscay, now Durango (Mexico), Biscayne Bay, Jalapa (Guatemala), Aguerreberry or Aguereberry Point in the United States. Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Biscayne Bay separates Miami on the mainland from Miami Beach on the barrier islands of the Atlantic Ocean coast of Florida. ... Jalapa is the name of: A department and town in Guatemala; see: Jalapa, Guatemala A city in Baja California, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Baja California A city in Guerrero, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Guerrero A city in Oaxaca, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Oaxaca A city in Tabasco, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Tabasco A city...


In Mexico most Basques are concentrated in the Monterrey, Saltillo, Camargo, Jalisco, Durango, and the Mexican states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and Coahuila areas. In Guatemala most Basques are concentrated in Jalapa Guatemala for six generations now, some have immigrated to the city of Guatemala. The largest of several important Basque communities in the United States is in the area around Boise, Idaho, home to the Basque Museum and Cultural Center, host to a Basque festival every year, as well as a festival for the entire Basque diaspora every five years. Reno, Nevada, where the Center for Basque Studies and the Basque Studies Library are located in the University of Nevada, is another significant nucleus of Basque population. There also exists a history of Basque culture in Chino, California. In Chino, there are two annual Basque festivals that celebrate the dance, cuisine, and culture of the peoples. In Winnemucca, Nevada there is an annual Basque festival that celebrates the dance, cuisine and cultures of the peoples, much like Chino. In South Texas along the Mexican-Texan border of the Rio Grande Valley, many people are of Basque heritage or have Basque surnames. Along this area are many ranches given to colonial Spanish settlers to New Spain which still exist today. Many people in Uruguay are of Basque heritage also.[1] Nickname: Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: , Country State Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero ( PAN) Area  - City 860 km² (332 sq mi) Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,133,814  - Density 1,989/km² (5... Saltillo is a city in northeast Mexico, located at 25°42′ N 101°00′ W. It is the current capital of the state of Coahuila. ... Camargo may refer to: Camargo, Kentucky Camargo, Oklahoma Camargo, Illinois This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 30,534. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Other Mexican States Capital Monterrey Other major cities Area 64,924 km² Ranked 13th Population (2000 census) 3,826,240 Ranked 9th Governor (2003-09) José Natividad González Parás (PRI/PVEM) Federal Deputies (11) PRI/PVEM = 10 PAN = 1 Federal Senators PAN = 2 PRI = 1 ISO 3166-2 Postal abbr. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Jalapa is the name of: A department and town in Guatemala; see: Jalapa, Guatemala A city in Baja California, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Baja California A city in Guerrero, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Guerrero A city in Oaxaca, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Oaxaca A city in Tabasco, Mexico; see: Jalapa, Tabasco A city... Boise redirects here. ... Reno redirects here. ... The University of Nevada, Reno (Nevada or UNR) is a university located in Reno, Nevada, USA, and is known for its programs in agricultural research, journalism, animal biotechnology, and mining-related engineering and natural sciences. ... Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Winnemucca cemetery with a sign reading: Welcome to Winnemucca, Proud of it! // Winnemucca is the county seat of Humboldt County in the U.S. state of Nevada and the site of a September 19, 1900 bank robbery by the Wild Bunch. ... South Texas is a region of the U.S. state of Texas which lies roughly south of, or beginning at, San Antonio. ... The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


There are also many Basques and people of Basque ancestry living outside their homeland in Spain, France and other European countries.

Classification of population according to cultural identity

Culture

Language

Main article: Basque language

The identifying language of the Basques is called Basque or Euskara, spoken today by 25%-30%[8] of the country's population. An idea of the central place of the ethnic terms in Basque nationalist politicians is given by the fact that, in Basque, Basques identify themselves by the term euskaldun and their country as Euskal Herria, literally "Basque speaker" and "Country of the Basque Language" respectively. The use of the language as a political instrument has damaged the original culture of the Basque Country. Essentially an identity issue, the language has nonetheless been converted into a political issue by Spanish and French policies targeting its use and the widespread Basque response of teaching, speaking, writing and cultivating their heritage language with ever-increasing enthusiasm and success, as a way of maintaining, defending and symbolizing their survival as a people. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


As a result of state persecution, school policies, the impact of mass media, and the effects of immigration, today virtually all Basques (except for some children below school age) can use and understand the official language of their state (Spanish or French), meaning that all Basque speakers except for little children are effectively bilingual. Spanish or French is also typically the first language learned by immigrants, many of whom do not learn Basque, although recent Basque Government policies aim to change this pattern.[9]


The Basque language is thought to be a genetic language isolate. Thus Basque contrasts with other European languages, almost all of which belong to the large Indo-European language family. Another peculiarity of Basque is that it has been spoken continuously in situ, in and around its present territorial location, for longer than other modern European languages, which have all been introduced in historical or prehistorical times through population migrations or other processes of cultural transmission.[10] Genetic, in linguistics, means due to descent from a common ancestor language, rather than borrowing at some time in the past between languages that were not necessarily descended from a common ancestor. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


However, popular stereotypes characterizing Basque as "the oldest language in Europe" and "unique among the world's languages" may be misunderstood and lead to erroneous assumptions.[11] Over the centuries, Basque has remained in constant contact with neighboring languages in its western European surroundings, with which it has come to share numerous lexical items and typological features; it is therefore misleading to exaggerate the "outlandish" character of Basque. Basque is also a modern language, and nowadays firmly established as a written and printed medium, also used in present-day forms of publication and communication, as well as a language spoken and used in a very wide range of social and cultural contexts, styles, and registers.


Land and inheritance

Basques have a close attachment to their home (etxe(a)or 'eche' 'house, home'), especially when this consists of the traditional self-sufficient, family-run farm or baserri(a). Home in this context is synonymous with family roots. Old baserri names, themselves typically expressing short-range geographical orientations or other locally meaningful identifying features, have transmuted into modern Basque surnames, thereby providing even Basques whose families may have left the land generations ago with an important link to their rural family origins: Bengoetxea "the house of further down", Goikoetxea "the house above", Landaburu "top of the field", Errekondo "next to the stream", Elizalde "by the church", Mendizabal "wide hill", Useche "house of birds" Ibarretxe "house in the valley", Etxeberria "the new house", etc.[12] Red dots indicate where the last name can be found Bengoechea is a common surname in the Basque country of Spain. ... The Elizalde was a Spanish automobile manufactured from 1914 until 1928. ... Juan José Ibarretxe Markuartu (born March 15, 1957)[1] is a Spanish politician. ... Etxeberria is a Basque-language placename and surname, meaning the new house, often associated to the construction of new farms (baserri) after the introduction of American crops like maize and potatoes. ...


A widespread belief that Basque society was originally matriarchal seems to conflict with the clearly patrilinear character of known family inheritance structures. There have been attempts to reconcile these points by assuming that the latter represents an innovation. In any case, the social position of women in both traditional and modern Basque society is somewhat better than in neighbouring cultures, and women have a substantial influence in decisions about the domestic economy. In the past, some women participated in collective magical ceremonies, and were key participants in a rich folklore, today largely forgotten. A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ...


In contrast to surrounding regions, ancient Basque inheritance patterns, recognised in the fueros, favour survival of the unity of inherited land holdings which generally fall to a single male heir, usually the oldest son. This system forced the other siblings to find other sources of sustenance, and before the advent of industrialisation resulted in the emigration of many rural Basques to Spain, France or the Americas. This system, harsh by modern standards, was no doubt responsible for sending out into the world a great many enterprising personalities of Basque origin, from Spanish conquistadors such as Lope de Aguirre to world-renowned saints of the Catholic church such as Francis Xavier. Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Lope de Agguire Lope de Aguirre ( c. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ...


Cuisine

Main article: Basque cuisine

Basque cuisine is at the heart of Basque culture, influenced by the neighboring communities and the excellent produce from the sea and the land. A twentieth-century feature of Basque culture is the phenomenon of gastronomical societies (txoko, "corner" in Biscay), food clubs where men gather to cook and enjoy their own food. Until recently, women were only allowed one day in the year. Sagardotegiak or cider houses are popular restaurants in Gipuzkoa open for a few months while the cider is in season. Basque cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of the cuisine of the Basque people in Spain. ... Basque cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of the cuisine of the Basque people in Spain. ... Gastronomical society is the communication and trade among a group of people through and/or because of the exchange of food and related media. ...


Cultural production

Despite ETA and the crisis of heavy industries, the Basque economic condition has recovered remarkably in recent years, emerging from persecution during the Franco regime with a strong and vibrant language and culture. The Basque language is expanding geographically led by large increases in the major urban centers of Pamplona, Bilbao, and Bayonne, where only a few decades ago the Basque language had all but disappeared. For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ...


Music

Main article: Basque music

The Basque language is unrelated to any other language family and its origins are unknown. ...

Religion

One of the pieces found in the Roman town of Veleia is interpreted as the oldest representation of the Calvary ever found. If confirmed, this could advance the date of the diffusion of Christianity in the Basque Country, at least in the valleys. Traditionally Basques have been mostly Roman Catholics. In the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, Basques as a group remained notably devout and churchgoing. In recent years church attendance has fallen off, as in most of Western Europe. The region has been a source of missionaries like Francis Xavier and Michel Garicoïts. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, was a Basque. Location of Veleia and other Roman cities in the context of ancient Basque tribes and the modern Basque Country Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country. ... Golgotha redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Saint Michael Garicoits (Garicoïts) (April 15, 1797— May 14, 1863) was a Basque saint. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


A sprout of Protestantism in the continental Basque Country produced the first translation of the new Testament into Basque by Joannes Leyçarraga. After the king of Navarre converted to Catholicism to be king of France, Protestantism almost disappeared. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ...


Bayonne held a Jewish community composed mainly of Sephardi Jews fleeing from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. There were also important Jewish and Muslim communities in Navarre before the Castilian invasion of 1512-21. Bayonne. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...


Nowadays only slightly more than 50% of Basques show some kind of belief in God, while the rest are either agnostic or atheist. The number of religious skeptics increases noticeably for the younger generations, while the older ones are more religious.[13] This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


Pre-Christian religion and mythology

Anboto mountain is one of sites where Mari was believed to dwell.
Anboto mountain is one of sites where Mari was believed to dwell.
Main article: Basque mythology

There is strong evidence of a previous religion, reflected in countless legends and some enduring traditions. This pre-Christian religion was apparently centered on a superior female goddess: Mari. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1771x1119, 476 KB) Monte Amboto, País Vasco (visto desde el Orisol) Taken by myself. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1771x1119, 476 KB) Monte Amboto, País Vasco (visto desde el Orisol) Taken by myself. ... Anboto is a mountain of the Western Basque Country, belonging to the Gorbea Sierra and not far from the pass of Urkiolamendi between Durango and Vitoria-Gasteiz. ... Mari is the main character of Basque mythology, having, unlike other criatures that share the same imaginary enviroment, a god_like nature. ... Ancient Basque mythology is centered around the figure of the goddess Mari, and her consort Sugaar (also called Maju). ... Mari is the main character of Basque mythology, having, unlike other criatures that share the same imaginary enviroment, a god_like nature. ...


Mari's consort Sugaar also seems to bear some importance. This chthonic couple seem to bear the superior ethical power and also the power of creation and destruction. It's said that when they gathered in the high caves of the sacred peaks, they engendered the storms. These meetings typically happened on Friday nights, the day of historical akelarre or coven. Mari was said to reside in mount Anboto, periodically she crossed the skies as a bright light to reach her other home at mount Txindoki. The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later content. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Akelarre is the Basque name (meadow of the he-goat) of several places, all them said to have been a place in which witches (sorgiñak in Basque) met. ... Coven or covan was originally a late medieval Scots word (c1500) meaning a gathering of any kind, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. ... Anboto is a mountain of the Western Basque Country, belonging to the Gorbea Sierra and not far from the pass of Urkiolamendi between Durango and Vitoria-Gasteiz. ... Iconic mountain (1346 m) located in the region of Goiherri, Guipúzcoa, Spain. ...


Another divinity seems to be Urtzi (also Ost or Ortzi, meaning "sky") but it seems to have been imported, as legends do not speak of him. Nevertheless his name appears in weekdays, months names and meteorological events. In medieval times, Aymeric Picaud, a French pilgrim, wrote on the Basques, saying: et Deus vocant Urcia ("and they name God as Urci-a"; the -a being the Basque nominative or suffixed article). Urtzi, Ortzi, Ost and similar forms are the old Basque words for sky. Currently the Latinate zeru (from caelum) is used and Urtzi is used as a person name or in compounds like osteguna (Thursday and oskorri (day break, literally red sky). The medieval pilgrim Aymericus Picaudus notes that the...


There is also Anbotoko Mari, a goddess whose movements affected the weather. According to one tradition, she traveled every seven years between a cave on mount Anboto and one on another mountain (the stories vary); the weather would be wet when she was in Anboto, dry when she was in Aloña, or Supelegor, or Gorbea. It is hard to say how old this legend is; despite the pagan elements, one of her names, Mari Urraca, ties her to a possibly historical Navarrese princess of the 11th and 12th century and other legends give her a brother or cousin who was a Roman Catholic priest. Anbotoko Mari, Mari Urraca, la Dama de Anboto (the lady of Anboto) and the possibly distinct Dama de Murumendi (lady of Murumendi) was a goddess — a lamia — of the Basques. ... Anboto is a mountain of the Western Basque Country, belonging to the Gorbea Sierra and not far from the pass of Urkiolamendi between Durango and Vitoria-Gasteiz. ... Gorbea or Gorbeia is a mountain and massif, the highest one of Biscay and Alava (Basque Country,Spain) with a height of 1,481 m AMSL. The massif covers a wide area between the two provinces. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


Legends also speak of many and abundant genies, like jentilak (equivalent to giants), lamiak (equivalent to nymphs), mairuak (builders of the cromlechs or stone circles, literally Moors), iratxoak (imps), sorginak (witches, priestess of Mari), etc. Basajaun is a Basque version of the Woodwose. There is a trickster named San Martin Txiki ("St Martin the Lesser"). It has been shown that some of these stories have entered Basque culture in recent centuries or as part of Roman superstitio. It is unclear whether neolithic stone structures called dolmens have a religious significance or were built to house animals or resting shepherds. Some of the dolmens and cromlechs are burial sites serving as well as border markers. The jentilak (singular: jentil, meaning gentile from Latin gentilis) are a race of giants in Basque mythology. ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Mairu (or mairuak with the Basque plural), also called intxisu(ak) in the Bidasoa valley, were, in Basque mythology, giants who built dolmens or harrespil. ... For other uses, see moor. ... IMP or imp may mean: Imp, a fantasy creature. ... Sorginak (singular sorgin) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology They are likened to witches or pagan priestesses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... In Basque mythology, the basajaun (plural: baxajaunak) were an ancient human race of stout, hairy wild men who were megalith builders. ... Woodwoses support coats of arms in the side panels of a portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1499 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) Grand arms of Prussia, 1873 The Woodwose or hairy wildman of the woods was the Sasquatch figure of pre-Christian Gaul, in Anglo-Saxon a Woodwoses appear in the carved... For other uses, see Trickster (disambiguation). ... San Martin Txiki (Little Saint Martin) is the Trickster figure from Basque mythology. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands, recent. ...


The jentilak ('Giants'), on the other hand, are a legendary people which explains the disappearance of a people of Stone Age culture that used to live in the high lands and with no knowledge of the iron. Many legends about them tell that they were bigger and taller, with a great force, but were displaced by the ferrons, or workers of ironworks foundries, until their total fade-out. They were pagans, but one of them, Olentzero, accepted Christianity and became a sort of Basque Santa Claus. They gave name to several toponyms, as Jentilbaratza. Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ...


Society

The Basque possessed “unique social institutions startlingly different from those of feudal Europe. The Basques never developed an elitist culture, instead appointing a 'Lord of Biscay' by democratic election.... [W]omen held significant power at least as far back as 7 A.D., when the Greek geographer, Strabo, wrote ... of 'a sort of woman-rule - not at all a mark of civilization.'" (Hadington 1992). Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory of Biscay, Basque Country. ...


Historically the Basques have been egalitarian: “Women could inherit and control property as well as officiate in churches. This enraged the leaders of the Spanish Inquisition. One of its most savage mass witch-burnings was staged at the Basque town of Logroño in 1610”.[14] Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ...


The striking uniqueness of Basque society and culture continued up into the twentieth century: “Goddess religion, the lunar calendar, matrilineal inheritance laws, and agricultural work performed by women continued in Basque country until the early twentieth century. For more than a century, scholars have widely discussed the high status of Basque women in law codes, as well as their positions as judges, inheritors, and arbitrators through pre-Roman, medieval, and modern times. The system of laws governing succession in the French Basque region reflected total equality between the sexes. Up until the eve of the French Revolution, the Basque woman was truly ‘the mistress of the house,’ hereditary guardian, and head of the lineage” (Gimbutas 2001: 172).


Traditional Basque sports

Pilota

Main article: Basque pelota

The great family of ball games have their unique offsprings among Basque ball games, known generically as pilota (Spanish: pelota). Some variants have been exported to the United States and Macau under the name of Jai Alai. A game of pelote as played in Ustaritz Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor... Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor, against a wall (frontón in Spanish, frontoi... Now defunct Milford Jai-Alai Fronton in Milford, Connecticut. ...


Rural sports

Trainera in the Bilbao estuary.
Trainera in the Bilbao estuary.
Barrenatzaileak in Barakaldo.
Barrenatzaileak in Barakaldo.
Main article: Basque rural sports

There are several sports derived by Basques from everyday chores. Heavy workers were challenged and bets placed upon them. Examples are: Image File history File links Remo-ria-de-bilbao. ... Image File history File links Remo-ria-de-bilbao. ... The estuary is heavily populated. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2001x1485, 826 KB) // Description: Stone drilling contest. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2001x1485, 826 KB) // Description: Stone drilling contest. ... Coat of arms Location of Barakaldo in Biscay. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ...

  • estropadak rowing regattas: from fishermen activities.
  • sokatira: tug-of-war.
  • harri jasoketa: stone-lifting, from quarry works.
  • aizkolaritza and trontzalaritza: wood-chopping and log sawing.
  • segalaritza: cutting grass with a scythe.
  • porizaijlaza: stick whittling.
  • Giza-abere probak: stone block pulling, from construction works:
    • idi probak with teams of oxen.
    • asto probak with donkeys.
    • zaldi probak with horses.
    • gizon probak with human teams.
  • txinga erute: carrying of weights, one in each hand, representing milk canisters.
  • aharai topaketa: ram fights.
  • zipota, a French Basque martial art, similar to savate.
  • harri zulaketa competitions: drilling stone blocks with a metal bar, only in the former mining areas of West Biscay.
  • Basque sheepdog trials competitions.

Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... A traditional wooden scythe A scythe (IPA: , most likely from Old English siðe, sigði) is an agricultural hand tool for mowing and reaping grass or crops. ... Look up Whittle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... Zipota is a Basque martial art similar to the French fighting style savate which also survives and includes some stick-fencing. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ... Basque rural sports are competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyle of the Basque people. ...

Bull runs and bullock games

The world-famous encierro (bull run) in Pamplona's fiestas Sanfermines started as a transport of bulls to the ring. These encierros, as well as other bull and bullock related activities are not exclusive to Pamplona but are traditional in many towns and villages of the Basque country. An encierro in Pastrana, Spain. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Fiesta can mean: A festival , party, or pasta. ... Bulls running on July 7, 2005, Consistorial Square, Pamplona The festival of San Fermín in the city of Pamplona (Navarre, Basque Country, Spain), is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from noon 6 July, when the opening of the fiesta is marked by setting off the pyrotechnic chupinazo accompanied... A Bullock is a castrated bull. ...


Football

First international Basque Country 6 - 1 Catalonia (January 3 1915; Basque Country) Biggest win Denmark B 1 - 11 Basque Country ( August 29 1937; Denmark) Biggest defeat Mexico 8 - 4 Basque Country ( October 16 1938; Mexico) Basque Country 1 - 5 Hungary (August 31 1980; Basque Country) The Basque Country national football...

Politics

While there is no independent Basque state, Spain's autonomous community of the Basque Country, made up of the provinces of Alava (Araba), Vizcaya (Bizkaia) and Guipúzcoa (Gipuzkoa), is primarily a historical consequence and an answer to the wide autonomy claim of the residents. Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ...


Navarre has a separate autonomy based in the historical fuero (charter), that has never been submitted to a referendum giving the possibility (always open) of incorporating itself to the Basque Autonomous Community, option rejected by many residents. “Navarra” redirects here. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ...


The Northern Basque Country has no autonomy whatsoever and it is just part of the French department of Pyrénées Atlantiques, centered in Bearn. The claim of a separate Basque department has been large among a very minority of local elects of nationalist ideologies in the last decades but incompatible with the French Constitution. Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... A department is geographically defined area of a centralized state which functions as an administrative unit, usually at provincial level, with or without a representative assembly. ... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ... B arn is a former province of France, located at the base of the Pyr es. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ...


Political conflicts

Language

Main article: Basque language

Both Spanish and French governments have, at times, tried to suppress Basque linguistic and cultural identity. The French Republics, the epitome of the nation-state, have a long history of attempting the complete cultural absorption of ethnic minority groups. Spain has, at most points in its history, granted some degree of linguistic, cultural, and even political autonomy to its Basques, but under the regime of Francisco Franco, the Spanish government reversed the advances of Basque nationalism, as it had fought in the opposite side of the Spanish Civil War: cultural activity in Basque was limited to folkloric issues and the Roman Catholic Church. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Today, the Basque Country within Spain enjoys an extensive cultural and political autonomy. The majority of schools under the jurisdiction of the Basque education system use Basque as the primary medium of teaching. Education in the Basque Country is entirely free from the age of 3, and compulsory between 6 and 16 years. ...


However, in Navarre, Basque has been declared an endangered language, since the conservative government of Unión del Pueblo Navarro opposes Basque nationalism and symbols of Basqueness, highlighting Navarre's own autonomy.[15] Unión del Pueblo Navarro or UPN (Union of the Navarrese People) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ...


The situation of Basque is also delicate in the North, where lack of autonomy and monolingual public schooling in French exert great pressure on the native language.


Political status and violence

Since the nineteenth century, Basque nationalism has demanded the right of self-determination and even independence. The desire for independence is particularly common among leftist Basque nationalists. The right of self-determination was asserted by the Basque Parliament in 2002 and 2006.[16] Since self-determination is not recognized in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, a wide majority of Basques abstained and some even voted against it in the referendum of December 6 of that year. However, it was approved by clear majority at the Spanish level, and simple majority at Navarrese and Basque levels. The derived autonomous regimes for the (Western) Basque Country was approved in later referendum but the autonomy of Navarre (amejoramiento del fuero: "improvement of the charter") was never subject to referendum but just approved by the Navarrese Cortes (parliament). Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Left wing redirects here. ... The Basque Parliament (Castillian Spanish Parlamento Vasco, Basque Eusko Legebiltzarra) is the autonomous legislative body of the Basque Country and the elected assembly before which the Basque Government is responsible. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ...


Political violence

See also: ETA, Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación, Batallón Vasco Español, Comandos Autónomos Anticapitalistas, and Iraultza

Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (Antiterrorist Liberation Groups) were death squads illegally set up by officials within the Spanish government to fight ETA. They were active from 1983 until 1987, under PSOEs cabinets. ... The Batallón Vasco Español (English: Basque Spanish Battalion) was a Spanish right-wing terrorist group active from 1975 to 1981, primarily in Iparralde, the northern Basque country under French administration. ... The Comandos Autónomos Anticapitalistas (CAA) were a minoritary Basque armed group that followed the tendency of Workers Autonomy. ... Iraultza, meaning Revolution in Basque language, was a small Basque militant armed group of Troskist tendency that may be remembered for being the only of its kind not to have killed anyone except two of its own members, who died preparing an explosive device in the early 1990s. ...

Classification

As with their language, the Basques are clearly a distinct ethnic group in their native region. They are culturally and especially linguistically distinct from their surrounding neighbours. Some Basques, especially in Spain, are strongly, even violently, nationalist, identifying far more firmly as Basques than as citizens of any existing state. Many others are not, feeling as much Basque as they are Spanish[17], and have to suffer from the harassment of extreme Basque nationalists. Indeed, the only question would seem to be whether the term "ethnic group" is too weak, or whether one should favour the term "nation", advocated by many in Basque Country.


In modern times, as a European people living in a highly industrialized area, cultural differences from the rest of Europe are inevitably blurred, although a conscious cultural identity as a people or nation remains very strong, as does an identification with their homeland, even among many Basques who have emigrated to other parts of Spain or France, or to other parts of the world.


The strongest distinction between the Basques and their traditional neighbours is linguistic. Surrounded by Romance-language speakers, the Basques traditionally spoke (and many still speak) a language that was not only non-Romance but non-Indo-European. Although the evidence is open to question, the prevailing belief among Basques, and forming part of their national identity, is that their language has continuity to the people who were in this region not merely in pre-Roman times, but in pre-Celtic times, quite possibly before the great invasions of Europe by Asian tribes. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


Genetics

Although they are genetically distinctive in some ways, the Basques are still very typically west European in terms of their Mt-DNA and Y-DNA sequences, and in terms of some other genetic loci. These same sequences are widespread throughout the western half of Europe, especially along the western fringe of the continent. The Sami people of northern Scandinavia show an especially high abundance of a Mt-DNA type found at 11% amongst Basques. Somewhat higher among neighbouring Cantabrians, the isolated Pasiegos have a Mt-DNA V haplogroup of wider microsatellite variation than Saami. [2][18][19] Autosomal genetic studies confirm that Basques have a very close relationship with other Europeans, especially with Spaniards - who have a common genetic identity of over 70% with Basques.[20] The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Cantabri was an ancient tribe which inhabited the north coast of Spain near Santander and Bilbao and the mountains behind a district hence known as Cantabria. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ...


It is thought that the Basque Country and neighbouring regions served as a refuge for palaeolithic humans during the last major glaciation when environments further north were too cold and dry for continuous habitation. When climate warmed into the present interglacial, populations would have rapidly spread north along the west European coast. Genetically, in terms of Y-chromosomes and Mt-DNA, inhabitants of Britain and Ireland are closely related to the Basques,[21][3] reflecting their common origin in this refugial area. Basques, along with Irish, show the highest frequency of the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup R1b in Western Europe; some 98% of native Basque men have this haplogroup. The rest is mainly I and a minimal presence of E3b.[21] The Y-chromosome and MtDNA relationship between Basques and people of Ireland and Wales is of equal ratios as to neighbouring areas of Spain, where similar ethnically "Spanish" people now live in close proximity to the Basques, although this genetic relationship is also very strong among Basques and other Spaniards. In fact, as Stephen Oppenheimer has stated in The Origins of the British (2006), although Basques have been more isolated than other Iberians, they are a population representative of south western Europe. As to the genetic relationship among Basques, Iberians and Britons, he also states (pages 375 and 378): Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a distribution spreading from Africa around the Mediterranean into Europe and the Middle East. ... The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ...

By far the majority of male gene types in the derive from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal), ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales and 93% Castlerea, Ireland. On average only 30% of gene types in England derive from north-west Europe. Even without dating the earlier waves of north-west European immigration, this invalidates the Anglo-Saxon wipeout theory... ...75-95% of British and Irish (genetic) matches derive from Iberia...Ireland, coastal Wales, and central and west-coast Scotland are almost entirely made up from Iberian founders, while the rest of the non-English parts of the Britain and Ireland have similarly high rates. England has rather lower rates of Iberian types with marked heterogeneity, but no English sample has less than 58% of Iberian samples... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

In fact, according to a European wide study, the main components in the European genomes appear to derive from ancestors whose features were similar to those of modern Basques and Near Easterners, with average values greater than 35% for both these parental populations, regardless of whether or not molecular information is taken into account. The lowest degree of both Basque and Near Eastern admixture is found in Finland, whereas the highest values are, respectively, 70% ("Basque") in Spain and more than 60% ("Near Eastern") in the Balkans. [4] [5] Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...


Before the development of modern Genetics based on DNA sequencing, Basques were noted as having the highest global apportion of Rh- blood type (35% phenotypically, 60% genetically). Additionally Basques also have virtually no B blood type (nor the related AB group). These differences are thought to reflect their long history of isolation, along with times when the population size of the Basques was small, allowing gene frequencies to drift over time. The history of isolation reflected in gene frequencies has presumably been key to the Basque people retaining their distinctive language, while more recently arrived Indo-European languages swamped other indigenous languages that were previously spoken in western Europe. In fact, in accordance with other genetic studies, a recent genetic piece of research from 2007 claims: "The Spanish and Basque groups are the furthest away from other continental groups (with more diversity within the same genetic groups) which is consistent with the suggestions that the Iberian peninsula holds the most ancient West European genetic ancestry." [6] This article is about the general scientific term. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


Notables

Main article: List of Basques

Among the most notable Basque people are Juan Sebastián de Elcano (led the first successful expedition to circumnavigate the globe after Magellan died mid-journey); Sancho III of Navarre; and Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, founders of the Society of Jesus. Dominique Joseph Garat Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga Pablo de Sarasate Jacques Laffitte Ignatius of Loyola Juan Sebastián Elcano Miguel López de Legazpi Catalina de Erauso Michèle Alliot-Marie Jose Antonio Aguirre Juan Jose Ibarretxe Sabino Arana General Tomás de Zumalacárregui Xabi Alonso Jean Borotra Miguel... Juan Sebastián Elcano (or del Cano) (Guetaria, Spain, 1476 - Pacific Ocean, August 4th 1526) was a Spanish explorer. ... Magellan may refer to: People Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition to travel around the world. ... Sancho III (c. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


See also

Basque Portal

The origin of the Basque people is shrouded in mystery. ... The diversion of Haplogroup F and its descendants. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Dominique Joseph Garat Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga Pablo de Sarasate Jacques Laffitte Ignatius of Loyola Juan Sebastián Elcano Miguel López de Legazpi Catalina de Erauso Michèle Alliot-Marie Jose Antonio Aguirre Juan Jose Ibarretxe Sabino Arana General Tomás de Zumalacárregui Xabi Alonso Jean Borotra Miguel... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Red Bay (, NST) is a fishing village and former site of a Basque whaling station on the southern coast of Labrador in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Jai-Alai (IPA: in English and IPA: in Basque) means Merry Festival in the Basque language. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... In Irish mythology Míl Espáine (Latin Miles Hispaniae, Soldier of Spain) is the ancestor of the final inhabitants of Ireland, the sons of Míl or Milesians, who represent the Goidelic Celts. ... Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. ... The Basque diaspora is the name given to describe people of Basque origin living outside their traditional homeland on the borders between Spain and France. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ This assumes that all residents in the Basque Country are of Basque ethnicity, currently it is recognised that a large percentange isn't
  2. ^ This assumes that all residents in Navarre are of Basque ethnicity, it is nationally accepted that more than half aren't
  3. ^ Definition of Basque (Merriam-Webster Online)
  4. ^ Stephen Oppenheimer
  5. ^ Vascones - el nombre (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)
  6. ^ See EUSKALTERM, the Basque Public Term Bank, maintained by the Basque Government for these and other terms and their common translations
  7. ^ "Vascos en Argentina”, http://www.juandegaray.org.ar/fvajg/docs/Argentina_y_los_vascos.
  8. ^ Sociolinguistics (Eke.org)
  9. ^ X. Aierdi Urraza, Routes to linguistic and cultural integration for immigrants in the Basque Autonomous Community
  10. ^ TRASK, R. Larry: History of Basque. New York/London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-13116-2
  11. ^ J.C. Moreno Cabrera, Misconceptions about Basque
  12. ^ Luis Michelena, Apellidos vascos (fifth edition), San Sebastián: Txertoa, 1997
  13. ^ Opinion poll on religion by GIZAKER, published by EITB
  14. ^ Hadingham 1992. Note that Logroño is not a Basque town, but it was the see of the diocesis covering Zugarramurdi in 1610. Besides, the Spanish Inquisition rarely acted against witches, devoting most of its attention to Judaizants, Moriscos and Protestants.
  15. ^ Resolution of the General Assembly of the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages, 13 September 2003 (Helsinki), on the situation of the Basque language in the Autonomous Community of Navarre. Reported in MERCATOR Butlleti 55: "Speakers of a regional or minority language should have the right to use their language in private and public life. Contrary to these principles, local authorities from Iruña/Pamplona (capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre in Spain) have been implementing a series of reforms to the Autonomous Community legislation limiting the use of the Basque language. Basque is the only endangered language in the Autonomous Community of Navarre…"
  16. ^ EITB: Basque parliament adopts resolution on self-determination
  17. ^ Euskobarómetro series, Evolución de la identidad nacional subjetiva de los vascos, 1981-2006. "As Basque as Spanish" shows 33% of the citizens of the Basque Autonomous Community in late 2006.
  18. ^ I. Dupanloup et al., Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans
  19. ^ M. Pericic et al., High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of South-eastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations
  20. ^ "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans" Isabelle Dupanloup*,1, Giorgio Bertorelle*, Lounès Chikhi and Guido Barbujani*
    • Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    UMR Evolution et Diversité Biologique, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Volume 21, Number 7, 2004. Pp. 1361-1372.
  21. ^ a b McDonald, World Haplogroups Maps

Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ... DIOCESIS (plural DIOCESES) is the Latin word for and the etymological root of modern words for Diocese -See that article, both as a Roman administrative level AND as the ecclesiastical circonscription of a Bishop. ... Zugarramurdi is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... The Euskobarómetro (Basque-barometer) is a sociological statistical survey in the Basque Country (País Vasco), an autonomous community of Spain. ...

References

  • The Basque History of the World, Mark Kurlansky, 1999, ISBN 0-8027-1349-1.
  • The Oldest Europeans, J.F. del Giorgio, A.J.Place, 2006, ISBN 980-6898-00-1.
  • Ethnologue report for France for population statistics in France.
  • Euskal Herria en la Prehistoria, Xabier Peñalver Iribarren, 1996, ISBN 84-89077-58-4.
  • Gimbutas, Marija, The Living Goddesses (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).
  • Hadingham, Evan, “Europe’s Mystery People,” World Monitor, September 1992, vol. 5, Issue 9
  • Hamilton, Carrie, “Remembering the Basque nationalist family: daughters, fathers and the reproduction of the radical nationalist community,” Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000,
  • Morvan, Michel,Les Origines Linguistiques du Basque, Bordeaux, 1996.

Mark Kurlansky (b. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ...

External links

  • Euskal Identity Kultur Elkartea
  • Euskal Diaspora
  • Euskara Kultur Elkargoa- Basque Cultural Foundation
  • History since the last Ice Age: National and International DNA Projects mentions genetic studies over the Basques' origin.
  • NABO (North American Basque Organizations, Inc.) official web site
  • Basque heritage in North America and Basque diaspora today.
  • Basque heritage in Argentina.
  • Basque Studies Society-Eusko Ikaskuntza.
  • A Basque Encyclopedia and other cultural and historical funds.
  • Euskonews, Magazine edited by the Basque Studies Society.
  • Network for the Global Basque Community - from Basque Studies Society-Eusko Ikaskuntza.
  • Basque Autonomous Government.
  • Brief history of Basque whaling
  • Euskal Herria Info (in Basque)
  • Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada, Reno
  • Buber's Basque page
  • March 6, 2007 New York Times article

  Results from FactBites:
 
Basque: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (9646 words)
Basques, first known to history as natives of modern-day Navarre and Aragon in the first century BC, are now predominantly found in an area known as the Basque Country, consisting of four provinces in Spain and three in France, located around the western edge of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay.
The key sources for the early history of the Basques are the classical writers, especially Strabo, who in the 1st century AD reported that the north of modern-day Navarre and Aragon (the area immediately east of the modern-day autonomous community of the Basque Country) was inhabited by a people known as the Vascones.
Basque cuisine is at the heart of Basque culture, influenced by the neighbouring communities and the excellent produce from the sea and the land.
Basque language: Information from Answers.com (3100 words)
Basque (in Basque: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France.
Basques also make up sizable parts of the population in what is known as the Northern Basque Country in France and the autonomous community of Navarre in Spain, which in total have historically been considered the Basque Country.
Basque has no official standing in the Northern Basque Country of France and French citizens are barred from officially using Basque in a French court of law.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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