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Encyclopedia > Basque nationalism
Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War
Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War
The Arrano beltza ("black eagle") flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands.
The Arrano beltza ("black eagle") flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands.

Basque nationalism is a movement with roots in the Carlism and the loss, by the laws of 1839 and 1876, of the Ancien Regime relationship between the Basque provinces and the crown of Spain. The Spanish government revoked part of the fueros after the Third Carlist War. The fueros acted as part of the Basque legal system and dealt with matters pertaining to the relation of the Basque Provinces with the crown. The fueros were charters given by the successive kings of Castile. The Fueros gave Basque subjects a privileged position in Spain with special tax and political status; basically, Basques were not subject to direct levee to the Castilian army, although many volunteered, especially in the navy. Image File history File links 1850espanya. ... Image File history File links 1850espanya. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Image File history File links Arrano_Beltza. ... Image File history File links Arrano_Beltza. ... Arrano beltza Arrano beltza The arrano beltza (black eagle in Basque) is an ancient Basque and Navarre symbol which displays a black eagle upon a yellow background and is mostly, though not exclusively, used by Basque nationalists as a symbol of Euskal Herria, the Basque Country. ... Ikurriña The Ikurriña flag is a Basque symbol and the official flag of the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community (Comunidad Autónomas) of contemporary Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons throught the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain The Spanish monarchy (Spanish: monarquía española) is the monarchy of Spain. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ... Restoration promiss During the Third Carlist War (1872-1876), the carlist forces managed to occupy some cities in the interior Catalonia. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


During the 19th century, the reactionary Fuerista movement pleaded for the maintenance of the Fueros and territorial autonomy against the centralizing pressures from liberal governments in Madrid. The concept of Basque Nationalism was born from that disputes and the influence from the Romantic European view of nationalism in the nineteenth century. Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Romantic and romanticism have a number of uses: Titles: Romantic (song) by Karyn White. ...


The chief ideologist of early Basque nationalism was Sabino Arana, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party. By the end of the 19th century Arana, coming from a Carlist family, created an ideology centered on the purity of the Basque race and its moral supremacy over other Spaniards (a derivation of the system of limpieza de sangre of Modern-Age Spain), anti-Liberal Catholic integrism, and deep opposition to the migration of other Spaniards to the Basque Country starting during the first stages of the industrial revolution. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiritaŕ Sabin (January 26, 1865 – November 25, 1903), Spain, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party and a inventor of previously non-existent Basque nationalism. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Limpieza de sangre (in Spanish), Limpeza de sangue (in Portuguese), both meaning cleanliness of blood was a concept of Iberian Modern History. ...


In the early 20th century, Basque nationalism developed from a nucleus of petty bourgeois enthusiasts (non-native Basque speakers) in Bilbao to incorporate the peasant basis of Carlism in Biscay and Guipuscoa. The movement survived without any problems the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera under the guise of cultural and athletic associations. Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ...


Basque nationalism managed to substitute Carlism in the favour of the Catholic church as a barrier against leftist anti-clericalism in most of the Basque provinces. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ...


Several splits and reunifications were caused by clashes over different desires inside the early nationalism for the status of the Basque Country (autonomy versus independence). Soon also leftist approaches to nationalism weer born, but the majority of the Basque working class (many of them immigrants)support was divided among the communist and socialist movements. The ELA-STV a nationalistCatholic trade union tried to bring nationalistideas to the workers, but its influence was minor until the end of the twentieh century with Spanish transition to democracy. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Euskal Langileen Alkartasuna, ELA (Solidarity of Basque Workers) is the major trade union of the Basque Country, principally active in the Spanish autonomous communities of the Basque Country and Navarre with a low level of organisation in the Northern Basque Country. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ...


In 1936, the main part of the then Christian democrat PNV sided with the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War; the promise of autonomy was valued over the differences on religious issues with the Popular Front. Christian Democracy is a political ideology, born at the end of the 19th century, largely as a result of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII, in which the Vatican recognizes workers misery and agrees that something should be done about it, in reaction to the rise of... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ...


However, in 1937, roughly halfway through the war, Basque troops, then under control of the Autonomous Basque Government surrendered in an action brokered by the Basque church and the Vatican[citation needed] in Santoña to the Italian allies of General Franco on condition that the Basque heavy industry and economy was left untouched. Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eusko Gudarostea was the name of the Basque national army during the Spanish civil war. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Santoña is a village in the western coast the autonomous community of Cantabria, on the north coast of Spain. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain when Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ...


Thus began one of the culturally hardest periods of Basque history in Spain, due to massive immigration of non-Basque speakers and the prohibition of the Basque language for some years. At the same time it was one of the most economically prosperous periods, due also to the protectionist measures by the Franco regime.


For many leftists in Spain the surrender of Basque troops in Santoña (Santander) is known as the Treason of Santoña. Many of the nationalist Basque soldiers were pardoned if they joined the Francoist army in the rest of the Northern front. Basque nationalists submitted, fled (the political leaders), went underground or to prison. Small groups fled to the Americas, France or the Benelux, of which only a minority returned after the restoration of democracy in Spain in the late seventies, or before. For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...


ETA was created in the 50s by young nationalists. During the 60s, Marxists took over the organization. They turned it into a revolutionary organization, fighting to obtain an independent and socialist Basque country from then Francoist Spain, inspired in movements like those of Castro in Cuba or Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam. For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Generalísimo Francisco Franco, caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ...


Ever since Spain regained democracy in 1978, autonomy was restored for the Basques, achieving self-government without precedent in Basque modern history. Thus, based on the fueros and their Statute of Autonomy, Basques have their own police corps and manage their own public finances with virtually no intervention from the central government of Spain. The Basque Autonomous Community has been led by the nationalist Christian democrat PNV ever since it was reinstaured, in the early 1980s, to date. In Navarre, Basque nationalism has not succeeded, to date, to win the elections held to run the government of the Autonomous Community, but different Basque nationalist parties do run in a number of municipalities. Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ...


Unlike Spain, France is a centralized State, but a Basque nationalist party has a presence in some municipalities through local elections. A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject. ... The Abertzaleen Batasuna (Abertzale Unity) is a Basque political party in France. ...


Basque nationalist organizations

  • Acción Nacionalista Vasca, leftist political party
  • Aralar, leftist political party
  • Askatasuna, support for ETA prisoners.
  • Batasuna, leftist political party, illegal in the southern Basque Country
  • Batzarre
  • Comunión Nacionalista Vasca, former political party
  • ELA-STV, trade union
  • Enbata
  • ETA, violent revolutionary clandestine organization operating mainly in the southern Basque Country
  • Etxerat, support for Basque political prisoners
  • Euskadiko Ezkerra, former leftist political party
  • Euskal Ezkerra, a splinter of Euskadiko Ezkerra.
  • Eusko Alkartasuna, Social-Democratic political party
  • ESAIT, support for the Basque National teams in different sports
  • Gazte Abertzaleak, the youth group of the Spanish Basque political party Eusko Alkartasuna, left of the PNV but not aligned with ETA or Batasuna
  • Gestoras pro-Amnistía, support for ETA prisoners.
  • Herria 2000 Eliza, Catholic movement
  • Ikasle Abertzaleak, Group of Basque nationalist students
  • Iparretarrak, violently clandestine organization operating in the French part of the Basque Country
  • Jagi-Jagi, former magazine
  • LAB, leftist trade union
  • Nafarroa Bai, Navarrese political party (coalition between some Basque nationalist political parties)
  • Partido Nacionalista Vasco, Christian-Democrat political party
  • Senideak, relatives of ETA prisoners.
  • Segi, Batasuna's youth group
  • Udalbiltza, assembly of city councillors
  • Zutik, leftist party
History of the Basque people
Prehistory and Antiquity
Basque Prehistory
Basque people in Antiquity
Middle Ages
Duchy of Cantabria
Duchy of Vasconia
County of Vasconia
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Kingdom of Navarre
Banu Qasi
Basque party wars
Modern Age
The Basque Country in the Early Modern Age
Basque witch trials
The Basque Country in the Late Modern Age
Carlist Wars
Basque nationalism
ETA
Monarchs
Dukes of Vasconia and Gascony
Kings of Pamplona and Navarre
Lords of Biscay
Counts of Araba
Counts of Lapurdi
Viscounts of Zuberoa
Topical
Navarrese right
Basque navigation
Basque culture
Basque literature
Politics of the Basque Country
Timeline of Basque history
Basque portal

Eusko Abertzale Ekintza - Acción Nacionalista Vasca (EAE-ANV) was the first left-leaning Basque Nationalist Party to exist. ... Aralar is a Basque nationalist political group in Spain. ... ASKATASUNA: (from the Basque word meaning freedom): According to European Union statements ASKATASUNA is a terrorist organization that is included in ETA (euskadi ta askatuna). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zutik symbol Zutik is a political party in Basque Country, Spain. ... Euskal Langileen Alkartasuna, ELA (Solidarity of Basque Workers) is the major trade union of the Basque Country, principally active in the Spanish autonomous communities of the Basque Country and Navarre with a low level of organisation in the Northern Basque Country. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Euskadiko Ezkerra (Basque Country Left, in Basque) or EE was a Spanish Basque socialist political organisation. ... Euskal Ezkerra (Basque Left) was a political party in Euskadi, Spain. ... Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... Iparretarrak (the Northerners in Basque) is an illegal armed Basque nationalist organization operating in the French Basque Country. ... LAB (Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak, nationalist workers trade union) is a Basque trade union operating mainly in Spain. ... Navarre Yes or Nafarroa Bai (Basque) is a basque coalition of Navarre for the 2004 Spanish elections made of the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party), Eusko Alkartasuna (Basque Solidarity) and Aralar political parties, specifically candidating in Navarre aiming to win a seat in the spanish parliament, in which the... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... SEGI SEGI is a violent Basque nationalist youth organization which is part of the Basque National Liberation Movement and aligned with Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak, Batasuna and ETA. Terrorist: Flag of Convenience?Police in Spain detain 18 members of outlawed Basque youth groupBasque youths battle police, 3 arrestedState repression of the... Zutik symbol Zutik is a political party in Basque Country, Spain. ... The Basque people are an indigenous people inhabiting both Spain and France. ... The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in northern Spain to watch their border with the Cantabrians and Basques. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The County of Vasconia was a small medieval realm segregated c. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... Francisco de Goyas Sabbat (19th century). ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory of Biscay, Basque Country. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...

References

This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ...

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