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Encyclopedia > Basque language
Basque
Euskara
Spoken in: Spain and France 
Region: Basque Country
Total speakers: 1,033,900 (first language: 700,000)
Language family: Language isolate (see below
Official status
Official language in: Euskadi and Navarre (Spain)
Regulated by: Euskaltzaindia
Language codes
ISO 639-1: eu
ISO 639-2: baq (B)  eus (T)
ISO 639-3: eus

Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Euskaltzaindias central office is at Plaza Berria in Bilbao. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


It is spoken by approximately a quarter of the Basques, with its stronghold in the contiguous area formed by eastern Guipúzcoa, northwestern Navarre and the sparsely populated French Lower Navarre and Soule. It is not spoken in most of Álava, in western Biscay, or in the southern half of Navarre. Out of a total of nearly 3,000,000 Basques, it is estimated that some 632,000 are Basque language speakers, of which approximately 566,000 live in the Spanish Basque country, with the rest residing in the French part of it.[1] Guipuscoa province. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ...


While being a heavily-dialectalized language (especially when compared to the rather small distribution range), it has been standardized and updated by the end of the 20th century by means of its Batua version. This one is mainly used in the Spanish Basque country, and not so much by French speakers. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Basque Country Batua (English Unified) is a standardised dialect of the Basque language most widely and commonly spoken throughout the Basque Country. ...


The Basques occupy a Spanish autonomous community known as the Basque Country (Euskadi), which has significant cultural and political autonomy, the Northern Basque Country in French department of the Pyrennées Atlantiques, and the autonomous community of Navarre in Spain, which together make up the historical Basque Country (Euskal Herria). The Standard Basque name for the language is euskara. In dialectal forms it is known as euskara, euskera, eskuara, or üskara. Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...

Contents

History and classification

Although geographically surrounded by Indo-European languages, Basque is believed to be a language isolate:[2]. If so, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the comparative method, and little is known of its origins. It is likely that an early form of the Basque language was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages to the area, including what became the Germanic languages, Celtic languages, and Western Romance languages. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... The comparative method (in comparative linguistics) is a technique used by linguists to demonstrate genetic relationships between languages. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...

  • Santa Agueda, an a cappella song 


Latin inscriptions in Aquitania preserve a number of words with cognates in proto-Basque, for instance the personal names Nescato and Cison (neskato and gizon mean "young girl" and "man" respectively in modern Basque[3]). This proposed language is called "Aquitanian" and was presumably spoken before the Romans brought Latin to the western Pyrenees. Roman neglect of this hinterland allowed Aquitanian Basque to survive while the Iberian and Tartessian languages died out. Basque did come to acquire some Latin vocabulary, both before and after the Latin of the area developed into Gascon (a branch of Occitan) in the northeast, Navarrese-Aragonese Romance in the southeast, and Castilian in the southwest. Image File history File links Santa_Águeda. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Cognates are words that have a common origin. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... The Tartessian language is seemingly unrelated to all other languages, including Indo-European or Iberian language families, and is therefore considered a language isolate. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ...


In June 2006, archaeologists at the site of Iruña-Veleia discovered an epigraphic set with a series of 270 Basque inscriptions and drawings from the third century.[4] Some of the words and phrases found were "urdin" (blue), "zuri" (white), "gori" (red), "edan" (drink) "ian" (eat), "lo" (sleep), "iesus iose ata ta mirian ama" (Jesus [with] the father Joseph and the mother Mary), and "geure ata zutan" (Our father in you). Further analysis of this discovery could show that the Basque language is more stable than previously thought.[citation needed] Location of Veleia and other Roman cities in the context of ancient Basque tribes and the modern Basque Country Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ...


Hypotheses on connections with other languages

The impossibility of linking Basque with its Indo-European neighbours in Europe made many scholars search for its possible relatives elsewhere. Besides many pseudoscientific comparisons, the appearance of long-range linguistics gave rise to several attempts at connecting Basque with geographically very distant language families. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Many hypotheses on the origin of Basque are considered controversial, and the suggested evidence is not generally accepted by most linguists. However, this situation may change in the future. Some of these hypothetical connections are as follows.

  • Iberian: another ancient language once spoken in the peninsula, shows several similarities with Aquitanian and Basque. However, there is not enough evidence to distinguish areal contacts from genetic relationship. Iberian itself is considered an isolate.[5]
  • Georgian: The Georgian hypothesis, linking Basque to South Caucasian or Kartvelian languages, seems now widely discredited. The hypothesis was inspired in part by the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, which the Greeks and Romans referred to as Iberia.[citation needed]
  • Northeast Caucasian languages, such as Chechen, are more likely candidates for a very distant connection.[6]
  • Northwest Caucasian languages, such as Circassian seem[attribution needed] to be the Caucasian group most akin to the Basque.[citation needed]
  • Dene-Caucasian superfamily. Based on the possible Caucasian link, some linguists have proposed including Basque in the Dene-Caucasian superfamily of languages, but the existence of this proposed superfamily would include languages from North America and Eurasia, and is considered controversial[attribution needed].
  • Vasconic languages: This theory, proposed by the German linguist Theo Vennemann, claims that there is enough toponymical evidence to conclude that Basque is the only survivor of a larger family that once extended throughout most of Europe, and has also left its mark in modern Indo-European languages spoken in Europe.[7]

The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The South Caucasian languages, also called Georgian or Kartvelian, are spoken primarily in Georgia, with smaller groups of speakers in Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine and other countries. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... The Dene-Caucasian (or Sino-Caucasian) language family is a conjectural macrofamily containing the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Yeniseian, Basque and Na-Dene languages. ... The Vasconic languages are a hypothetical language family that was once widespread on the European continent before it was mostly replaced by Indo-European languages. ... Theo Vennemann genannt Nierfeld (May 27, 1937 - ) is a German linguist known best for his work on historical linguistics. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...

Geographic distribution

Percentage of fluent speakers of Basque (areas where Basque is not spoken are included within the 0-20% interval).
Percentage of fluent speakers of Basque (areas where Basque is not spoken are included within the 0-20% interval).
Percentage of people fluent in Basque language in Navarre (2001).
Percentage of people fluent in Basque language in Navarre (2001).

The region in which Basque is spoken is smaller than what is known as the Basque Country, or Euskal Herria in Basque. Basque toponyms show that Basque was spoken further along the Pyrenees than today. An example is the Aran Valley (now a Gascon-speaking part of Catalonia), since haran itself is the Basque word for "valley". However, the growing influence of Latin began to drive Basque out from less-mountainous areas of this region. Image File history File links Euskara. ... Image File history File links Euskara. ... Image File history File links Navarra_-_Mapa_densidad_euskera_2001. ... Image File history File links Navarra_-_Mapa_densidad_euskera_2001. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Province Lleida Capital Vielha Largest city Vielha Demonym aranès () aranesa () Population 7130 (1996) Area 620. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The Reconquista temporarily counteracted this tendency when the Christian lords called on northern peoples — Basques, Asturians, and "Franks" — to colonize the new conquests. Later the Basque language came to be used mainly by peasants, while people in the cities preferred Castilian, Gascon, Navarrese Romance, French, or Latin for high education. For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Capital Oviedo Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 10th 10 604 km² 2,1% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 12th 1 056 789 2,5% 99,65/km² Demonym  - English  - Spanish Asturian asturiano/a, astur Statute of Autonomy January 11, 1982 ISO 3166-2 O Parliamentary representation  Congress seats... Franks can refer to: in medieval European history, the Franks, Germanic tribes who entered the Roman Empire from Frisia in the first five centuries AD in medieval Middle Eastern history, the Crusaders, or more broadly any persons originating in Catholic western Europe. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Basque experienced a rapid decline in Navarre during the 1800s. However, after Basque nationalism took the language as an identity sign, and with the establishment of autonomous governments, it has made a modest comeback. Basque-language schools have taken the language to areas like Encartaciones and the Navarrese Ribera where it may have never been natively spoken in historic times. Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... Enkarterriak (Basque language|Basque) or Encartaciones (Spanish language|Spanish) is a historical sub-region of Biscay. ...


Official status and dialects

Official status

Official status of Basque language in Navarre
Official status of Basque language in Navarre

Historically, Latin or Romance languages have been the official languages in this region. However, Basque was explicitly recognized in some areas. For instance, the local charter of the Basque-colonized Ojacastro valley (now in La Rioja) allowed the inhabitants to use Basque in legal processes in the 13th and 14th centuries. Image File history File links Navarra_-_Zonificacion_linguistica. ... Image File history File links Navarra_-_Zonificacion_linguistica. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. ...


Today Basque holds co-official language status in the Basque regions of Spain: the full autonomous community of the Basque Country and some parts of Navarre. Basque has no official standing in the Northern Basque Country of France and French citizens are barred from officially using Basque in a French court of law. Interestingly, the use of Basque by Spanish nationals in French courts is allowed (with translation), as Basque is officially recognised on the other side of the frontier. Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades autónomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ...


The positions of the various existing governments differ with regard to the promotion of Basque in areas where Basque usage is common. The language has official status in those territories which are within the Basque Autonomous Community, where it is spoken and promoted heavily, but only partially in Navarre, which is divided by the law into three distinct language areas: Basque-speaking, non-Basque-speaking, and mixed (this law is strongly rejected by the Basque nationalists of Navarre). The law is called the "Ley del Vascuence", since vascuence (from Latin vasconice loqui, "to talk in the Vascon way") is the traditional name for the Basque language in Spanish (though euskera and vasco are also used).


Dialects

Basque dialects
Basque dialects

There are six main Basque dialects, comprising Bizkaian, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese (in Spain), and Lower Navarrese, Lapurdian, and Zuberoan (in France). However, the dialect boundaries are not congruent with political boundaries. One of the first scientific studies of Basque dialects, regarding the auxiliary verb forms, was made by Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, a nephew of Napoleon. Image File history File links Basque_Dialects. ... Image File history File links Basque_Dialects. ... Basque dialects Biscayan, sometimes Bizkaian, (Basque: Bizkaiera) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Biscay, province of the Basque Country of Spain. ... Basque Country Gipuzkoan is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Guipuzcoa (Basque: Gipuzkoa) province of the Basque Country, Spain. ... Basque Country Upper Navarrese is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa) community of Spain. ... Basque Country Lower Navarrese (or Low Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Lower Navarre (Basque: Behe Nafarroa) region of France. ... Basque Country Lapurdian is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Labourd (Basque: Lapurdi) region of the Basque Country in France. ... Basque Country Zuberoan is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Soule (Basque: Zuberoa) region of the Basque Country in France. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... Louis Lucien Bonaparte (January 4, 1813 - November 3, 1891) was the third son of Napoleons second surviving brother, Lucien Bonaparte. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


In 2005 the daily Berria published a new map of dialects, moderninzed by Koldo Zuazo, Basque Philology Professor at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). In this new map, the distinguished dialects are Western, Central, Navarrese, Navarrese-Lapurdian, and Zuberoan. Berria is the only newspaper published wholly in the Basque language and which can be read in the entirety of the Basque country. ...


Standardized dialects

The most-widely-used standardized dialect is Batua ("unified" in Basque), which is the language taught in most schools and used by media and in official papers. Batua is based largely on the Gipuzkoan regional dialect, where it is the most used, although it allows use of Northern and Navarrese vocabulary and grammar. It is also referred to as Standard Basque. Basque Country Batua (English Unified) is a standardised dialect of the Basque language most widely and commonly spoken throughout the Basque Country. ... Basque Country Gipuzkoan is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Guipuzcoa (Basque: Gipuzkoa) province of the Basque Country, Spain. ...


Azkue's gipuzkera osotua, promoted in 1935, was the first attempt to create a standard Basque language. It did not succeed.


In the 1940s, a group (Jakintza Baitha, "Wisdom House") gathered around the academian Federico Krutwig, who preferred to base the standard on the Labourdin of Joannes Leyçarraga's Protestant Bible and the first printed books in Basque. However they did not receive official or popular support. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Federico Krutwig Salcedo (1921–1998) was a Spanish Anarchist, best known as author of several books. ...


In 1944, Pierre Laffite published his Navarro-Labourdin Littéraire, based on Classical Lapurdian, which has become the de facto standard form of Lapurdian. It is taught in some schools of Lapurdi and used on radio, in church, and by the newspaper Herria. Basque Country Lapurdian is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Labourd (Basque: Lapurdi) region of the Basque Country in France. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


The most distinct dialects, Biscayan and Zuberoan, also are standardized.


Euskera in the Internet

One in a thousand (0.1%) of Web-sites are in Euskera [8].


Influence in other languages

The Romance languages Gascon, Aragonese, and Castilian have marked Basque influence in them, as a result of substratum, language contact, and bilingualism. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Aragonese redirects here. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


In the case of Castilian (Spanish) and Gascon, the following Basque substrate influences are found.

  • lack of "v" sound (replaced by "b")
  • lack of initial "r" sound in Basque and Gascon (replaced by err-/arr-)
  • simple five vowel system
  • transformation of initial "f" into mute "h": fablarhablar (this is even more marked in Gascon. The f sound did not exist in old Basque.

However, there are alternate explanations based on internal developments. The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 16th Century, Basque sailors mixed many Basque words with a European Atlantic pidgin in their contacts with Iceland.[9][10] Another Basque pidgin arose from contact between Basque whalers and Aboriginal inhabitants in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Strait of Belle Isle. This article is about simplified languages. ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Strait of Belle Isle (French: Détroit de Belle Île), sometimes referred to as Straits of Belle Isle or Labrador Straits) is a waterway in eastern Canada that separates the Labrador Peninsula from the island of Newfoundland, in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Several travelling professional groups of Castile used Basque words in their jargon: examples are the gacería, the mingaña, and the Galician fala dos arxinas. For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... Gacería (Basque for nonsense, cleverness[1]) is the name of a jerga or argot employed by the trilleros (or makers of the trillo, or harrow) and the briqueros (or makers of the brica, or sieve) in the village of Cantalejo, in the Spanish province of Segovia. ... Fala dos arxinas or Verbo dos arginas (in Spanish, jerga de los canteros) (Galician, argot of stonecutters) is the name of an argot employed by stonecutters in the Spanish region of Galicia, particularly in the area of Pontevedra. ...


A small part of the Gypsies living in the Basque Country spoke Erromintxela, which mixes Romany vocabulary with Basque syntax and morphology (it is comparable with the Caló of Spanish-speaking Gitanos). Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... This article is about the Roma language. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ...


Grammar

Main article: Basque grammar

Basque is an ergative-absolutive language. The subject of an intransitive verb is in the absolutive case (which is unmarked), and the same case is used for the direct object of a transitive verb. The subject of the transitive verb (that is, the agent) is marked differently, with the ergative case (shown by the suffix -k). This also triggers main and auxiliary verbal agreement. This article provides a grammar sketch of the Basque language, the language of the Basque people of the Basque Country or Euskal Herria, which borders the Bay of Biscay in western Europe. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... “Intransitive” redirects here. ... In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive is the grammatical case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. ... The accusative case of a noun is, generally, the case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... A transitive verb is a verb that requires both a subject and one or more objects. ... In ergative-absolutive languages, the ergative case identifies the subject of a transitive verb. ...


The auxiliary verb, which accompanies most main verbs, agrees not only with the subject, but with any direct object and the indirect object present. Among European languages, this polypersonal system (multiple verb agreement) is only found in Basque, some Caucasian languages, and Hungarian. The ergative-absolutive alignment is also unique among European languages, but not rare worldwide. In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ...


Consider the phrase:

Martinek egunkariak erosten dizkit. 
"Martin buys the newspapers for me."

Martin-ek is the agent (transitive subject), so it is marked with the ergative case ending -k (with an epenthetic -e-). Egunkariak has an -ak ending which marks plural object (plural absolutive, direct object case). The verb is erosten dizkit, in which erosten is a kind of gerund ("buying") and the auxiliary dizkit means "he/she (does) them for me". This dizkit can be split like this: Image File history File links Martinek1. ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ...

  • di- is used in the present tense when the verb has a subject (ergative), a direct object (absolutive), and an indirect object, and the object is he/she/it/them.
  • -zki- means the absolutive (in this case the newspapers) is plural, if it were singular there would be no infix; and
  • -t or '-da-' means "to me/for me" (indirect object).
  • in this instance there is no suffix after -t. A zero suffix in this position indicates that the ergative (the subject) is third person singular (he/she/it).

The phrase "you buy the newspapers for me" would translate as:

Zuek egunkariak erosten dizkidazue 

The auxiliary verb is composed as di-zki-da-zue and means 'you pl. (do) them for me' Image File history File links Zuekegunkariak. ...

  • di- = direct object, present tense
  • -zki- = direct object is plural
  • -da- = indirect object (to me/for me) {-t becomes -da- when not final.}
  • -zue = subject (you pl.)

In spoken Basque, the auxiliary verb is often dropped when redundant: "Zuek egunkariak erosten niri", you pl. buying the newspapers for me. Whenever it is not dropped, the pronouns are almost always dropped: "egunkariak erosten dizkidazue", the newspapers buying be-them-for-me-you(plural). The pronouns are used only to show emphasis: "egunkariak zuek erosten dizkidazue", it is you (pl.) who buy the newspapers for me; or "egunkariak niri erosten dizkidazue", it is me for whom you buy the newspapers for.


Modern Basque dialects allow for the conjugation of about fifteen verbs, called synthetic verbs, some only in literary contexts. These can be put in the present and past tenses in the indicative and subjunctive moods, in three tenses in the conditional and potential moods, and in one tense in the imperative. Colloquial Basque, however, only uses indicative present, indicative past, and imperative. Each verb that can be taken intransitively has a nor (absolutive) paradigm and possibly a nor-nori (absolutive-dative) paradigm, as in the sentence Aititeri txapela erori zaio ("The hat fell from grandfather['s head]").[11] Each verb that can be taken transitively uses those two paradigms for passive-voice contexts in which no agent is mentioned, and also has a nor-nork (absolutive-ergative) paradigm and possibly a nor-nori-nork (absolutive-dative-ergative) paradigm. The last would entail the dizkidazue example above. In each paradigm, each constituent noun can take on any of eight persons, five singular and three plural, with the exception of nor-nori-nork in which the absolutive can only be third person singular or plural. (This draws on a language universal: *"Yesterday the boss presented the committee me" sounds at least odd, if not incorrect.) The most ubiquitous auxiliary, izan, can be used in any of these paradigms, depending on the nature of the main verb.


There are more persons in the singular (5) than in the plural (3) for synthetic verbs because of the two familiar persons—informal masculine and feminine second person singular. The pronoun hi is used for both of them, but where the masculine form of the verb uses a -k, the feminine uses an -n. This is a property not found in Indo-European languages. The entire paradigm of the verb is further augmented by inflecting for "listener" (the allocutive) even if the verb contains no second person constituent. If the situation is one in which the familiar masculine may be used, the form is augmented and modified accordingly; likewise for the familiar feminine. (Gizon bat etorri da, "a man has come"; gizon bat etorri duk, "a man has come [you are a male close friend]", gizon bat etorri dun, "a man has come [you are a female close friend]", gizon bat etorri duzu, "a man has come [I talk to you]"[12]) Notice that this nearly multiplies the number of possible forms by three. Still, the restriction on contexts in which these forms may be used is strong since all participants in the conversation must be friends of the same sex, and not too far apart in age. Some dialects dispense with the familiar forms entirely. Note, however, that the formal second person singular conjugates in parallel to the other plural forms, perhaps indicating that it used to be the second person plural, started being used as a singular formal, and then the modern second person plural was formulated as an innovation. In sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee. ...


All the other verbs in Basque are called periphrastic, behaving much like a participle would in English. These have only three forms total, called aspects: perfect (various suffixes), habitual[13] (suffix -t[z]en), and future/potential (suffix. -ko/-go). Verbs of Latinate origin in Basque, as well as many other verbs, have a suffix -tu in the perfect, adapted from the Latin -tus suffix. The synthetic verbs also have periphrastic forms, for use in perfect tenses and in simple tenses in which they are deponent. In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ...


Within a verb phrase, the periphrastic comes first, followed by the auxiliary.


A Basque noun-phrase is inflected in 17 different ways for case, multiplied by 4 ways for its definiteness and number. These first 68 forms are further modified based on other parts of the sentence, which in turn are inflected for the noun again. It's been estimated that, with two levels of recursion, a Basque noun may have 458,683 inflected forms.[14] This article is about the concept of recursion. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ...


Basic syntactic construction is Subject-Objects-Verb (unlike Spanish, French or English where Subject-Verb-Objects construction is more common). The order of the phrases within a sentence can be changed with thematic purposes, whereas the order of the words within a phrase is usually rigid. As a matter of fact, Basque phrase order is topic-focus, meaning that in neutral sentences (such as sentences to inform someone of a fact or event) the topic is stated first, then the focus. In such sentences, the verb phrase comes at the end. In brief, the focus directly precedes the verb phrase. This rule is also applied in questions, for instance, What is this? can be translated as Zer da hau? or Hau zer da?, but in both cases the question tag zer immediately precedes the verb da. This rule is so important in Basque that, even in grammatical descriptions of Basque in other languages, the Basque word galdegai (focus) is used. In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO), is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third. ... In linguistics, the topic (or theme) is the part of the proposition that is being talked about (predicated). ... In linguistics, the focus determines which part of the sentence contributes the most important information. ...


In negative sentences, the order changes. Since the negative particle ez must always directly precede the auxiliary, the topic most often comes beforehand, and the rest of the sentence follows. This includes the periphrastic, if there is one: Aitak frantsesa ikasten du, "Father is learning French," in the negative becomes Aitak ez du frantsesa ikasten, in which ikasten ("learning") is separated from its auxiliary and placed at the end.


Phonology

Table of consonant phonemes of Standard Basque
Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Lamino-
dental
Apico-
alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m
/m/
n
/n/
ñ, -in-
/ɲ/
Plosive p
/p/
b
/b/
t
/t/
d
/d/
tt, -it-
/c/
dd, -id-
/ɟ/
k
/k/
g
/g/
Affricate tz
/ʦ̻/
ts
/ʦ̺/
tx
/ʧ/
Fricative f
/f/
z
/s̻/
s
/s̺/
x
/ʃ/
j
/ʝ~x/
h
∅, /h/
Lateral l
/l/
ll, -il-
/ʎ/
Rhotic Trill r-, -rr-, -r
/r/
Tap -r-
/ɾ/

Basque has a distinction between laminal and apical articulation for the alveolar fricatives and affricates. In the laminal consonants the friction occurs across the blade of the tongue, while in apical ones, it occurs at the tip (apex). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Rhotic consonants, or R-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ...


The laminal alveolar fricative (IPA: [s̻]) is made with the tongue tip pointing toward the lower teeth; its affricate counterpart is [ʦ̻]. These are written with an orthographic z (z, tz). The voiceless apicoalveolar fricative (/s̺/) is written s; the tip of the tongue points toward the upper teeth. The corresponding affricate (/ʦ̺/) is ts. In the westernmost parts of the Basque country, only the apical s and the alveolar affricate tz are used. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Voiceless alveolar fricative. ...


Basque also features postalveolar sibilants (/ʃ/, written x, and /ʧ/, written tx), sounding like English sh and ch.


There are two palatal stops, voiced and unvoiced, as well as a palatal nasal and a palatal lateral (the palatal stops are not present in all dialects). These and the postalveolar sounds are typical of diminutives, which are used frequently in child language and motherese (mainly to show affection rather than size). For example, tanta "drop" vs. ttantta /canca/ "droplet". A few common words, such as txakur /ʧakur/ "dog", use palatal sounds even though in current usage they have lost the diminutive sense; the corresponding non-palatal forms now acquiring an augmentative or pejorative sense: zakur "big dog". Many dialects of Basque exhibit a derived palatalization effect in which coronal onset consonants are changed into the palatal counterpart after the high front vowel /i/. For example, the /n/ in egin "to act" becomes palatal when the suffix -a is added: /egina/ = [egiɲa] "the action". Baby talk, motherese, or child-directed speech (CDS) is a nonstandard form of speech used by adults, particularly mothers, in talking to children. ...


The sound represented by j has a variety of realizations according to the regional dialect: [j, ʝ, ɟ, ʒ, ʃ, x] (the last one is typical of the Spanish Basque Country).


The vowel system is the same as Spanish for most speakers. It consists of five pure vowels, /i e a o u/. Speakers of the Zuberoan dialect also have a sixth, front rounded vowel (represented in writing by ü but pronounced /ø/, much like a German ö), as well as a set of contrasting nasalized vowels, indicating a strong influence from French.


Stress and pitch

Basque features great dialectal variation in stress, from a weak pitch-accent in the central dialects to a marked stress in some outer dialects, with varying patterns of stress placement. Stress is in general not distinctive (and for historical comparisons not very useful); there are, however, a few instances where stress is phonemic, serving to distinguish between a few pairs of stress-marked words and between some grammatical forms (mainly plurals from other forms). E.g., basóà ("the forest", absolutive case) vs. básoà ("the glass", absolutive case; an adoption from Spanish vaso); basóàk ("the forest", ergative case) vs. básoàk ("the glass", ergative case) vs. básoak ("the forests" or "the glasses", absolutive case). Given its great deal of variation among dialects, stress is not marked in the standard orthography and Euskaltzaindia (the Academy of the Basque Language) only provides general recommendations for a standard placement of stress, basically to place a high-pitched weak stress (weaker than that of Spanish, let alone that of English) on the second syllable of a syntagma, and a low-pitched even-weaker stress on its last syllable, except in plural forms where stress is moved to the first syllable. This scheme provides Basque with a distinct musicality which sets its sound apart from the prosodical patterns of Spanish (which tends to stress the second-to-last syllable). Euskaldun berriak ("new Basque-speakers", i.e. second-language Basque-speakers) with Spanish as their first language tend to carry the prosodical patterns of Spanish into their pronunciation of Basque, giving rise to a much despised decaffeinated pronunciation; e.g., pronouncing nire ama ("my mum") as nire áma (- - ´ -), instead of as niré amà (- ´ - `). Euskaltzaindias central office is at Plaza Berria in Bilbao. ...


Vocabulary

By contact with neighbouring peoples, Basque has adopted many words from Latin, Spanish, Gascon, among others. Some[attribution needed] claim that many of its words come from Latin, but phonetic evolution has made many of them appear nowadays as if they were native words, e.g. lore ("flower", from florem), errota ("mill", from rotam, "[mill] wheel"), gela ("room", from cellam). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ...


Writing system

Main article: Basque alphabet
An example of Basque lettering in a funerary stela.
An example of Basque lettering in a funerary stela.

Basque is written using the Latin alphabet. The universal special letter is ñ; sometimes ç and ü are also used. Basque does not use Cc, Qq, Vv, Ww, Yy except for loanwords; nevertheless, the adopted Basque alphabet (established by Euskaltzaindia) does include them.[15] The Basque alphabet is the alphabet used to write the Basque language. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixel, file size: 1. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Euskaltzaindias central office is at Plaza Berria in Bilbao. ...

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

The phonetically meaningful digraphs dd, ll, rr, ts, tt, tx, tz are treated as double letters. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


All letters and digraphs represent unique phonemes. The main exception is when l or n are preceded by i, that in most dialects palatalizes their sound into ll and ñ, even if these are not written. Hence, ikurriña can also be written ikurrina without changing the sound, while the proper name Ainhoa requires the mute h to break the palatalization of the n. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Ikurriña The Ikurriña flag is a Basque symbol and the official flag of the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community (Comunidad Autónomas) of contemporary Spain. ... Ainhoa is a commune in Labourd, in the Pyrénées_Atlantiques département in France. ...


H is mute in most regions, but in the Northeast is pronounced in many places, the main reason for its existence in the Basque alphabet. Its acceptance was a matter of contention during the standardization since the speakers of the most extended dialects had to learn where to place these silent h's.


In Sabino Arana's (1865-1903) orthography, ll and rr were replaced with ĺ and ŕ, respectively. Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta GoiritaÅ• Sabin (January 26, 1865 – November 25, 1903), Spain, founder of the Basque Nationalist Party and a inventor of previously non-existent Basque nationalism. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... Å” is a letter used in the Romany alphabet. ...


A typically Basque style of lettering is sometimes used for inscriptions. It derives from the work of stone and wood carvers and is characterized by thick serifs. In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. ...

An example of the number system employed by millers.
An example of the number system employed by millers.

Basque millers traditionally employed a separate number system of unknown origin.[16] In this system the symbols are either arranged along a vertical line or horizontally. On the vertical line the single digits and fractions are usually off to one side, usually at the top. When used horizontally, the smallest units are usually on the right and the largest on the left.


The system is, as is the Basque system of counting in general, vigesimal. Although the system is in theory capable of indicating numbers above 100, most recorded examples do not go above 100 in general. Interestingly, fractions are relatively common, especially 1/2.


The exact systems used vary from area to area but generally follow the same principle with 5 usually being a diagonal line or a curve off the vertical line (a V shape is used when writing a 5 horizontally). Units of ten are usually a horizontal line through the vertical. The twenties are based on a circle with intersecting lines.


This system is not in general use anymore but is occasionally employed for decorative purposes.


Phrases

Basic phrases

  • Bai = Yes
  • Ez = No
  • Kaixo! = Hello
  • Agur! / Aio! = Goodbye!
  • Ikusi arte = See you!
  • Eskerrik asko! = Thank you!
  • Egun on = Good morning (literally: Good day)
  • Egun on, bai = Standard reply to Egun on
  • Arratsalde on = Good evening
  • Gabon = Good night
  • Mesedez = Please
  • Barkatu = Excuse (me) (when asking for something)
  • Barkatu = I'm sorry.
  • Aizu! = Listen! (To get someone's attention, not very polite, to be used with friends)
  • Kafe hutsa nahi nuke  = Can I have a coffee?
  • Kafe ebakia nahi nuke  = Can I have a macchiato?
  • Kafesnea nahi nuke = Can I have a café latte?
  • Garagardoa nahi nuke = Can I have a beer?
  • Komunak = Toilets
  • Non dago komuna? = Where are the toilets?
  • Non dago tren-geltokia? = Where is the train station?
  • Non dago autobus-geltokia? = Where is the bus station?
  • Ba al da hotelik hemen inguruan? = Is there any hotel around here?
  • Zorionak = Happy holidays (During Christmas and new year's), congratulations or could be Happy birthday.
  • Zer moduz? = How are you?

Image File history File links Kafehutsa. ... Image File history File links Kafeebakia. ...

Advanced phrases

  • Eup! = The colloquial way of greeting someone on the street, also apa or aupa or iep!.
  • Kaixo aspaldiko! = Like Kaixo, but adds "Long time, no see"-meaning.
  • Eskerrik asko = Thank you (very much).
  • Ez horregatik = You're welcome (response to Eskerrik asko).
  • Ez dut ulertzen = I don't understand
  • Ez dakit euskaraz hitz egiten  = I don't speak Basque
  • Ba al dakizu ingeleraz hitz egiten?  = Do you speak English?
  • Neska polit(t)a / Neska ederra = (You're a) beautiful girl
  • Zein da zure izena? = What is your name?
  • Pozten nau zu ezagutzeak = Nice to meet you
  • Ongi etorri! = Welcome!
  • Egun on denoi = Good morning everyone!
  • Berdin/Hala zuri ere = The same to you (E.g. after Kaixo or Egun on)
  • Jakina! / Noski! / Bai horixe! = Sure! OK!
  • Nongoa zara? = Where are you from?
  • Euskal Herrikoa naiz = I am from the Basque Country.
  • Non bizi zara?=Where do you live?
  • Non dago...? = Where is...?
  • Badakizu euskaraz? = Do you speak Basque?
  • Bai ote? = Really? Maybe?
  • Bizi gara!! = We are alive!!
  • Bagarela!! = So we are!! (Answer to the above)
  • Topa! / Txin-txin = Cheers!
  • Hementxe! = Over/right here!
  • Geldi! = Stop
  • Lasai = Take it easy
  • Ez dut nahi = I don't want it
  • Kaka zaharra! = Crap! (Literally old crap)
  • Emak bakia! (Emak bakea! in Standard Basque) = Leave me alone! (Best known for being used by the artist Man Ray as both the title of a film and a sculpture). It can also be interpreted as "The female [gives] the peace".

Image File history File links Ezdakit. ... Image File history File links Ingeleraz. ... Emak-Bakia (English: Leave me alone) is a 1926 film directed by Man Ray. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... Emak-Bakia (English: Leave me alone) is a 1926 film directed by Man Ray. ...

Numbers

0 zero, or huts
1 bat
2 bi
3 hiru
4 lau
5 bost
6 sei
7 zazpi
8 zortzi
9 bederatzi
10 hamar
11 hamaika
12 hamabi
13 hamahiru
14 hamalau
15 hamabost
16 hamasei
17 hamazazpi
18 hemezortzi
19 hemeretzi
20 hogei
21 hogeita bat
22 hogeita bi
23 hogeita hiru
30 hogeita hamar (literal meaning split: hogei-ta-hamar = twenty-and-ten = 20+10)
31 hogeita hamaika (hogei-ta-hamaika = twenty-and-eleven = 20+11)
40 berrogei (ber-hogei = two times-twenty = 2×20)
50 berrogeita hamar (ber-hogei-ta-hamar = two times-twenty-and-ten = 2×20+10)
60 hirurogei (hirur-hogei = three times-twenty = 3×20)
70 hirurogeita hamar (hirur-hogei-ta-hamar = three times-twenty-and-ten = 3×20+10)
80 laurogei (laur-hogei = four times-twenty = 4×20)
90 laurogeita hamar (laur-hogei-ta-hamar = four times-twenty-and-ten = 4×20+10)
100 ehun
200 berrehun
300 hirurehun
1000 mila
2000 bi mila
1,000,000 milioi bat
number _____ _____ zenbaki (train, bus, etc.)
half erdi
less gutxiago
more gehiago

Example

The blacksmith slave
Captive in the rainforests of the West
they brought you to Rome, slave,
they gave you the blacksmith work
and you make chains.
The red iron that you carry out the oven
can be adapted as you want,
you can make swords
in order that your people could break the chains,
but you, this slave,
you make chains, more chains.
:Joseba Sarrionandia

Esklabu erremintaria
Sartaldeko oihanetan gatibaturik
erromara ekarri zinduten, esklabua,
erremintari ofizioa eman zizuten
eta kateak egiten dituzu.
Labetik ateratzen duzun burdin goria
nahieran molda zenezake,
ezpatak egin ditzakezu
zure herritarrek kateak hauts deitzaten,
baina zuk, esklabu horrek,
kateak egiten dituzu, kate gehiago.
:Joseba Sarrionandia

See also

Basque Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... The Languages of Spain are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Spain. ... Below is a list of Basque Proverbs. ...

Dictionaries

Etymological Dictionaries

This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Basque language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers working to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 2100. ...

Grammar

Dictionaries

  • Morris Student Plus: Basque - English - Basque dictionary (67,000 headwords + 120,000 expressions and idioms)

Classification

  • History of the Basque Language by Manfred Owstrowski)
  • A Final (?) Response to the Basque Debate in Mother Tongue 1 by John D. Bengston (scanned pages)

Basque lettering

  • Basque alphabet according to Euskaltzaindia
  • Arquitectura popular y grafía vasca, by P. and J. de Zabalo, Biblioteca de Cultura Vasca, Editorial Vasca Ekin, Buenos Aires, 1947. Designs for a national typography derived from Medieval and Modern-Age inscriptions.
  • Tipografías vascas, a blog post reviewing Basque-style computer fonts.
  • Grafía vasca, in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia.

Basque media

  • Berria: Newspaper in Basque
  • EiTB: Tv and radio in Basque
  • Argia: Weekly magazine in Basque

References

  1. ^ Basque language.
  2. ^ Larry Trask The history of Basque (1997)
  3. ^ Hiztegia 3000
  4. ^ Third-century Basque inscriptions found in archaeological site
  5. ^ Are Iberian and Basque related? The problem with "magical translators" (Jesús Rodríguez Ramos)
  6. ^ A Final (?) Response to the Basque Debate in Mother Tongue 1 (John D. Bengston)
  7. ^ Theo Vennemann homepage
  8. ^ Chicago Sun Times, March 9, 2008
  9. ^ Glossaria duo vasco-islandica, Nicolaas Gerard Hendrik Deen, Amsterdam, H.J. Paris, 1937.
  10. ^ Basque Pidgins in Iceland and Canada, Nicolaas G.H. Deen, Peter Bakker, Gidor Bilbao, Jose Ignacio Hualde. Anejos de ASJU, XXIII, [Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia], 1991). Includes a reedition of Deen's Glossaria. See also Basque-Icelandic pidgin.
  11. ^ (Basque) INFLECTION §1.4.2.2. Potential paradigms: absolutive and dative.
  12. ^ Aspecto, tiempo y modo in Spanish, Aditzen aspektua, tempusa eta modua in Basque.
  13. ^ King, Alan R. (1994). The Basque Language: A Practical Introduction. University of Nevada Press, 393. ISBN 0-874-17155-5. 
  14. ^ Agirre et al, 1992PDF (681 KiB)
  15. ^ Basque alphabet
  16. ^ Aguirre Sorondo, A Tratado de Molinología: Los molinos en Guipúzcoa Donostia: Eusko Ikaskuntza, 1988

This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Basque-Icelandic pidgin was a pidgin spoken in Iceland in the 17th century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Bibliography

  • BENGTSON, John D., 2004. "Some features of Dene-Caucasian phonology (with special reference to Basque)." Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain (CILL).
  • BENGTSON, John D., 2006. "Materials for a Comparative Grammar of the Dene-Caucasian (Sino-Caucasian) Languages."
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1997. Review of "The History of Basque". London: Routledge, 1997. Pp.xxii,458" by R.L. Trask.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1997. "Ein Vergleich von Burushaski und Nordkaukasisch". In "GEORGICA (Zeitschrift für Kultur, Sprache und Geschichte Georgiens und Kaukasiens)."
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1996. "A Final (?) Response to the Basque Debate in Mother Tongue 1."
  • HUALDE, José Ignacio & ORTIZ DE URBINA, Jon (eds.): A Grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2003. ISBN 3-11-017683-1.
  • MORVAN, Michel, 1996. The linguistic origins of basque (in French). Bordeaux: Presses universitaires. ISBN 2-86781-182-1
  • ORPUSTAN, Jean-Baptiste, 1999. The basque language in the Middle Ages (in French). Baigorri. ISBN 2-909262-22-7
  • TRASK, R. Larry: History of Basque. New York/London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-13116-2.
  • MORVAN, Michel: Etymological Dictionary of the Basque Language (forthcoming).

In the Cahiers de lInstitut de Linguistique de Louvain linguistics are seen in the most elaborated way, including traditional and contemporary problematics. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Basque language - Simple English Wikipedia (661 words)
Basque (in Basque: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who live in the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the bordering region of South-Western France.
The ancestors of Basques are among the oldest residents of Europe, and their beginings are still unknown, as are the origins of Basque itself.
Basque used to be spoken over a larger area, but Latin took over in some places.
Basque language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2712 words)
Basque (in Basque: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France.
Basques also make up sizable parts of the population in what is known as the Northern Basque Country in France and the autonomous community of Navarre in Spain, which in total have historically been considered the Basque Country.
However, Basque was explicitly recognized in some areas, as the local charter of the Basque-colonized Ojacastro valley (now in La Rioja) allowed the inhabitants to use Basque in legal processes in the 13th and 14th centuries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Cheryl Stevns
25th May 2010
I would like the following translated into Enlish please.

dab aco n'embéji pas arré

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