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Encyclopedia > Basque Country (historical territory)
Flag of The Basque Country
Location of the Basque Country
The seven provinces of the historical Basque Country span France (light yellow) and Spain (rest of the map) Names in this map are in Basque
Official languages Spanish, French, Basque (not official in France)
Demonym Basque, Navarrese

The Basque Country (Basque: Euskal Herria) is a historical region in the western Pyrenees that spans the border between France and Spain, extending down to the coast of the Bay of Biscay. It corresponds more or less –but not exactly– with the homeland of the Basque people and language. Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Basque Countrys general location Made from Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Image File history File links Mapa_provincias_Euskal_Herria. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ...

Contents

Geography

The Basque Country is made up of seven traditional regions. The four regions within the Spanish state, or Laurak Bat, form Hegoalde (“the South”), while the three within the French form Iparralde ("the North"). Zazpiak bat, from the Basque words zazpi meaning seven and bat meaning one, translates as seven in one and refers to the seven historical Basque territories. ...


Southern Basque Country

The southern Basque Country (Spanish: País Vasco, Basque: Hegoalde) includes the provinces of:

lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Haec est Victoria quae vincit (This is Victoria which triumphed) Location Location of Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spain Coordinates : 42°51′ N 2°41′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish) Spanish name Vitoria-Gasteiz Founded 1181 Postal code 01001-01080... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Amurrio is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Gernika (pronounced in IPA: ; officially Gernika-Lumo, because of the union with Lumo; in Spanish Guernica and Guernica y Luno) is a small city in the Spanish Basque Country. ... Kaltea Dagianak Bizarra Lepoan (He who makes evil, the beard at his back) Location Location of Getxo in Biscay. ... Coat of arms Location of Barakaldo in Biscay. ... Puente Colgante Portugalete is a port city lying to the west of Bilbao (Basque: Bilbo) in the province of Vizcaya in Spain. ... Bermeo is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Sestao is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Guipuscoa province. ... ... Errenteria is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain, near the French border. ... Vigilantiae Custos Location Coordinates : Lat 43º 20 16. ... Zarautz is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipúzcoa Eibar is a city within the province of Guipúzcoa, in the Basque Country. ... Tolosa is a town and municipality to the south of San Sebastian in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ... Tafalla is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Flag of Tudela. ... Puente Picudo in Estella Estella (Spanish) or Lizarra (Basque) is a town located in the autonomous community of Navarre, in northern Spain. ... Constitution of Spain - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Northern Basque Country

Town of Maule (Mauléon) in Zuberoa (Soule)
Town of Maule (Mauléon) in Zuberoa (Soule)

The French provinces lost their administrative meaning after the French Revolution. The Northern Basque Country forms part of the French département of Pyrénées Atlantiques with the former province of Bearn. The département is part of the region of Aquitaine. Image File history File links Mauléon, capitol of Soule in the French Basque Country. ... Image File history File links Mauléon, capitol of Soule in the French Basque Country. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ... B arn is a former province of France, located at the base of the Pyr es. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

  • Lower Navarre (Behe Nafarroa in Basque, Basse-Navarre in French). Traditional capital: Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (Basque: Donibane Garazi)
  • Lapurdi (Labourd in French), traditional capitals: Bayonne (Basque: Baiona) and Ustaritz (Basque: Uztaritze)
  • Zuberoa (Soule in French), capital Mauléon (Basque: Maule)

Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (literally meaning Saint John at the foot of the mountain pass in French) (Basque: Donibane Garazi) is a commune in the French département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Uztaritze is a small village in the province of Labourd, in the South part of France. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Basque | Zuberoa ... Mauléon-Licharre or simply Mauléon is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, in France. ...

History

Basques are the least assimilated remnant of the Paleolithic inhabitants of Western Europe (specifically those of the Franco-Cantabrian region). Basque tribes were already mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani and others. There is enough evidence that they already spoke Basque in that time (see Aquitanian language and Iruña-Veleia). All other tribes in the Iberian Peninsula were linguistically and culturally assimilated by the end of the Roman period. The Basques had also been greatly influenced by Roman culture and language and might have become fully assimilated in a few hundred years had the Roman world not collapsed. The Basque people are an indigenous people inhabiting both Spain and France. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... the inhabitants of the Franco-Cantabric region produced some of the finest Paleolithic mural art, as this horse at Lascaux cave Franco-Cantabric region (also Franco-Cantabrian region) is a term applied in Archaeology and History to refer to an area that stretches from Asturias, in northern Spain, to Provence... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... Location of Veleia and other Roman cities in the context of ancient Basque tribes and the modern Basque Country Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country. ...


In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, at times united under the Dukes of Vasconia. After the Moorish invasions and the Frankish expansion under Charlemagne, the territory was fragmented and eventually the Kingdom of Pamplona arose as the main state in the 9th century. Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... This article is about the historical region. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ...


This state, later known as Navarre was partially annexed to the Kingdom of Castile in the 11th and 12th century and 1512-21. The remainder of Navarre was united to France. The three western provinces (Araba, Biscay, Gipuzkoa) had already joined with voluntary agreements to the kingdom of Castile and helped to integrate Navarre into Castile. “Navarra” redirects here. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...


Nevertheless the Basque provinces enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution in the North, and until after the Carlist Wars in the South. Since then, a section of the Basque society has always been struggling to achieve independence as a sovereign nation-state (see Basque nationalism). The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ...


Demographics

The Basque Country has a population of 3,007,661 as of early 2006. The population density, at 143.5/km² (359.5/sq. mile) is above the average of Spain or France, however, the distribution of the population is fairly unequal and it concentrates around the main cities. The Greater Bilbao metropolitan area concentrates a third of the total population, whilst most of the interior of the French Basque Country remains quite sparsely populated. Gran Bilbao real color image taken by NASAs Landsat satellite. ...

Province Year Area Population Population % Density
Basque Country 20061 20,947.2 3,007,661 100% 143.5
Alava 2006 3,316.9 301,926 10.0 91.0
Biscay 2006 2,236.7 1,139,863 37.9 509.6
Guipuscoa 2006 1,980.3 691,895 23.0 349.4
Labourd 2005 855.7 227,754 7.6 266.2
Lower Navarre 2005 1,322.1 28,835 1.0 21.8
Navarre 2006 10,421.0 601,874 20.0 57.8
Soule 2005 814.5 15,514 0.5 19.0


Source Datutalaia and http://www.ine.es INE lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Guipuscoa province. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ...


Municipalities

The Basque Country comprises 682 municipalities, in general Biscay and Gipuzkoa have the smallest towns and cities, averaging around 10 to 15 km². Álava and Navarre have the biggest municipalities. For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Guipuscoa province. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...

Province Area (km²) Capital Municipalities
Basque Country 20,947.2 682
Alava 3,316.9 Vitoria-Gasteiz 53
Biscay 2,236.7 Bilbao 111
Guipuscoa 1,980.3 Donostia 88
Labourd 855.7 Bayonne 41
Lower Navarre 1,322.1 Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port 74
Navarre 10,421.0 Pamplona 272
Soule 814.5 Mauléon-Licharre 43

Iturria Datutalaia lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Haec est Victoria quae vincit (This is Victoria which triumphed) Location Location of Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spain Coordinates : 42°51′ N 2°41′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish) Spanish name Vitoria-Gasteiz Founded 1181 Postal code 01001-01080... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Guipuscoa province. ... Location Location of Donostia-San Sebastian in Spain Coordinates : 43º 19 17 w. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (literally meaning Saint John at the foot of the mountain pass in French) (Basque: Donibane Garazi) is a commune in the French département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon-Licharre or simply Mauléon is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, in France. ...


Biggest cities

  1. Bilbao 354,145 inhabitants
  2. Vitoria-Gasteiz 227,568 inhabitants
  3. Pamplona 195,769 inhabitants
  4. Donostia-San Sebastian 183,308 inhabitants
  5. Barakaldo 95,640 inhabitants
  6. Getxo 82,327 inhabitants
  7. Irun 60,261 inhabitants
  8. Portugalete 49,118 inhabitants
  9. Santurtzi 47,320 inhabitants
  10. Bayonne 44,300 inhabitants

La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Haec est Victoria quae vincit (This is Victoria which triumphed) Location Location of Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spain Coordinates : 42°51′ N 2°41′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish) Spanish name Vitoria-Gasteiz Founded 1181 Postal code 01001-01080... For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipuscoa San Sebastián with sailboats San Sebastián (Donostia in Basque) is the capital city of the province of Guipúzcoa, in the Spanish autonomous community of Basque Country. ... Coat of arms Location of Barakaldo in Biscay. ... Kaltea Dagianak Bizarra Lepoan (He who makes evil, the beard at his back) Location Location of Getxo in Biscay. ... Vigilantiae Custos Location Coordinates : Lat 43º 20 16. ... Puente Colgante Portugalete is a port city lying to the west of Bilbao (Basque: Bilbo) in the province of Vizcaya in Spain. ... Santurce-Santurtzi is a port in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, Spain. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...

Non-Basque minorities in the Basque Country

Historical minorities

As in the rest of Spain, the roads of the Basque Country were travelled by nomadic Gypsies (Roma people, Basque: Ijitoak) and Mercheros (Quinqui-speakers), who related to the peasant society as traveling cattle merchants and artisans. After industrialization, they settled in slums near the big cities. The French Basque Country and Guipuzcoa were also visited by another branch of Romas of Balkan origin (known in the Basque Country as buhameak, equivalent to the English Bohemians). Some Basque Roma used to have a mixed Basque-Romany variant.[1] The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Quinqui is the language of a semi-nomadic group present mainly in the northern half of Spain known as quinquilleros (tinkers), although they prefer to be called mercheros. ... Quinqui is the language of a semi-nomadic group present mainly in the northern half of Spain known as quinquilleros (tinkers), although they prefer to be called mercheros. ...


Both sides of the Pyrenees were home to a despised minority, the Agotes (also cagots). They were not a people apart, but lived as untouchables in Basque villages and were allowed to marry only among themselves. Their origin is hidden by legends and superstitions. In the modern society, they have mostly assimilated into the general society. Agotes or cagots were a discriminated minority in the Navarrese Pyrenees, Basque provinces, Bearn, Gascony and also Brittany. ...


In the Middle Ages, many so-called Franks of Occitan language settled along the Way of Saint James in Navarre and Guipuscoa but were eventually assimilated. Navarre also held Jewish and Muslim minorities but these were expelled or forced to assimilate after the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. One of the most outstanding members of such minorities was Benjamin of Tudela. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Map of the route Benjamin of Tudela (flourished 12th century) was a medieval Spanish Jewish Rabbi, traveler and explorer. ...


Recent immigrants

José Aranda Aznar writes[2] that 30% of the population of the southern Basque Country were born in other regions of Spain and that 40% of the people living in that territory had not a single Basque parent.


Most of these peoples of Castilian and Galician stock arrived to the Basque Country in the late 19th century and along the 20th century, as the region became more and more industrialized and prosperous and additional workers were needed to attend the economic growth. Second generation immigrants from other parts of Spain are for the most part well integrated. Unofficial map of what is traditionally considered to be the region of Castile (shown in red), although the definition of which areas constitute Castile is disputed. ... Language(s) Galician language, Eonavian, Spanish Religion(s) Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups other Spaniards, Portuguese, Irish, Scots, Welsh, French, Italians The Galicians are an ethnic group or nationality whose homeland is Galicia (or Galiza), which is a historial region in Southwestern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north...


Additionally, since the 1980s, the Basque Country has received an increasing number of overseas immigrants, especially from North Africa, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and China.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Education

Education in the Basque Country is entirely free from the age of 3 , and compulsory between 6 and 16 years. In the southern Basque country, the majority of students are educated in the Basque language, although only 20% of students learn it in the north. Within Spain, the autonomous communities of the Basque Country and Navarre usually present above-the-average rates of school success. Education in the Basque Country is entirely free from the age of 3, and compulsory between 6 and 16 years. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Universities

The earliest university in the Basque Country was the University of Oñate, founded in 1540 in Hernani and moved to Oñate in 1548. It lasted in various forms until 1901. [1] In 1868 there was an unsuccessful effort to establish a Basque-Navarrese University. The Jesuits founded the University of Deusto in Deusto (now a Bilbao neighbourhood) by the turn of the century, with another later campus in San Sebastián. The first modern Basque public university was the Basque University, founded November 18, 1936 by the autonomous basque government in Bilbao in the midst of the Spanish Civil War. It operated only briefly before the government's defeat by Francisco Franco's fascist forces. [2]. Hernani can mean several things: Hernani is a locality in Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The University of Deusto is one of the most distinguished academic institutions in Spain, with campuses in Bilbao and San Sebastian. ... Deusto is labelled with number 1 in this map of the districts of Bilbao. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Several universities, originally teaching only in Spanish, were founded in the Basque region in the Franco era. One of those, the University of Bilbao, has now evolved into the University of the Basque Country with campuses in the three western provinces. The University of the Basque Country (Basque - Euskal Herriko Universitatea; Spanish - Universidad del País Vasco) is the only public university in the semi-autonomous region of the Basque Country, or Euskadi, in Northern Spain. ...


In Navarre, Opus Dei manages the University of Navarre with another campus in San Sebastián. Additionally there is also the Public University of Navarre managed by the Navarrese Foral Government. “Navarra” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... The University of Navarra is a private university based at the southeast border of Pamplona, Spain. ...


Mondragón Corporación Cooperativa has established its institutions for superior education as the Mondragon University, based in Mondragón and nearby towns. Mondragón Cooperative Corporation (MCC) is a group of manufacturing and retail companies based in the Basque Country and extended over the rest of Spain and abroad. ... Mondragon Unibertsitatea is a private university in Basque Country. ... Mondragon is also the name of a commune of the Vaucluse département, in southern France. ...


There are numerous other significant Basque cultural institutions in the Basque Country and elsewhere. Most Basque organizations in the United States are affiliated with NABO (North American Basque Organizations, Inc.).


Politics

The western part of the southern Basque Country has a great deal of autonomy. See: Basque Country (autonomous community). It has a federative structure in which each of the three provinces or regions keeps and manages their historical autonomy, including taxation, in coordination with the autonomous government. Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ...


Navarre has a separate autonomy based in the historical fuero (charter), that has never been submitted to referendum, as is the case with the possibility (always open) of incorporating itself to the Basque Autonomous Community, althought an almost absolute majority of the inhabitants of Navarre do not wish to join the Basque Autonomous Community and want to keep Navarre as it is. “Navarra” redirects here. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ...


The northern Basque Country has no autonomy whatsoever and it is just part of the French department of Pyrénées Atlantiques.


Neither Spain nor France admit that, legally, any part of their territories has the right to self-determination. Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Political parties

Parties with presence in all the Basque Country

  • Eusko Alkartasuna (EA) (Basque Solidarity). They broke away from EAJ in 1984, under the leadership of charismatic lehendakari Carlos Garaikoetxea,[3] as EAJ-PNV had pacted with the Spanish right in Navarre (against the opinion of the local federation) in exchange for support in Bilbao. They are defined as social-democrats and are quite more emphatic in their nationalist claims.
  • Batasuna (Unity) was formerly known as Herri Batasuna (People's Union)and Euskal Heritarrok (We Basque Citizens). Its ideology is radical nationalist and socialist. It was declared illegal in 2003 after the Spanish parliament passed a new Law of Political Parties, due to its relation with the terrorist organization ETA. It use to have representation in the Southern Basque Country, including Navarre, where it is the main Basque independentist force (the last year they were able to participate in elections of Navarra was 1999, getting %15,58 of the votes, and the second nationalist party, EA/EAJ-PNV got just %5.44),[citation needed] (even if it's now forbidden to run in the elections). Its presence in the Northern Basque country is very low. (see also Eusko Abertzale Ekintza and Communist Party of the Basque Homelands)
  • The Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV-PNB) is the oldest of all nationalist parties, having more than 100 years of history. It is christian-democrat and has evolved towards rather moderate positions though it still keeps the demand for self-determination and eventual independence. It is the main party in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) and is the most voted party (about 40% population), but its presence in Navarre and, especially, in the Northern Basque country is low.

Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... Carlos Garaikoetxea Urriza (Born in Pamplona, June 2, 1938) is a former Basque politician that became the second elected Lehendakari (President of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country) after José Antonio Aguirre, who held that office in 1936-37. ... Social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th century out of the socialist movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Batasuna (Unity) is a Basque political party based mainly in Spain but with a French presence, which is presumed to be associated with the Basque separatist armed group ETA. Their relation is similar to that of Northern Irelands Sinn Féin and the IRA. History and outline The party was... EH logo Euskal Herritarrok (Basque for We, the Basque citizens) was a coalition created in 1998 that replaced Herri Batasuna. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Eusko Abertzale Ekintza - Acción Nacionalista Vasca (EAE-ANV) (Basque Nationalist Action) was the first Basque Nationalist political party to exist that presented itself on a socialist platform. ... The Communist Party of the Basque Homelands (Spanish: Partido Comunista de las Tierras Vascas, Euskera: Euskal Herrialdeetako Alderdi Komunista, acronym: EHAK-PCTV) is a communist nationalist party in the Basque Country, that had limited electoral activities prior to 2005, but rose to national prominence when its leadership adopted the program... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ...

Parties with presence only in the Northern Basque Country

The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is the largest left-wing political party in France. ... In France, the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist. ... The Abertzaleen Batasuna (Abertzale Unity) is a Basque political party in France. ... EA, Ea, or ea can signify several things. ...

Parties with presence in all Southern Basque Country

  • Spanish Socialist Worker Party (PSOE), social-democrat, with its branches:
    • PSE-EE (Mixed Spanish and Basque acronym for: Socialist Party of the Basque Country - Basque Country's Left) in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC)
    • PSN (Socialist Party of Navarre) in Navarre
  • People's Party (PP), conservative, with its branches:
    • Navarrese People's Union (UPN) in Navarre
    • Partido Popular del País Vasco (People's Party of The Basque Country) in the BAC
  • United Left (IU), left-wing around the former Communist Party, federalist and republican, with its branches:
    • Ezker Batua (United Left) (EB-IU) in the BAC
    • Izquierda Unida de Navarra (United Left of Navarre) (IUN) in Navarre
  • Aralar: a breakaway faction separated from Batasuna, stronger in Navarre. Nationalist and left-leaning.

The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th century out of the socialist movement. ... From the left: Mariano Rajoy, Josep Piqué and José María Aznar during the proclamation act of Josep Piqué in September 2003 The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Spain. ... Unión del Pueblo Navarro or UPN (Union of the Navarrese People) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ... Izquierda Unida (United Left) is the name of a number of political parties in Spanish-speaking countries: Izquierda Unida, Spain. ... Aralar is a Basque nationalist political group in Spain. ...

Parties with presence only in Navarre

  • Democratic Convergence of Navarre (CDN), center-right regionalist, a schism of UPN.
  • Batzarre (Assembly), left-wing coalition around neo-communist Zutik (Stand), mostly internationalist but favorable to self-determination.
  • Eusko Alkartasuna, Aralar, Batzarre and EAJ-PNV run together to the latest Navarrese elections under the name Nafarroa Bai (Yes to Navarre)

Convergencia Demócratica de Navarra (CDN, Spanish for Democratic Convergence of Navarre) is a regionalist political party of Navarre that split from Unión del Pueblo Navarro in the 1990s, after this party became part of the pan-Spanish Partido Popular (conservatives). ... Zutik symbol Zutik is a political party in Basque Country, Spain. ... Zutik symbol Zutik is a political party in Basque Country, Spain. ... Navarre Yes or Nafarroa Bai (Basque) is a basque coalition of Navarre for the 2004 Spanish elections made of the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party), Eusko Alkartasuna (Basque Solidarity) and Aralar political parties, specifically candidating in Navarre aiming to win a seat in the spanish parliament, in which the...

The nationalism issue

Language

Percentage of fluent speakers of Basque (areas where Basque is not spoken are included within the 0-20% interval)
Percentage of fluent speakers of Basque (areas where Basque is not spoken are included within the 0-20% interval)

In the historical process of forging themselves as nation-states, both Spanish and French governments have, at times, tried to suppress Basque linguistic identity. The language chosen for public education is the most obvious expression of this phenomenon. Image File history File links Euskara. ... Image File history File links Euskara. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Basque is the language spoken by the Basque people, who live in northern Spain and the adjoining area of southwestern France. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ...


In this regard, it must be noted that the current Batua standard of the Basque language was only introduced by the end of the 20th century, which helped this language being generally perceived until recently –also by its speakers– as a language not fit for educational purposes. Basque Country Batua (English Unified) is a standardised dialect of the Basque language most widely and commonly spoken throughout the Basque Country. ...


While the French Republics –the epitome of the nation-state– have a long history of attempting the complete cultural absorption of ethnic minority groups, Spain has, at most points in its history, granted some degree of linguistic, cultural, and political autonomy to its Basques, but under the regime of Francisco Franco, the Spanish government reversed the advances of Basque nationalism, as it had fought on the republican side of the Spanish Civil War in Guipúzcoa and Biscay. In general, during these years, cultural activity in Basque was limited to folkloric issues and the Roman Catholic Church, while a higher, yet still limited degree of tolerance was granted to Basque culture and language in Álava and Navarre, since both areas mostly supported Francoist troops during the war. Francism redirects here. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Guipuscoa province. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...


Nowadays, the Basque Country within Spain enjoys an extensive cultural and political autonomy and Basque is an official language along with Spanish. It is spoken by approximately a quarter of the total Basque Country, being its stronghold in the contiguous area formed by Guipúzcoa, northern Navarre and the pyrenean French valleys. It is not spoken in most of Álava, western Biscay and the southern half of Navarre. Of a total estimation of some 650,000 Basque speakers, approximately 550,000 live in the Spanish Basque country, the rest in the French.[4]


The Basque education system in Spain has three types of schools differentiated by their linguistic teaching models: A, B and D. Model D, with education entirely in Basque, and Spanish as a compulsory subject, is the most widely chosen model by parents. In Navarre there is an additional G model, with education entirely in Spanish. Education in the Basque Country is entirely free from the age of 3, and compulsory between 6 and 16 years. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...


In Navarre the ruling conservative government of Unión del Pueblo Navarro opposes Basque nationalist attempts to provide education in Basque through all Navarre (which would include areas where it is not traditionally spoken). Basque language teaching in the public education network is therefore limited to the Basque speaking north and central regions. In the central region, Basque teaching in the public education network is fairly limited, and part of the existing demand is served via private schools or ikastolak. Spanish is spoken by the entire population, with few exceptions in remote rural areas. Unión del Pueblo Navarro or UPN (Union of the Navarrese People) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ... An Ikastola (plural Ikastolak) is a type of school in the Basque Country, Navarre and (to a much lesser extent), the French Basque Country in which students are taught either entirely or predominantly in the Basque language. ...


The situation of the Basque language in the northern Basque Country is tenuous[vague], where monolingual public schooling in French exert great pressure on the Basque language. Basque teaching is mainly in private schools, or ikastolak. An Ikastola (plural Ikastolak) is a type of school in the Basque Country, Navarre and (to a much lesser extent), the French Basque Country in which students are taught either entirely or predominantly in the Basque language. ...


Political status and violence

Since the 19th century, Basque nationalism has demanded the right of some kind of self-determination[citation needed], which is supported by 60% of Basques in the Spanish Basque country autonomous community, and independence, which would be supported in this same territory, according to a poll, by approximately 25% [3] of them, proving that the desire for independence is steadily decreasing as this is 5% less than in the previous poll. This desire for independence is particularly stressed among leftist Basque nationalists. The right of self-determination was asserted by the Basque Parliament in 1990, 2002 and 2006.[5] Since[citation needed] self-determination is not recognized in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, some Basques abstained and some even voted against it in the referendum of December 6 of that year. However, it was approved by a clear majority at the Spanish level, and simple majority at Navarrese and Basque levels. The derived autonomous regimes for the BAC was approved in later referendum but the autonomy of Navarre (amejoramiento del fuero: "improvement of the charter") was never subject to referendum but just approved by the Navarrese Cortes (parliament). There are not many sources on the issue for the French Basque country. Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Left wing redirects here. ... The Basque Parliament (Castillian Spanish Parlamento Vasco, Basque Eusko Legebiltzarra) is the autonomous legislative body of the Basque Country and the elected assembly before which the Basque Government is responsible. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ...


ETA

Main article: ETA

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) is recognized as a terrorist organization by the European Union an United States. In 2006 ETA declared a "permanent ceasefire", after nearly 40 years fighting for independence from Spanish and French authorities. In June 2007 ETA officially ended the "permanent ceasefire". For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of ETA, see Eta. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Sports

Miguel Indurain won the Tour de France five times consecutively
Miguel Indurain won the Tour de France five times consecutively

The Basque Country has also contributed some sportsmen, primarily in football, cycling, jai-alai, rugby union and surfing. Image File history File linksMetadata Xabi_Alonso. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Xabi_Alonso. ... {{Football club infobox | clubname = Liverpool FC | image = fullname = Liverpool FC | nickname = The Reds | founded = 1892 | ground = Anfield | capacity = 45,000 | chairman = D.R.Moores | Chief Executive Officer = R.N.Parry | manager = Rafael Benitez | league = FA Premiership | season = 2005-06 | position = FA premiership, 5th | pattern_la1=|pattern_b1=|pattern_ra1=| leftarm1=FFFFFF|body1=FF0000... Xabier Alonso Olano, commonly known as Xabi Alonso (born 25 November 1981 in Tolosa, Basque Region, Spain) is a Basque footballer who plays for Liverpool F.C.. He wears the number 14 shirt at Liverpool and is a central midfielder, often playing as a deep-lying playmaker. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (650x889, 148 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Miguel Induráin Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (650x889, 148 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Miguel Induráin Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... Jai-Alai (IPA: in English and IPA: in Basque) means Merry Festival in the Basque language. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ...


The main sport in the Basque Country, as in the rest of Spain and much of France, is football. The top teams Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad, Osasuna, Eibar, Alavés and Barakaldo are a fixture in the Spanish national league. Athletic Bilbao has a policy of hiring only Basque players. This policy has been applied with variable flexibility. Soccer redirects here. ... Athletic Club is a Spanish football club from Bilbao in Biscay, Basque Country, Spain. ... Real Sociedad is a Spanish football club from the Basque city of San Sebastián/Donostia in Guipúzcoa/Gipuzkoa. ... Club Atlético Osasuna, usually known as Osasuna, is a Spanish Primera División football club based in Pamplona in Navarra, founded in 1920. ... Sociedad Deportiva Eibar are a Spanish football team from Eibar in Guipúzcoa. ... Deportivo Alavés, usually abbreviated to Alavés, is a Spanish Segunda División football club based in Vitoria-Gasteiz in the Basque Country. ... Barakaldo Club de Fútbol is a football team based in Barakaldo in the autonomous community of Basque Country. ... (Professional Football League), commonly known as the Primera División or simply La Liga, is the top professional football league in Spain. ...


Cycling as a sport is very popular in the Basque Country. Cycling races often see Basque fans lining the roads wearing orange, the corporate color of the telco Euskaltel, coining the term the orange crush during the Pyrenees stages of the Tour de France. Euskaltel is a telecommunications company based in the Spanish autonomous community Basque Country, with its headquarters in Bilbao. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ...


The Navarrese cyclist Miguel Induráin (now retired) was the first to win the Tour de France five consecutive times, and has also won the Giro d'Italia and the World Cycling Championship in the discipline of individual time trial. Fellow Basque cyclist Abraham Olano has won the Vuelta a España and the World Cycling Championship. Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, Navarre) is a retired Spanish road bicycle racer. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... The Giro dItalia, also simply known as the Giro, is a long distance road bicycle racing stage race for professional cyclists held over three weeks in May or early June in and around Italy. ... The UCI Road World Championships, often referred to as the World Cycling Championships, is the annual world championship for bicycle road racing organized by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). ... An Individual Time Trial (ITT) is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock (in French: contre la montre - literally against the watch). There are also track-based time trials where riders compete in velodromes, and team time trials (TTT). ... Abraham Olano Manzano (born on January 22, 1970 in Anoeta, Spain) is a former professional cyclist from Spain. ... The Vuelta a España bicycle race is one of the three Grand Tours of Europe. ...


The Euskaltel-Euskadi cycling team is a commercial team. Present and former members of the team have been strong contenders in the Tour de France held annually in July and La Vuelta a España held in September. Team leaders have included riders such as Iban Mayo, Haimar Zubeldia and David Etxebarria. Euskaltel-Euskadi is a professional road bicycle racing team. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... The Vuelta a España bicycle race is one of the three Grand Tours of Europe. ... Iban Mayo Diez (born August 19, 1977, in Igorre, Basque Country, Spain) is a professional road bicycle racer. ... Haimar Zubeldia (born April 1, 1977 in Usurbil) is a Spanish cyclist who rides for Euskaltel-Euskadi in the UCI ProTour. ... David Etxebarria Alkorta (Abandino, July 23, 1973) is a Spanish professional cyclist. ...


In the north, rugby union is another popular sport with the Basque community. In Biarritz, the local club is Biarritz Olympique Pays Basque, the name referencing the club's Basque heritage. They wear red, white and green, and supporters wave the Basque flag in the stands. They also recognize 16 other clubs as "Basque-friendly". The most famous Biarritz & Basque player is the legendary French fullback Serge Blanco, whose mother was Basque. Michel Celaya captained both Biarritz and France. French number 8 Imanol Harinordoquy, currently battling injury problems, is also a Biarritz & Basque player. Before the banning of rugby league in 1940, a Basque club was the last to celebrate winning the cup. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Biarritz (French: Biarritz, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan: Biàrritz; Basque: Miarritze) is a town and commune which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in southwestern France. ... Official website www. ... Ikurriña The Ikurriña flag is a Basque symbol and the official flag of the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community (Comunidad Autónomas) of contemporary Spain. ... Serge Blanco (born 31 August 1958 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a former rugby union footballer who played fullback for Biarritz Olympique and France, gaining 93 caps, 81 at fullback. ... Imanol Harinordoquy (born 20 February 1980 in Bayonne) is a French rugby union player who typically plays as a number 8 for France internationally and Biarritz at club level. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ...


Aviron Bayonnais is another top club with some Basque ties. Official website www. ...


Pelota (Jai Alai) is the Basque version of the European game family that includes real tennis and squash. Basque players, playing for either the Spanish or the French teams, dominate international competitions. A game of pelote as played in Ustaritz Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor... Now defunct Milford Jai-Alai Fronton in Milford, Connecticut. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball...


Mountaineering is favoured by the mountainous character of Basque terrain and nearness of the Pyrenees. Juanito Oiarzabal (from Vitoria), holds the world record for number of climbs above 8,000 meters, with 21. There are also great sport climbers in the Basque Country, such as, Josune Bereziartu, the only female to have climbed the grade 9a/5.14d; and Iker Pou, one of the most versatile climbers in the world. An open crevasse. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vitoria (population: 224,965 (2004 est), is the capital city of the province of Álava and of the Comunidad Vasca Spanish autonomous region, though it is the second city of the region by population. ... Josune Bereziartu (born January 19, 1972) is a Basque rock climber. ...


One of the top basketball clubs in Europe, Tau Cerámica, is located in Vitoria-Gasteiz. This article is about the sport. ... Saski Baskonia SAD is a Spanish basketball club from the Basque city of Vitoria-Gasteiz. ... Haec est Victoria quae vincit (This is Victoria which triumphed) Location Location of Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spain Coordinates : 42°51′ N 2°41′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish) Spanish name Vitoria-Gasteiz Founded 1181 Postal code 01001-01080...


In recent years surfing has taken off on the Basque shores, and Mundaka and Biarritz have become spots on the world surf circuit. For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... Mundaka is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Biarritz (French: Biarritz, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan: Biàrritz; Basque: Miarritze) is a town and commune which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in southwestern France. ...


Traditional Basque sports

Main article: Basque rural sports

A harrijasotzaile lifting the stone Basque rural sports, known as Herri Kirolak in Basque, is the term used for a number of sports competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyles of the Basque people. ...

See also

Basque Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... Basque cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of the cuisine of the Basque people in Spain. ... Ancient Basque mythology is centered around the figure of the goddess Mari, and her consort Sugaar (also called Maju). ... This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. ... Dominique Joseph Garat Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga Pablo de Sarasate Jacques Laffitte Ignatius of Loyola Juan Sebastián Elcano Catalina de Erauso Michèle Alliot-Marie Jose Antonio Aguirre Juan Jose Ibarretxe Sabino Arana General Tomás de Zumalacárregui Xabi Alonso Miguel Indurain Léopold Eyharts This is a...

References

  1. ^ Erromintxela: Notas para una investigación sociolingüística, Oscar Vizarraga.
  2. ^ "La mezcla del pueblo vasco", Empiria: Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales, ISSN 1139-5737, Nº 1, 1998, pags. 121-180.
  3. ^ Ilkka Nordberg. Regionalism and revenue. The moderate Basque Nationalist Party, PNV, 1980–1998. Doctoral dissertation: Department of History, University of Helsinki, 2005
  4. ^ Basque language - English Pen
  5. ^ EITB: Basque parliament adopts resolution on self-determination

University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Basque Portal
Image File history File links Lauburu. ... Guipuscoa province. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ...

 
 

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