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Encyclopedia > Basiliscus
Basiliscus
Dominus Noster Perpetuus Augustus
Solidus celebrating Basiliscus as Augustus of the Byzantine Empire and his victories.
Reign January 9, 475 – August 476
Full name Flavius Basiliscus
Died winter 476477
Cappadocia
Predecessor Zeno, deposed
Successor Zeno, restored
Wife/wives Aelia Zenonis
Issue Marcus, Caesar and later joint Augustus
Royal House House of Leo

Flavius Basiliscus[1] (d. 476/477) was a Eastern Roman Emperor of the House of Leo, who ruled briefly (9 January 475–August 476), when Emperor Zeno had been forced out of Constantinople by a revolt. Species Basiliscus basiliscus Basiliscus galeritus Basiliscus plumifrons Basiliscus vittatus Basiliscus is a genus of lizards that includes the basilisks. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... It has been suggested that Eastern Roman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Events Huneric becomes king of Vandals Aelle king of the South Saxons, arrives in England, with his three sons, near Cymenshore. ... Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The House of Leo which ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 457 to 518 (and varying parts of the Western Roman Empire from 474 to 480). ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... The House of Leo which ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 457 to 518 (and varying parts of the Western Roman Empire from 474 to 480). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Basiliscus was the brother of Empress Aelia Verina, the wife of Emperor Leo I (457–474). His relationship with the emperor allowed him to pursue a military career that, after minor initial successes, ended in 468, when he led the disastrous Byzantine invasion of Vandal Africa, in one of the largest military operations of Late Antiquity. Aelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne. ... Leo I coin. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ...


Basiliscus succeeded in seizing power in 475, exploiting the unpopularity of Emperor Zeno, the "barbarian" successor to Leo, and a plot organised by Verina that had caused Zeno to flee Constantinople. However, during his short rule, Basiliscus alienated the fundamental support of the Church and the people of Constantinople, promoting the Monophysite christological position in opposition to the widely accepted Chalcedonian faith. Also, his policy of securing his power through the appointment of loyal men to key roles antagonised many important figures in the imperial court, including his sister Verina. So, when Zeno tried to regain his empire, he found virtually no opposition, triumphally entering Constantinople, and capturing and killing Basiliscus and his family. See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. ... The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. ...


The struggle between Basiliscus and Zeno impeded the intervention of the Eastern Empire in the fall of the Western Roman Empire, which happened in early September 476. When the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer, deposed Western Emperor Romulus Augustus, sending the imperial regalia to Constantinople, Zeno had just regained his throne, and he could only appoint Odoacer dux of Italy, thereby ending the Western Roman Empire. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ...

Contents

Origins and early career

Tremissis issued in the name of Aelia Verina, wife and later widow of Emperor Leo I. As sister of Basiliscus, Verina helped him in both his military and political career — even if unwillingly supporting his bid for the purple.

Likely of Balkan origin,[2] Basiliscus was the brother of Aelia Verina, wife of Leo I. It has been argued that Basiliscus was uncle to the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer. This link is based on the interpretation of a fragment by John of Antioch (209.1), which states that Odoacer and Armatus, Basiliscus' nephew, were brothers.[3] However, not all scholars accept this interpretation, since sources do not say anything about the foreign origin of Basiliscus.[4] It is known that Basiliscus had a wife, Zenonis, and at least one son, Marcus. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tremissis was a currency of the Late Ancient Rome, equal to one-third of solidus. ... Aelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne. ... Leo I coin. ... ... Aelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne. ... Leo I coin. ... John of Antioch was bishop of Antioch A.D. 429-441 and led a group of moderate Eastern bishops during the Nestorian controversy. ... Flavius Armatus (d. ...


Basiliscus' military career started under Leo I. The emperor conferred upon his brother-in-law the dignities of dux, or commander-in-chief, in Thrace.[5] In this country Basiliscus led a successful military campaign against the Bulgars in 463. He succeeded Rusticius as Magister militum per Thracias (464), and had several successes against the Goths and Huns (466 or 467).[6] Thraciae veteris typvs. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Events Childeric I, king of the Salian Franks, allies with the Roman general Aegidus against the Visigoths. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ...


Basiliscus's value rose in Leo's consideration. Verina's intercession in favour of her brother helped Basiliscus' military and political career, with the conferral of the consulship in 465 and possibly of the rank of patricius.[7] However, his rise was soon to meet a serious reversal.[2] Consul (abbrev. ... Events Song Qian Fei Di, then Song Ming Di become ruler of the Song Dynasty in China. ... Patricians (patricii) were originally the elite caste in ancient Rome. ...


Disastrous expedition against the Vandals

Cap Bon, in modern Tunisia is the place where the Byzantine fleet led by Basiliscus landed to launch an attack upon the Vandal capital of Carthage.
Cap Bon, in modern Tunisia is the place where the Byzantine fleet led by Basiliscus landed to launch an attack upon the Vandal capital of Carthage.

In 468, Leo chose Basiliscus as leader of the famous military expedition against Carthage. The invasion of the kingdom of the Vandals was one of the greatest military undertakings recorded in the an­nals of history, a combined amphibious operation with over ten thousand ships and one hundred thousand soldiers. The purpose of the operation was to punish the Vandal king Geiseric for the Sack of Rome (455), in which the former capital of the Western Roman Empire had been overwhelmed, and the Empress Licinia Eudoxia (widow of Emperor Valentinian III) and her daughters had been taken as hostages.[2][5] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 702 pixel, file size: 148 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cap Bon Peninsula in Tunisia File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 702 pixel, file size: 148 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cap Bon Peninsula in Tunisia File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Cap Bon seen from space (false color) Cap Bon is a peninsula in far northeastern Tunisia. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Events March 3 - Simplicius succeeds Hilarius as Pope The Vandal fleet overpowers the navy of Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Huns again invade Dacia but are once more repelled by the eastern emperor Leo I. Births Deaths February 29 - Pope Hilarius Gunabhadra Categories: 468 ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... The second of three barbarian sacks of Rome, the sack of 455 was at the hands of the Vandals, then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ...


The plan was concerted between Eastern Emperor Leo, Western Emperor Anthemius, and General Marcellinus, who enjoyed independence in Illyricum. Basiliscus was ordered to sail directly to Carthage, while Marcellinus attacked and took Sardinia, and a third army, commanded by Heraclius of Edessa, landed on the Libyan coast east of Carthage, making rapid progress. It appears that the combined forces met in Sicily, whence the three fleets moved at different periods.[5] Procopius Anthemius (c. ... Marcellinus (died August, 468) was a Roman general and patrician who ruled over the region of Dalmatia in the Western Roman Empire and held sway with the army there from 454 until his death. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Ancient and modern historians provided different estimations for the number of ships and troops under the command of Basiliscus, as well as for the expenses of the expedition. Both were enor­mous; Nicephorus Gregoras speaks of one hundred thousand ships, the more reliable Cedrenus says that the fleet that attacked Carthage consisted of eleven hundred and thirteen ships, having each one hun­dred men on board.[8] The most conservative estimation for expedition expenses is of 64,000 pounds of gold, a sum that exceeded a whole year's revenue.[9] Nicephorus Gregoras (c. ... Georgios Kedrenos, also known as George Cedrenus, was a Byzantine historian of the mid eleventh century CE. In the 1050s he compiled A Concise History of the World, spanning the time from the biblical Creation until his own day. ...


Sardinia and Libya were already conquered by Marcellinus and Heraclius, when Basiliscus cast anchor off the Promontorium Mercurii, now Cap Bon, opposite Sicily, about forty miles from Carthage. Geiseric requested Basiliscus to allow him five days in order to draw up the conditions of a peace.[10] During the negotiations, Geiseric gathered his ships and suddenly attacked the Roman fleet. The Vandals had filled many vessels with combustible materials. During the night, these fire ships were propelled against the unguarded and unsuspecting Roman fleet. The Byzantine commanders tried to rescue some ships from destruction, but these manoeuvres were blocked by the attack of other Vandal vessels.[5] Cap Bon seen from space (false color) Cap Bon is a peninsula in far northeastern Tunisia. ... This article is not about the fireboats that fight fire Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts Drakes fire ship attack on the Spanish Armada. ...

Hagia Sophia (here shown in the form presented after the reconstruction ordered by Emperor Justinian I in 537) protected Basiliscus from the emperor's wrath, after the disastrous campaign against the Vandals. Basiliscus chose a church as hideout twice in his life, but this saved his life only once.
Hagia Sophia (here shown in the form presented after the reconstruction ordered by Emperor Justinian I in 537) protected Basiliscus from the emperor's wrath, after the disastrous campaign against the Vandals. Basiliscus chose a church as hideout twice in his life, but this saved his life only once.

Basiliscus fled in the heat of the battle.[11] One half of the Roman fleet was burned, sunk, or captured, and the other half followed the fugitive Basilis­cus. The whole expedition had failed. Heraclius effected his retreat through the desert into Tripolitania, holding the position for two years until recalled; Marcellinus retired to Sicily, where he was reached by Basiliscus;[12] the general was, however, assassinated, perhaps at the instigation of Ricimer, by one of his own captains; and the king of the Vandals expressed his surprise and satisfaction, that the Romans themselves would remove from the world his most formidable antagonists.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Ricimers monogram is struck on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ...


After returning to Constantinople, Basiliscus hid in the church of Hagia Sophia to escape the wrath of the people and the revenge of the emperor. By the mediation of Verina, Basiliscus obtained the imperial pardon, and was punished merely with banishment to Heraclea Sintica, in Thrace.[13] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Rise to power

In 471 and 472, Basiliscus helped Leo I to get rid of the Germanic influence in his court, helping in the murder of the Alan Magister militum Aspar. The death of Aspar caused a revolt in Thrace, led by the Thracian Ostrogoth Theodoric Strabo, and Basiliscus was dispatched to suppress the revolt, something he successfully did with the aid of his nephew Armatus. In 474 he received the rank of caput senatus, "first among the senators".[6] The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Flavius Ardabur Aspar (? - 471), an Alan, was the magister militum (Master of Soldiers) of the Byzantine Empire. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Theodoric Strabo[1] (d. ... Flavius Armatus (d. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ...


At the death of Leo, Zeno, who was a "barbarian" of Isaurian stock, but at the same time son-in-law of Leo, ascended to emperor, after a short reign of his own son Leo II (474). The "barbarian" origins of the emperor caused antipathy towards Zeno in the people of Constantinople. Furthermore, the strong Germanic portion of the military, led by Theodoric Strabo, disliked the Isaurian officers that Leo I brought to reduce his dependency on the Ostrogoths. Finally, Zeno alienated his fellow Isaurian general Illus, who was bribed by Basiliscus. In the middle of the conspiracy was Verina, who fomented a popular revolt against the emperor. The uprising, supported by Theodoric Strabo, Illus and Armatus, was successful, and Verina convinced the emperor to leave the city. Zeno fled to his native lands, bringing with him some of the Isaurians living in Constantinople, and the imperial treasury. Basiliscus was then acclaimed as Augustus on 9 January 475[14] at the Hebdomon palace, by the palace ministers and the Senate.[15] The mob of Constantinople got its revenge against Zeno, killing almost all of the Isaurians left in the city.[13][12] Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Leo Augustus or Leo II (467- November 17, 474) served as Eastern Roman Emperor from January 18 to November 17, 474. ... Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Tremissis issued by Emperor Zeno. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Bakırköy from sea side. ...


In the beginning, everything seemed to go well for the new emperor, who even tried to set up a new dynasty by conferring the title of Augusta upon his wife Aelia Zenonis and creating his son Marcus, Caesar, and later Augustus;[16] however, due to his mismanagement as emperor, Basiliscus quickly lost most of his supporters. Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminin form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ...


Rule

Corruption and the fire of Constantinople

The most urgent problem facing the new emperor was the scarcity of resources left in the imperial treasury. Basiliscus was forced to raise heavy taxes, and to revert to the practice of auctioning the offices, obviously causing a diffuse discontent in the population. He also extorted money from the church, with the help of the Prefect Epinicus, Verina's long-time favourite.[12]


Early in his reign, Constantinople suffered a massive fire, which destroyed houses, churches, and completely incinerated the huge library built by Emperor Julian.[17] The fire was seen as a bad omen for the rule of Basiliscus.[13] Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...


Tensions with his collaborators

Basiliscus had relied on the support of some major figures of the court in his bid for power. However, he quickly lost most of them. First, Basiliscus alienated his own sister Verina's support, executing the Magister Officiorum Patricius. Patricius was the lover of Verina, and the empress had planned to raise him to the imperial rank and to marry him: the very revolt against Zeno had been organised to make Patricius emperor. Basiliscus, however, had out-witted his sister, and, after the flight of Zeno, had the ministers and the Senate choose him, and not Patricius, as Byzantine ruler. Basiliscus ordered the death of Patricius, as the officer was a natural candidate to overthrow the new emperor; as a consequence, Verina later intrigued against Basiliscus, because of her lover's execution.[18] In Late Antiquity, the Roman position of magister officiorum (lat. ...


Also, Theodoric Strabo, whose hatred of the Isaurian Zeno had compelled him to support Basiliscus' revolt, left the new emperor's side. Basiliscus had in fact raised his own nephew Armatus, who was rumoured to be also the lover of Basiliscus' wife, to the rank of magister militum, the same that Strabo held. Finally, the support of Illus was most likely wavering, given the massacre of the Isaurians allowed by Basiliscus.[5][12]


Religious controversies

In that time, the Christian faith was shaken by the contrast between Monophysites and Chalcedonians. These were two opposing christological positions; the Monophysites claimed Christ had only the divine nature, the Chalcedonians maintained that he had both human and divine natures. The Council of Chalcedon, convoked by Emperor Marcian in 451, had ruled out Monophysitism, with the support of the pope in the West and many bishops in the East. However, the Monophysite position was still strong: the two Monophysite Patriarchs Timothy Aelurus of Alexandria and Peter Fullo of Antioch were deposed.[19] Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Another but lesser Marcian was a son-in-law of Byzantine Emperor Leo I and his queen Verina. ... His Holiness Timothy II was the Coptic Pope of Alexandria from 457 to 477. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ...


From the beginning of his rule, Basiliscus showed his support for the Monophysites. Zacharias Scholasticus reports how a group of Egyptian Monophysite monks, having heard of Emperor Leo's death, had moved from Alexandria to Constantinople to petition Zeno in favour of Timothy, but at their arrival in the capital, they found the newly elected Basiliscus instead. The Magister Officiorum Theoctistus, the former physician of Basiliscus, was the brother of one of the monks, so the delegation obtained an audience with Basiliscus, and, with the support of Theoctistus and of the empress, they convinced Basiliscus to recall from exile the banished Monophysite Patriarchs.[20]


Basiliscus re-instated Timothy Aelurus and Peter Fullo to their sees,[21] and by persuasion of the former issued (9 April 475) a circular letter (Enkyklikon) to the bishops calling them to accept as valid only the first three ecumenical synods, and reject the Council of Chalcedon.[19] All bishops were to sign the edict. While most of the Eastern bishops accepted the letter, Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople refused, with the support of the population of the city, clearly showing his disdain towards Basiliscus by draping the icons in Hagia Sophia in black.[22] Peter (surnamed Fullo, the Fuller), was intruding Patriarch of Antioch (471 - 488), and Monophysite. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Acacius (died 489) was the patriarch of Constantinople from 471 to 489. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fall and death

Tremissis issued by Emperor Zeno. Zeno, whose original name was Tarasicodissa, was of Isaurian origin, and thus considered a "barbarian" and not loved by the people of Constantinople. Basiliscus successfully exploited his unpopularity to get the purple for himself, only to become unpopular in his turn, mainly for his religious belief.
Tremissis issued by Emperor Zeno. Zeno, whose original name was Tarasicodissa, was of Isaurian origin, and thus considered a "barbarian" and not loved by the people of Constantinople. Basiliscus successfully exploited his unpopularity to get the purple for himself, only to become unpopular in his turn, mainly for his religious belief.

Soon after his elevation, Basiliscus had despatched Illus and his brother Trocundus against Zeno, who, now in his native fortresses, had resumed the life of an Isaurian chieftain. Basiliscus, however, failed to fulfil the promises he made to the two generals; furthermore, they received letters from some of the leading ministers at the court, urging them to secure the return of Zeno, for the city now preferred a restored Isaurian to a Monophysite whose unpopularity increased with the fiscal rapacity of his ministers.[13] Image File history File links Zeno AV Tremissis. ... Image File history File links Zeno AV Tremissis. ... Tremissis was a currency of the Late Ancient Rome, equal to one-third of solidus. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


During his operations in Isauria, Illus took Zeno's brother, Longinus, prisoner and kept him in an Isaurian fortress. Because he thought he would have great influence over a restored Zeno, he changed sides and marched with Zeno towards Constantinople in the summer of 476. When Basiliscus received news of this danger, he hastened to recall his ecclesiastical edicts and to conciliate the Patriarch and the people, but it was too late.[13]


Armatus, as magister militum, was sent with all available forces in Asia Minor, to oppose the advancing army of the Isaurians, but secret messages from Zeno, who promised to give him the title of magister militum for life and to confer the rank of Caesar on his son, induced him to betray his master.[23] Armatus avoided the road by which Zeno was advancing and marched into Isauria by another way. This betrayal decided the fate of Basiliscus.[13]


In August 476, Zeno besieged Constantinople.[24] The Senate opened the gates of the city to the Isaurian, allowing the deposed emperor to resume the throne. Basiliscus fled to sanctuary in a church, but he was betrayed by Acacius and surrendered himself and his family after extracting a solemn promise from Zeno not to shed their blood. Basiliscus, his wife Aelia Zenonis and his son Marcus were sent to a fortress in Cappadocia,[25] where Zeno had them enclosed in a dry cistern, to die from exposure.[2][26] Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Basiliscus had ruled for twenty months. He is described by sources as a successful general, but slow of understanding and easy to deceive.[6]


Notes

  1. ^ His full name is known only through the Fasti consulares; elsewhere, he is known simply as Basiliscus (Martindale).
  2. ^ a b c d Elton.
  3. ^ Krautschick.
  4. ^ Macgeorge.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Smith.
  6. ^ a b c Martindale.
  7. ^ Martindale. It is also possible that he attained the rank of patricius in 471/472, for helping Leo to get rid of the Germanic influence in his court, but there is a reference to Basiliscus as patricius earlier, in 468.
  8. ^ Georgius Cedrenus, through Smith.
  9. ^ Boardman.
  10. ^ Procopius suggests that Geiseric supported his request for a truce with a bribe.
  11. ^ Basiliscus' lieutenant, Joannes, when overpow­ered by the Vandals, refused the pardon that was promised him by Genso, the son of Genseric, and leaped overboard in heavy armor and drowned himself in the sea. His last words were that he could not bear to surrender to those "impious dogs" of the Vandals — the Vandals, in fact, were Arians (Procopius).
  12. ^ a b c d Friell.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Bury.
  14. ^ There exists a horoscope made on the day of Basiliscus' coronation —12 January 475, at 9 am—, probably by a supporter of Zeno. The horoscope, preserved with the horoscopes of other two usurpers of Zeno through Arab sources, correctly predicts the end of Basiliscus' rule in two years. See Barton, Tamsyn (Dec 2002). Power and knowledge: Astrology, physiognomics, and medicine under the Roman Empire. University of Michigan Press, p. 60. ISBN 0-472-08852-1. 
  15. ^ Tradition allowed the Senate to recognise an usurper, thus Basiliscus was the new lawful ruler. However it was the first military-based succession in the last one hundred years (Friell).
  16. ^ Basiliscus also issued coins celebrating the joint rule with his son Marcus;[1] Also, gold and bronze coins were minted in honour of Aelia Zenonis, Augusta[2] The coins bear the legend AVGGG, with the three 'G' referring to the three Augusti. See Yonge Akerman, John [1834] (2002). A Descriptive Catalogue of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins. Adamant Media Corporation, p. 383. ISBN 1-4021-9224-X. 
  17. ^ This library, which was housed within a basilica next to the underground cisterna built by Justinian I, contained 120,000 volumes, including the famous parchment, 35 m long, upon which were inscribed Homer's Iliad and Odyssey in golden letters.
  18. ^ Bury. According to Candidus, after the death of Patricius, Verina intrigued in favour of Zeno, but her plan was discovered by Basiliscus, and only the intercession of Armatus spared her life.
  19. ^ a b "Pope St. Simplicius", Catholic Encyclopedia.
  20. ^ Zacharias Scholasticus.
  21. ^ Samuel.
  22. ^ Evagrius Scholasticus.
  23. ^ According to Procopius, Armatus surrendered his army to Zeno, on the condition that Zeno would appoint Armatus' son Basiliscus as Caesar, and recognise him as successor to the throne upon his death. After Zeno had regained the empire, he carried out his pledge to Armatus by appointing his son, named Basiliscus, Caesar, but not long afterwards he both stripped him of the office and put Armatus to death.
  24. ^ The leader of the Pannonian Goths, Theodoric the Amal (later known as Theodoric the Great) had allied to Zeno. Theodoric would have attacked Basiliscus and his Thracian Goth foederati led by Theodoric Strabo, receiving, in exchange, the title of magister militum held by Strabo and the payments previously given to the Thracian Goths. It has been suggested that Constantinople was defenseless during Zeno's siege because the Magister Militum Strabo had moved north to counter this menace. See Heather, Peter (May 1998). Goths. Blackwell Publishing, pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-631-20932-8. 
  25. ^ Elton refers that the name of the stronghold was Limnae, while Smith has Cucusus, and Evagrius Scholasticus reports Acusus.
  26. ^ Procopius.

Georgios Kedrenos, also known as George Cedrenus, was a Byzantine historian of the mid eleventh century CE. In the 1050s he compiled A Concise History of the World, spanning the time from the biblical Creation until his own day. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminin form is Augusta. ... (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... Candidus can refer to many things. ... Evagrius Scholasticus, an ecclesiastical historian, who wrote six books, embracing a period of 163 years, from the second Council of Ephesus AD 431 to the 12th year of the emperor Maurice I, AD 594. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Göksun is a district of Kahramanmaraş Province of Turkey. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Evagrius Scholasticus, Historia Ecclesiae iii. 4–8
  • Georgius Cedrenus (1647). in Goar and Fabrot ed.: Com­pendium Historiarum ab Orbe Condita ad Isaacum Comnenum (1057) (in Latin), pp. 349–350. 
  • Procopius, Bellum Vandalicum i.6–8
  • Zacharias Scholasticus, Syriac Chronicle, v.1 [3].

Evagrius Scholasticus, an ecclesiastical historian, who wrote six books, embracing a period of 163 years, from the second Council of Ephesus AD 431 to the 12th year of the emperor Maurice I, AD 594. ... Georgios Kedrenos, also known as George Cedrenus, was a Byzantine historian of the mid eleventh century CE. In the 1050s he compiled A Concise History of the World, spanning the time from the biblical Creation until his own day. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ...

Secondary sources

  • Boardman, John (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press, p. 49. ISBN 0-521-32591-9. 
  • Friell, Gerard; and Stephen Williams (December 1998). The Rome That Did Not Fall. Routledge, pp. 184–186. ISBN 0-415-15403-0. 
  • Krautschick, Stephen (1986). "Zwei Aspekte des Jahres 476". Historia (35): pp. 344–371. 
  • Macgeorge, Penny (2003). Late Roman Warlords. Oxford University Press, pp. 284–285. ISBN 0-19-925244-0. 
  • Samuel, Vilakuvel Cherian (2001). The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined. Xlibris Corporation, pp. 134–139. ISBN 1-4010-1644-8. 

John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (usually abbreviated as PLRE) is a set of three volumes collectively describing every person attested or claimed to have lived in the Roman world from AD 260 to 641. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Basiliscus (emperor)
Preceded by
Zeno
Byzantine Emperor
475476
with Marcus (since 475)
Succeeded by
Zeno
Preceded by
Flavius Rusticius,
Flavius Anicius Olybrius
Consul of the Roman Empire
465
with Flavius Hermenericus
Succeeded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus III,
Tatianus (Gallia)
Preceded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Zeno Augustus II,
Post consulatum Leonis Augusti (East)
Consul of the Roman Empire
476
with Flavius Armatus
Vacant
Post consulatum Basilisci Augusti II et Armati
Title next held by

  Results from FactBites:
 
Basiliscus (592 words)
Basiliscus was the brother of Aelia Verina and hence emperor Leo's brother-in-law.
Basiliscus' wife Aelia Zenonis was elevated to Augusta and his son Marcus was granted the rank of Caesar.
Basiliscus also fell out with Theodoric Strabo, the powerful 'Master of Soldiers', by granting the same rank on a notorious playboy called Armatus, who apparently was the empress Aelia Zenonis' lover.
Basiliscus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (150 words)
Flavius Basiliscus was a rival Byzantine Emperor 475 - 476.
Due to his mismanagement as emperor, when the deposed emperor Zeno returned from exile and besieged Constantinople, the Senate of Constantinople opened the gates of the city to Zeno, allowing him to resume the throne.
According to the historians, Basiliscus fled to sanctuary in a church, surrendering himself and his family after extracting a solemn promise from Zeno not to shed their blood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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