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Encyclopedia > Basil
Basil
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Ocimum
Species: O. basilicum
Binomial name
Ocimum basilicum
L.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) (IPA: /ˈbeɪzəl/ or /ˈbæzəl/), of the Family Lamiaceae. Basil is a tender low-growing herb that is grown as a perennial in warm, tropical climates. Basil is originally native to India and other tropical regions of Asia, having been cultivated there for more than 5,000 years. There are many varieties of basil, that which is used in Italian food is typically called sweet basil, as opposed to Thai basil or holy basil, which are used in Asia. It is prominently featured in Italian cuisine, and also plays a major role in the Southeast Asian cuisines of Thai, Vietnamese and Laotian. It grows to between 30–130 cm tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves 3–11 cm long and 1–6 cm broad. The flowers are quite big, white in color and arranged in a terminal spike. Unusual among Lamiaceae, the four stamens and the pistil are not pushed under the upper lip of the corolla, but lay over the inferior. After entomophilous pollination, the corolla falls off and four round achenes develop inside the bilabiate calyx. The plant tastes somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, sweet smell. Basil is very sensitive to cold, with best growth in hot, dry conditions. While most common varieties are treated as annuals, some are perennial, including African Blue and Holy Thai basil. Look up basil, Basil, basal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text The Order Lamiales is a taxon in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ... Genera Many, see text Ref: Delta 2002-07-22 Lamiaceae, or the Mint family, is a family of plants in about 180 genera and some 3,500 species. ... Species About 35 species, including: Ocimum americanum Ocimum basilicum Ocimum campechianum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum tenuiflorum Ocimum is a genus of about 35 species of aromatic annual and perrenial herbs and shrubs in the family Lamiaceae, native to the tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Many, see text Ref: Delta 2002-07-22 Lamiaceae, or the Mint family, is a family of plants in about 180 genera and some 3,500 species. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) is a herb often used in Thai cusine. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A Lao meal. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata is a typical raceme. ... Genera Many, see text Ref: Delta 2002-07-22 Lamiaceae, or the Mint family, is a family of plants in about 180 genera and some 3,500 species. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ... Closeup of a bee pollinating a flower Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by insects, particularly bees, Lepidoptera (e. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... Tetramerous flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal (from Latin separatus separate + petalum petal) is a part of the flower of angiosperms or flower plants. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ...


The word basil comes from the Greek βασιλεύς (basileus), meaning "king", as it is believed to have grown above the spot where St. Constantine and Helen discovered the Holy Cross. The Oxford English Dictionary quotes speculations that basil may have been used in "some royal unguent, bath, or medicine". Basil is still considered the "king of herbs" by many cookery authors. An alternative etymology has "basil" coming from the Latin word basilicus, meaning dragon and being the root for basilisk, but this likely was a linguistic reworking of the word as brought from Greece. A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Basilisk (disambiguation). ...

Fresh basil leaves.
Fresh basil leaves.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2617x1745, 3261 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pesto Basil Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2617x1745, 3261 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pesto Basil Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner...

Culinary use

Dried basil leaves.
Dried basil leaves.

Basil is most commonly recommended to be used fresh; in cooked recipes it is generally added at the last moment, as cooking quickly destroys the flavour. The fresh herb can be kept for a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling water. The dried herb also loses most of its flavour, and what little flavour remains tastes very different, with a weak coumarin flavour, like hay. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1856x1172, 374 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Basil ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1856x1172, 374 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Basil ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Blanching The first step in blanching green beans Blanching is a cooking term that describes a process of food preparation wherein the food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval and finally plunged into... Coumarin is a chemical compound; a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ...

Basil seeds
Basil seeds

Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto—a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce from the city of Genoa, its other two main ingredients being olive oil and pine nuts. The most commonly used Mediterranean basil cultivars are "Genovese", "Purple Ruffles", "Mammoth", "Cinnamon", "Lemon", "Globe", and "African Blue". Chinese also use fresh or dried basils in soups and other foods. In Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves into thick soups (羹湯; gēngtāng). They also eat fried chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. Pesto (italian pron. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... KFCs Fried chicken with french fries. ...

A can of basil seed drink
A can of basil seed drink

Basil is sometimes used with fresh fruit and in fruit jams and sauces—in particular with strawberries, but also raspberries or dark-colored plums. Arguably the flat-leaf basil used in Vietnamese cooking, which has a slightly different flavour, is more suitable for use with fruit. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (400x800, 328 KB)Image taken by TheKMan on April 24, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (400x800, 328 KB)Image taken by TheKMan on April 24, 2006. ...


Basil seeds

When soaked in water the seeds of several basil varieties become gelatinous, and are used in Asian drinks and desserts such as falooda or sherbet. Such seeds are known variously as sabja, subja, takmaria, tukmaria, falooda, or hột é. They are used for their medicinal properties in Ayurveda, the traditional medicinal system of India. A glass of falooda Falooda is a South Asian refreshment drink made by mixing milk, vermicelli, basil seeds (sabja/takmaria), tutti frutti and sugar along with ice cream. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient Hindu system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ...


Other basils

See List of basil cultivars

Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species, are grown in many regions of Asia. Most of the Asian basils have a clove-like flavour that is generally stronger than the Mediterranean basils. The most notable is the holy basil or tulsi (Tamil: கி௫ஷ்ண துளசி), a revered home-grown plant in India. In China, the local cultivar is called 九層塔 (jiǔ-kéng-tǎ; literally "nine-level pagoda"), while the imported varieties are specifically called 羅勒 (luó-lè) or 巴西里 (bā-xī-lǐ), although [巴西里] often refers to another different kind plant--parsley. This is a list of breeds of basil: Sweet basil -- the main kind, has a strong clove scent when fresh -- 605,000 on google Holy basil -- also Sacred Basil or Tulsi, a perennial breed from the country of basils origin, India -- 278,000 Thai Basil -- strong clove scent from... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. The Tulsi (also known as Tulasi) plant or Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is an important symbol in many Hindu religious traditions. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Myanmars Shwedagon Pagoda is one of the most recognizable and revered pagodas in the Buddhist World A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia For other uses, see Pagoda (disambiguation). ... This article is about the herb. ...


Lemon basil has a strong lemony smell and flavour very different from those of other varieties because it contains a chemical called citral. It is widely used in Indonesia, where it is called kemangi and served raw, together with raw cabbage, green beans, and cucumber, as an accompaniment to fried fish or duck. Its flowers, broken up, are a zesty salad condiment. Lemon basil has small leaves and is called bai maengluk in both Thai and Lao. ... Geranial Neral Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either of a pair of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O. The two compounds are double bond isomers. ...


Chemical components

The various basils have such different scents because the herb has a number of different essential oils which come together in different proportions for various breeds. The strong clove scent of sweet basil comes from eugenol, the same chemical as actual cloves. The citrus scent of lemon basil and lime basil is because they have a higher portion of citral which causes this effect in several plants, including lemon mint, and limonene, which gives actual lemon peel its scent. African blue basil has a strong camphor smell because it has camphor and camphene in higher proportions. Licorice Basil contains anethole, the same chemical that makes anise smell like licorice, and in fact is sometimes called Anise Basil. An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Eugenol (C10H12O2), is an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol, i. ... Geranial Neral Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either of a pair of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O. The two compounds are double bond isomers. ... Binomial name Monarda citriodora Lemon mint (Monarda citriodora) also called purple horse mint or lemon beebalm, is, as the names imply, a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), which has a citrus smell when crushed, reminiscent of the fruit of the actual lemon plant, and which has purple flowers that... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Camphene is bicyclic monoterpene. ... Anethole Anethole (or trans-anethole) is an aromatic compound that accounts for the distinctive licorice flavor of anise, fennel, and star anise. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Species Glycyrrhiza acanthocarpa Glycyrrhiza aspera Glycyrrhiza astragalina Glycyrrhiza bucharica Glycyrrhiza echinata Glycyrrhiza eurycarpa Glycyrrhiza foetida Glycyrrhiza glabra Glycyrrhiza iconica Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi Glycyrrhiza lepidota Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Glycyrrhiza triphylla Glycyrrhiza uralensis Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ...


Other chemicals helping produce the distinctive scents of many basils, depending on their proportion in each specific breed, including:

The compound (E)-beta-caryophyllene (BCP) found in cannabis is also found in oregano and could help to treat inflammatory bowel diseases and arthritis[2]. It interacts selectively with one of two cannabinoid receptors, CB2, blocking the chemical signals that lead to inflammation without triggering cannabis's mood-altering effects[3]. The compound is the only product identified in nature that activates CB2 selectively[4]. Herbs such as basil and oregano contain large amounts of the compound[5]. Cinnamic acid has the formula C6H5CHCHCOOH and is an odorless white crystalline acid, which is slightly soluble in water. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Citronellol, or dihydrogeraniol, is a natural acyclic monoterpenoid. ... Not to be confused with germanium. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Citronella is a word used for several things, including: One of several Cymbopogon grasses The insect-repelling Citronella oil a species of geranium known as the mosquito plant or citronella plant Category: ... Geraniol, also called rhodinol, is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol. ... Not to be confused with germanium. ... Linalool (IPA: ) is a naturally-occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Estragole, or p-allylanisole or methyl chavicol, is a natural organic compound. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is an olefinic natural organic compound. ... In geography, a bay or gulf is a collection of water that is surrounded by land on three sides. ... Species See text. ... The chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic terpene known as a monoterpene. ... Ocimene refers to several isomeric organic compounds. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ...


Cultivation

Basil sprout at an early stage
Basil sprout at an early stage

Basil thrives in hot weather, but behaves as an annual if there is any chance of a frost. In Northern Europe, the northern states of the U.S., and the South Island of New Zealand it will grow best if sown under glass in a peat pot, then planted out in late spring/early summer (when there is little chance of a frost). It fares best in a well-drained sunny spot. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A young basil sprout. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A young basil sprout. ... Peas are an annual plant. ...


Although basil will grow best outdoors, it can be grown indoors in a pot and, like most herbs, will do best on an equator-facing windowsill. It should be kept away from extremely cold drafts, and grows best in strong sunlight, therefore a greenhouse or Row cover is ideal if available. They can, however, be grown even in a basement, under fluorescent lights. The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... In agriculture, row cover is any material used as a protective covering to shield plants, usually vegetables, primarily from the undesirable effects of cold and wind, and also from insect damage. ...


If its leaves have wilted from lack of water, it will recover if watered thoroughly and placed in a sunny location. Yellow leaves towards the bottom of the plant are an indication that the plant needs more sunlight or less fertilizer.


In sunnier climates such as Southern Europe, the southern states of the U.S., the North Island of New Zealand, and Australia, basil will thrive when planted outside. It also thrives over the summertime in the central and northern United States, but dies out when temperatures reach freezing point. It will grow back the next year if allowed to go to seed. It will need regular watering, but not as much attention as is needed in other climates.


Basil can also be propagated very reliably from cuttings in exactly the same manner as Busy Lizzie (Impatiens), with the stems of short cuttings suspended for two weeks or so in water until roots develop. Categories: Plant stubs | Flowers | Ericales ...


If a stem successfully produces mature flowers, leaf production slows or stops on any stem which flowers, the stem becomes woody, and essential oil production declines.To prevent this, a basil-grower may pinch off any flower stems before they are fully mature. Because only the blooming stem is so affected, some can be pinched for leaf production, while others are left to bloom for decoration or seeds.


Once the plant is allowed to flower, it may produce seed pods containing small black seeds which can be saved and planted the following year. Picking the leaves off the plant helps "promote growth", largely because the plant responds by converting pairs of leaflets next to the topmost leaves into new stems.


Diseases

Basil suffers from several plant pathogens that can ruin the crop and reduce yield. Fusarium wilt is a soilbourne fungal disease that will quickly kill younger basil plants. Seedlings may also be killed by Pythium damping off. In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is a measure of the yield per unit area of land under cultivation. ... Panama disease, also known as Fusarium wilt, is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... A genus of fungi within the phylum Oomycota, class Oomycetes, order Peronosporales, family Pythiaceae, the water mold pythium is known for its role as a plant parasite. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


A common foliar disease of basil is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea, can also cause infections post-harvest and is capable of killing the entire plant. Black spot can also be seen on basil foliage and is caused by the fungi genus Colletotrichum. “Foliage” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Noble rot be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel 1945 Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that affects many plant species, although its most economically important hosts are wine grapes[]. In viticulture, it is commonly known as botrytis bunch rot; in horticulture, it is usually called grey mould or gray mold. ... <= Black spot This article is about the disease of roses, for blackspot of strawberries see Colletotrichum acutatum, for the definition relating to pirates, see The Black Spot. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Colletotrichum acutatum Colletotrichum arachidis Colletotrichum capsici Colletotrichum coccodes Colletotrichum crassipes Colletotrichum dematium Colletotrichum derridis Colletotrichum destructivum Colletotrichum fragariae Colletotrichum gossypii Colletotrichum higginsianum Colletotrichum kahawae Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Colletotrichum lini Colletotrichum mangenotii Colletotrichum musae Colletotrichum nigrum Colletotrichum orbiculare Colletotrichum pisi Colletotrichum sublineolum Colletotrichum trichellum Colletotrichum trifolii Colletotrichum truncatum . ...


Health effects

Recently, there has been much research into the health benefits conferred by the essential oils found in basil. Scientific studies have established that compounds in basil oil have potent antioxidant hence anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-viral, and anti-microbial properties.[6][7][8][9] In addition, basil has been shown to decrease the occurrence of platelet aggregation and experimental thrombus in mice.[10] It is traditionally used for supplementary treatment of stress, asthma and diabetes in India.[11] Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... For Trombe wall (used in solar homes), see Trombe wall. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ...


Basil, like other aromatic plants such as fennel and tarragon, contains estragole, a known carcinogen and teratogen in rats and mice. While human effects are currently unstudied, the rodent experiments indicate that it would take 100–1000 times the normal anticipated exposure to become a cancer risk.[12] Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Estragole, or p-allylanisole or methyl chavicol, is a natural organic compound. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster-birth, which derives from teratology, the study of the frequency, causation, and development of congenital malformations—misleadingly called birth defects. ...


Cultural aspects

Flowering basil stalk
Flowering basil stalk

There are many rituals and beliefs associated with basil. The French call basil "l'herbe royale". Jewish folklore suggests it adds strength while fasting. It is a symbol of love in present-day Italy, but represented hatred in ancient Greece, and European lore sometimes claims that basil is a symbol of Satan. African legend claims that basil protects against scorpions, while the English botanist Culpeper cites one "Hilarius, a French physician" as affirming it as common knowledge that smelling basil too much would breed scorpions in the brain. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 105 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 105 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... Nicholas Culpeper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Holy Basil, also called 'Tulsi', is highly revered in Hinduism and also has religious significance in the Greek Orthodox Church, where it is used to prepare holy water. It is said to have been found around Christ's tomb after his resurrection. The Serbian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church and Romanian Orthodox Church use basil (Macedonian: босилек; Romanian: busuioc, Serbian: босиљак) to prepare holy water and pots of basil are often placed below church altars. Binomial name Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. The Tulsi (also known as Tulasi) plant or Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is an important symbol in many Hindu religious traditions. ... Binomial name Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. The Tulsi (also known as Tulasi) plant or Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is an important symbol in many Hindu religious traditions. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Transliteration: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


In Europe, they place basil in the hands of the dead to ensure a safe journey. In India, they place it in the mouth of the dying to ensure they reach God. The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks believed that it would open the gates of heaven for a person passing on.


In Boccaccio's Decameron a memorably morbid tale (novella V) tells of Lisabetta, whose brothers slay her lover. He appears to her in a dream and shows her where he is buried. She secretly disinters the head, and sets it in a pot of basil, which she waters with her daily tears. The pot being taken from her by her brothers, she dies of her grief not long after. Boccaccio's tale is the source of John Keats' poem Isabella or The Pot of Basil. A similar story is told of the Longobard queen Rosalind. Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... The Decameron is a collection of novellas that was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1353. ... Keats redirects here. ... Isabella, or the Pot of Basil (1818) is a narrative poem by John Keats adapted from a story in Boccaccios Decameron (IV, 5). ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Rosalind is a moon of Uranus. ...


References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b J. Janick (ed.), James E. Simon, Mario R. Morales, Winthrop B. Phippen, Roberto Fontes Vieira, and Zhigang Hao, "Basil: A Source of Aroma Compounds and a Popular Culinary and Ornamental Herb", reprinted from: Perspectives on new crops and new uses (1999), ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, ISBN 978-0-9615027-0-6.
  2. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2008/June/24060801.asp
  3. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2008/June/24060801.asp
  4. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2008/June/24060801.asp
  5. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2008/June/24060801.asp
  6. ^ Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Simin N, Anackov G (March 2006). "Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (5): 1822–8. doi:10.1021/jf051922u. PMID 16506839. 
  7. ^ Chiang LC, Ng LT, Cheng PW, Chiang W, Lin CC (October 2005). "Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum". Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 (10): 811–6. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2005.04270.x. PMID 16173941. 
  8. ^ de Almeida I, Alviano DS, Vieira DP, et al (July 2007). "Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil". Parasitol. Res. 101 (2): 443–52. doi:10.1007/s00436-007-0502-2. PMID 17342533. 
  9. ^ Manosroi J, Dhumtanom P, Manosroi A (April 2006). "Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines". Cancer Lett. 235 (1): 114–20. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.021. PMID 15979235. 
  10. ^ Tohti I, Tursun M, Umar A, Turdi S, Imin H, Moore N (2006). "Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin in vitro and rats arterio--venous shunt thrombosis in vivo". Thromb. Res. 118 (6): 733–9. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2005.12.011. PMID 16469363. 
  11. ^ Duke, James A.. Basil as the Holy Hindu Highness. DOI:10.1089/act.2008.14101. Retrieved on 10 May 2008.
  12. ^ EMEA (2004-03-03). Position Paper on the use of HMP containing estragole (PDF) 5. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. “In particular, rodent studies show that these events are minimal probably in the dose range of 1-10 mg/kg body weight, which is approximately 100-1000 times the anticipated human exposure to this substance”

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Porophyllum ruderale Bolivian Coriander or Quillquiña (also spelled Quirquiña/Quilquiña) or Killi is an herb plant whose leaves can be used as a seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Borage (Borago officinalis L.), also known as starflower (Ú¯Ù„ گاوزبان in Persian) is an annual herb originating in Syria, but naturalized throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as most of Europe, North Africa, and Iran. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) is a plant belonging to the Apiaceae, or parsley, family. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lepidium sativum L. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) is a fast-growing, edible plant botanically related to watercress and mustard and sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma. ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... This article is about a type of plant. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species More than 50 species; see listing Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a red, hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L.[1] Synonyms Glycyrrhiza glandulifera Waldst. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Piper longum Long pepper (Piper longum), sometimes called Javanese Long Pepper or Indian Long Pepper, is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... For other uses, see Saffron (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name L. This article refers to the tree. ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
basil - Search Results - MSN Encarta (131 words)
Basil is a sweet herb used for fragrance and as a seasoning for food.
Basil I (812-886), Byzantine emperor (867-886) and founder of the Macedonian dynasty.
Basil II (958?-1025), Byzantine emperor (976-1025), the greatest ruler of the Macedonian dynasty.
Basil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1544 words)
Basil is most commonly recommended to be used fresh, and in cooked recipes, is generally added at the last moment, as cooking destroys the flavour quickly.
Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto — a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce from the city of Genoa, its other two main ingredients being olive oil and pine nuts.
Basil is also very popular in Thai cuisine, which uses cultivars of two different species: the type known in the west as Thai Basil, which is a cultivar of O.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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