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Encyclopedia > Basic taste
"Sour" redirects here. For the Lebanese city, see Tyre, Lebanon.

The basic tastes are those commonly recognized types of taste sensed by humans. Humans receive tastes through sensory organs called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue. Scientists describe five basic tastes: bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami (described as savoury, meaty, or brothy). Taste and smell are subsumed under the term flavor. The basic tastes are only one component that contributes to the sensation of food in the mouth — other factors include the food's smell, detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose, its texture, detected by mechanoreceptors, and its temperature, detected by thermoreceptors. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Look up smell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... Look up smell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. ... Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... A thermoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to temperature, primarily within the innocuous range. ...



In Western culture, the concept of basic tastes can be traced back at least to Aristotle, who cited "sweet" and "bitter," with "succulent," "salt," "pungent," "harsh," "astringent" and "acid" as elaborations of those two basics. The ancient Chinese Five Elements philosophy lists slightly different five basic tastes: bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and spicy. Japanese and Indian cultures each add their own sixth taste to the basic five. This article is about the philosopher. ... For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Look up Pungency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Look up Pungency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

For many years, books on the physiology of human taste contained diagrams of the tongue showing levels of sensitivity to different tastes in different regions. In fact, taste qualities are found in all areas of the tongue, in contrast with the popular view that different tastes map to different areas of the tongue.[1][2] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Recent discoveries

The receptors for all known basic tastes have been identified. The receptors for sour and salty are ion channels while the receptors for sweet, bitter, and umami belong to the class of G protein coupled receptors. In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ...

In November 2005, it was reported that a team of French researchers experimenting on rodents claimed to have evidence for a sixth taste, for fatty substances. It is speculated that humans may also have the same receptors. Fat has occasionally been raised as a possible basic taste since at least the 1800s.

Five basic tastes


Saltiness is a taste produced by the presence of sodium chloride (and to a lesser degree other salts). The sodium (Na+) ions in salt can pass directly through ion channels in the tongue, leading to an action potential. Calcium (Ca2+) ions can also easily activate the taste, but potassium and magnesium ions do not nearly as effectively, instead activating the bitter taste. R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ...


Look up sour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Sourness is the taste that detects acidity. The mechanism for detecting sour taste is similar to that which detects salt taste. Hydrogen ion channels detect the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+ ions) that are formed from acids and water. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Ion channels are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. // Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ...

Hydrogen ions are capable of permeating the amiloride-sensitive sodium channels, but this is not the only mechanism involved in detecting the quality of sourness. Hydrogen ions also inhibit the potassium channel, which normally functions to hyperpolarize the cell. Thus, by a combination of direct intake of hydrogen ions (which itself depolarizes the cell) and the inhibition of the hyperpolarizing channel, sourness causes the taste cell to fire in this specific manner.


Main article: Sweetness

Sweetness is produced by the presence of sugars, some proteins and a few other substances. Sweetness is often connected to aldehydes and ketones, which contain a carbonyl group. Sweetness is detected by a variety of G protein coupled receptors coupled to the G protein gustducin found on the taste buds. At least two different variants of the "sweetness receptors" need to be activated for the brain to register sweetness. The compounds which the brain senses as sweet are thus compounds that can bind with varying bond strength to two different sweetness receptors. These receptors are T1R2+3 (heterodimer) and T1R3 (homodimer), which are shown to be accountable for all sweet sensing in humans and animals (8). The average human detection threshold for sucrose is 10 millimoles per litre. For lactose it is 30 millimoles per litre, and 5-Nitro-2-propoxyaniline 0.002 millimoles per litre. For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... An aldehyde. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... In chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of an atom of carbon double-bonded to an atom of oxygen. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... Gustducin is a protein associated with basic taste. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... 5-Nitro-2-propoxyaniline, also known as P-4000 and and Ultrasüss, is one of the strongest sweet-tasting substances known, about 4,000 times the intensity of sucrose. ...

See also: Miraculin and Curculin

Miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the miracle fruit plant, a shrub native to west Africa (Richardella dulcifica). ... Curculin Curculin which is extracted from Curculigo latifolia acts as a good low calorie sweetener. ...


The bitter taste is perceived by many to be unpleasant, sharp, or disagreeable. Evolutionary biologists have suggested that a distaste for bitter substances may have evolved as a defense mechanism against accidental poisoning. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ...

Common bitter foods and beverages include coffee, unsweetened chocolate, bitter melon, beer, uncured olives, citrus peel, many plants in the Brassicaceae family, dandelion greens and escarole. Quinine, the anti-malarial prophylactic, is also known for its bitter taste and is found in tonic water. For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Foo qua be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Belgian endive Endive (Cichorium endivia) is variation of the winter leaf vegetable chicory which can be cooked or used in salads, created by growing chicory (or certain similar breeds) until its foliage sprouts, then cutting off the leaves and placing the still-living stem and root in a dark place. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The Canada Dry brand of tonic water, shown on the right under ultraviolet light, quinine, even in negliglible quantity makes the liquid fluorescent Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated soft drink flavored with quinine. ...

The bitterest substance known is the synthetic chemical denatonium, discovered in 1958. It is used as an aversive agent that is added to toxic substances to prevent accidental ingestion. Denatonium, usually available as denatonium benzoate (or under trade names such as Bitrex or Aversion) and as denatonium saccharide, is the most bitter compound known. ...

Research has shown that TAS2Rs (taste receptors, type 2) such as TAS2R16 coupled to the G protein gustducin are responsible for the human ability to taste bitter substances. They are identified not only by their ability to taste for certain "bitter" ligands, but also by the morphology of the receptor itself (surface bound, monomeric).[3] Researchers use two synthetic substances, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) to study the genetics of bitter perception. These two substances taste bitter to some people, but are virtually tasteless to others. Among the tasters, some are so-called "supertasters" to whom PTC and PROP are extremely bitter. This genetic variation in the ability to taste a substance has been a source of great interest to those who study genetics. In addition, it is of interest to those who study evolution since PTC-tasting is associated with the ability to taste numerous natural bitter compounds, a large number of which are known to be toxic. TAS2R16 (taste receptor, type 2, member 16) is a human gene that encodes for a receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... Phenylthiocarbamide, also known as PTC, or phenylthiourea, is a synthetic organic molecule. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... A supertaster is an individual who lives in a more intense taste world. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Main article: umami

Savouriness is the name for the taste sensation produced by compounds such as glutamate are commonly found in fermented and aged foods. In English, it is sometimes described as "meaty" or "savoury". In Japanese, the term umami (旨味, うまみ) is used for this taste sensation, whose characters literally mean "delicious flavour." Umami is now the commonly used term by taste scientists. The same taste is referred to as xiānwèi (鮮味 or 鲜味) in Chinese cooking. Savoury is considered a fundamental taste in Chinese and Japanese cooking, but is not discussed as much in Western cuisine. Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Yeast fermenting the wort at Makers Mark distillery, a step in the production of a distilled beverage. ... Western cuisine is a term used for cuisine in The Americas and in Europe. ...

Examples of food containing these glutamate (and thus strong in the savoury taste) are parmesan and roquefort cheese as well as soy sauce and fish sauce. It is also found in significant amounts in various unfermented foods such as walnuts, grapes, broccoli, tomatoes, and mushrooms, and to a lesser degree in meat. The glutamate taste sensation is most intense in combination with sodium. This is one reason why tomatoes exhibit a stronger taste after adding salt. Sauces with savoury and salty tastes are very popular for cooking, such as tomato sauces and ketchup for Western cuisines and soy sauce and fish sauce for East Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. Since not every glutamate produces a savoury-like taste sensation, there is continuing investigation into the exact mechanism of how the savoury taste sensation is produced. Parmesan cheese. ... Country of origin  France Region, town region surrounding Roquefort-sur-Soulzon Source of milk Ewe Pasteurised No Texture Semi-hard Aging time 3 months Certification AOC 1925 Roquefort is a pungent ewes-milk blue cheese from the south of France, and one of the most famous of all French... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... This article is about the condiment. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

The additive monosodium glutamate (MSG), which was developed as a food additive in 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda, produces a strong savoury taste. Savoury is also provided by the nucleotides disodium 5’-inosine monophosphate (IMP) and disodium 5’-guanosine monophosphate (GMP). These are naturally present in many protein-rich foods. IMP is present in high concentrations in many foods, including dried skipjack tuna flakes used to make dashi, a Japanese broth. GMP is present in high concentration in dried shiitake mushrooms, used in much of the cuisine of Asia. There is a synergistic effect between MSG, IMP and GMP which together in certain ratios produce a strong umami taste. This article is about monosodium glutamate as a food additive. ... Kikunae Ikeda (æ± ç”° 菊苗 Ikeda Kikunae, October 8, 1864 – May 3, 1936) was a Japanese chemist, Tokyo Imperial University professor in Chemistry who, in 1908, uncovered the chemical root behind a taste he named umami. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Disodium inosinate (E631) is a food additive often found in instant noodles, potato chips, and a variety of other snacks. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Disodium ribonucleotides. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. ... Dashi (出汁) is one of several simple soup stocks considered fundamental to Japanese cooking. ... Binomial name Lentinula edodes (Berk. ... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of East Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ...

A subset of savoury taste buds responds specifically to glutamate in the same way that sweet ones respond to sugar. Glutamate binds to a variant of G protein coupled glutamate receptors.[4] Earlier reports had postulated that a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR4) and the NMDA receptor might play a role in umami perception. Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ... Metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor which are active through an indirect metabotropic process. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ...

More sensations

The tongue can also feel other sensations, not generally called tastes per se or included in the five human tastes. These are largely detected by the somatosensory system. This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... The somatosensory system is the sensory system of somatic sensation. ...


Temperature is an essential element of human taste experience. Food and drink that — within a given culture — is considered to be properly served hot is often considered distasteful if cold, and vice versa.

Some sugar substitutes have strong heats of solution, as is the case of sorbitol, erythritol, xylitol, mannitol, lactitol and maltitol. When they are dry and are allowed to dissolve in saliva, heat effects can be recognized. The cooling effect upon eating may be desirable, as in a mint candy made with crystalline sorbitol, or undesirable if it's not typical for that product, like in a cookie. Crystalline phases tend to have a positive heat of solution and thus a cooling effect. The heats of solution of the amorphous phases of the same substances are negative and cause a warm impression in the mouth.[5] The enthalpy change of solution is the quantity of heat produced or absorbed when a one mole of a substance is dissolved in a large volume of a solvent at constant pressure. ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ... Erythritol is a sugar alcohol which has been approved for use in the United States as a food additive and sweetener. ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... Mannitol or hexan-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol (C6H8(OH)6) is an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. ... Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a replacement sweetener for low calorie foods with approximately 40% of the sweetness of sugar. ... Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ...


Some substances activate cold trigeminal receptors. One can sense a cool sensation (also known as "fresh" or "minty") from, e.g., spearmint, menthol, ethanol or camphor, which is caused by the food activating the TRP-M8 ion channel on nerve cells that also signal cold. Unlike the actual change in temperature described for sugar substitutes, coolness is only a perceived phenomenon. The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... Binomial name Mentha spicata Crantz Spearmint (Mentha spicata, syn ) is a species of mint native to central and southern Europe, where it grows in wet soils. ... Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... There is a real need to make clear to what transient refers in a transient receptor potential, and the advice of the wider community is solicited to fill this need. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ...

Spiciness or hotness

See also: Scoville scale

Substances such as ethanol and capsaicin cause a burning sensation by inducing a trigeminal nerve reaction together with normal taste reception. The sensation of heat is caused by the food activating a nerve cell called TRP-V1, which is also activated by hot temperatures. The sensation, usually referred to as being "hot" or "spicy", is a notable feature of Mexican, Indian, Szechuan, Korean, Indonesian, central Vietnamese, and Thai cuisines. Naga Jolokia (naga morich, bhut jolokia), the Indian chili tested hottest in the world at 1,040,000 SHU. The Red Savina™ pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at 580,000 SHU. Only Naga Jolokia and Dorset Naga are hotter. ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Szechuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Sichuan cuisine (Chinese: ) is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in Sichuan Province of southwestern China which has an international reputation for being hot and numbing (麻辣), because of the common ingredient Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Although the region Sichuan is now romanized as Sichuan, the cuisine is... Thai seafood curry Tom yam gung Thai cuisine is known for its balance of five fundamental flavors in each dish or the overall meal - hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty and bitter (optional). ...

The two main plants providing this sensation are chili peppers (those fruits of the Capsicum plant that contain capsaicin) and black pepper. For other uses, see Chili. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...

If tissue in the oral cavity has been damaged or sensitised ethanol may be experienced as pain rather than simply heat. Those who have had radiotherapy for oral cancer thus find it painful to drink alcohol.[citation needed]


Chinese cooking includes the idea of 麻 , the sensation of tingling numbness caused by spices such as Sichuan pepper. The cuisine of Sichuan province often combines this with chili pepper to produce a 麻辣 málà, "numbing-and-hot", flavour.[6] Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... For other uses, see Chili. ...


Recent research has revealed a potential taste receptor called the CD36 receptor to be reacting to fat, more specifically, fatty acids.[7] This receptor was found in mice, but probably exists among other mammals as well. In experiments, mice with a genetic defect that blocked this receptor didn't show the same urge to consume fatty acids as normal mice, and failed to prepare gastric juices in their digestive tracts to digest fat. This discovery may lead to a better understanding of the biochemical reasons behind this behaviour, although more research is still necessary to confirm the relationship of CD36 and the cravings of fat. CD36 is an integral membrane protein found on the surface of many cell types in vertebrate animals and is also known as FAT, SCARB3, GP88, glycoprotein IV (gpIV) and glycoprotein IIIb (gpIIIb). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Binomial name (Berkenhout, 1769) Brown Rat range The brown rat, common rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat or wharf rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the best-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Gastric juice is a strong acidic liquid, pH 1 to 3, which is close to being colourless. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ...


Some Japanese researchers refer to a flavour called kokumi which has been described variously as continuity, "mouthfulness", mouthfeel and thickness.


In Indian tradition, the tastes are referred to as 'Arusuvai' or six tastes [1]. These tastes are normally referred to as the following: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, hot / spicy and astringent. Some people call the sixth taste as neutral or tasteless. A typical example of a neutral tasting substance is water. Certain others say the astringent or the sixth taste is a mix of varied tastes and is termed Kasaaya, in India. That is more in line with the Japanese approach to umami.


Some foods, such as unripe fruits, contain tannins or calcium oxalate that cause an astringent or rough sensation of the mucous membrane of the mouth or the teeth. Examples include tea, rhubarb, grapes and unripe persimmons and bananas. Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms needle-shaped crystals. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Less exact terms for the astringent sensation include: "rubbery", "hard", "styptic", "dry", "rough", "harsh" (especially for wine) and "tart" (normally referring to sourness) [8]. The Chinese have a term for this: 澀 (), the Korean have 떫다 (tteolda), the Japanese call it 渋い (shibui), while Thai have ฝาด (fard), the Malay use kelat, and in Russian there is вяжущий (vyazhuschiy) or тёрпкий (tjorpky).

Metallic taste

All people know this taste (e.g. Cu2+, FeSO4, or blood in mouth), but it is not only taste but olfactory receptors worked in this case (Guth and Grosch, 1990).

  • Some diseases cause a "metallic taste"[9]
  • Some substances (tetracycline, H2S) can stimulate "metallic taste" [10]
  • A metallic taste is strongly enhanced by current, as is evident when the tongue touches the contacts of an alkaline battery. Participants report numbness and a burning sensation following contact.

Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Alkaline batteries A Duracell AA alkaline battery 2 Duracell-Brand AAA Alkaline batteries Alkaline batteries are a type of power cell dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2). ...


  1. ^ Huang A. L., et al. "The cells and logic for mammalian sour taste detection" (no free access). Nature, 442. 934 - 938 (2006).
  2. ^ Scenta. "How sour taste buds grow". August 25, 2006.
  3. ^ Lindemann "Receptors and transduction in taste." Nature 2001
  4. ^ Lindemann, Bernd (2000). "A taste for umami". Nature Neuroscience. 
  5. ^ Cammenga, HK; LO Figura, B Zielasko (1996). "Thermal behaviour of some sugar alcohols". Journal of thermal analysis 47 (2): 427-434. 
  6. ^ http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Zant_pip.html?noframes]
  7. ^ http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa003&articleID=000AFE88-E770-1367-A6B083414B7F4945
  8. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/68000103/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
  9. ^ Christian Murray MD, Nowell Solish MD, FRCPC (2003) Metallic Taste: An Unusual Reaction to Botulinum Toxin A / Dermatologic Surgery 29 (5), 562–563.
  10. ^ Long-term effects on the olfactory system of exposure to hydrogen sulphide / AR Hirsch and G Zavala / Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol 56, 284-287

(8) Zhao G.Q., et al. Cell, 255-256 (2003)

  • Kikunae Ikeda. (1909). New Seasonings
  • Bernd Lindemann, Yoko Ogiwara, and Yuzo Ninomiya. (2002). The Discovery of Umami
  • Dunlop, Fuchsia. 'It's all a matter of taste', Financial Times (Europe: August 6, 2005) p.W9
  • Huang A. L., et al. Nature, 442. 934 - 938 (2006)
  • Ishimaru Y., et al. PNAS, 103. 12569 - 12574 (2006)

Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Researchers Define Molecular Basis of Human "Sweet Tooth" and Umami Taste

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Basic taste (201 words)
Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes.
For many years, books on the physiology of human taste contained diagrams of the tongue showing levels of sensitivity to different tastes in different regions.
In general, the sense of taste is often confused by smells that occur at the same time, and much of the everyday sensation of taste is at least partially derived from smell stimuli.
Basic taste - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2093 words)
The basic tastes are the commonly recognized types of taste sensed by humans.
The concept of basic tastes is probably too simplistic and does not account for more complex reactions sometimes described as "mouthfeel," or for tastes such as metallic that are generally not considered food-oriented.
Savouriness is the name for the taste sensation produced by the free glutamates commonly found in fermented and aged foods.
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