FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bashkirs" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bashkirs
Bashkirs
Total population: 1,373,000 (estimated)
Significant populations in: Russia:
  1,292,000 (1979)
  1,345,273 (1989)
  1,673,389 (2002)[1]

Uzbekistan:
  41,000
Kazakhstan:
  24,000 (1999) [2]
Tajikistan:
   5,000
Ukraine:
   4,300 (2001) [3]
Kyrgyzstan:
   3,200
Turkmenistan:
   2,600
Belarus:
   1,300
Latvia:
   600
Lithuania:
   400

Language: Bashkir, Russian, Tatar
Religion: Predominantly Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups: Turkic_peoples

  Kipchak
The Bashkir language is a Turkic language, a member of the Kyphchak group of languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language belonging to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ...

The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. A significant number of Bashkirs also live in the republic of Tatarstan, as well as in Perm Krai and Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Samara, and Saratov Oblasts of Russia. The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Republic of Bashkortostan or Bashkiria (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н or Башки́рия; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Capital Kazan (Qazan) Area - total - % water 47th - 67,836. ... Perm Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Permyakia Autonomous District. ... Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Orenburg Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Kurgan Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Samara Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ...

Contents


Overview

Bashkirs are concentrated on the slopes and confines of the southern Ural Mountains and the neighboring plains. They speak the Kipchak-based Bashkir language, a close relative of the Tatar language. For hundred thousand Bashkirs speak Tatar, but most speak also Russian. Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language, a member of the Kyphchak group of languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language belonging to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. ...


History

The name Bashkir is recorded for the first time at the beginning of the 10th century in the writings of the Arab writer, ibn Fadlan, who, in describing his travels among the Volga Bulgarians, mentions the Bashkirs as a warlike and idolatrous race. According to ibn Fadlan, the Bashkirs worshipped phallic idols. At that time, Bashkirs lived as nomadic cattle breeders. Until the 13th century they occupied the territories between Volga and Kama Rivers and the Urals. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العباس ابن رشيد ابن حماد ابن فضلان) was a tenth-century Arab scholar who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Caliph... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The phallus usually refers to the male penis, or sex organ. ... The term idol (from Latin idolum: image, form) is used in various contexts: In religion, man-made worshipped articles are idols; their worship is called idolatry. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ...


European sources first mention the Bashkirs in the works of Joannes de Plano Carpini and William of Rubruquis. These travellers, who fell in with Bashkir tribes in the upper parts of the Ural River, called them Pascatir, and asserted that they spoke the same language as the Hungarians. Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, or John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (c. ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born ca. ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ...


Until the arrival of the Mongols in the middle of the 13th century, the Bashkirs formed a strong and independent people, troublesome to their neighbors: the Volga Bulgarians and the Petchenegs, but by the time of the downfall of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552 they had become a weak state. In 1556 they voluntarily recognized the supremacy of Russia, which in consequence founded the city of Ufa in 1574 to defend them from the Kirghiz, and subjected the Bashkirs to a fur-tax. Mongol Empires largest extent outlined in red; Timur-i-Lenks empire is shaded The Mongol Empire (Cyrillic: Их Монгол Улс) (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous (the land streched uninterrupted by borders or stretches of water) land empire in world history, ruling 35 million km² (13. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppe people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Ufas coat of arms Ufa (Уфа́) (oo-FAH) (Tatar Ufa, Öfä; Bashkir Өфө Chuvash Ěпхӳ) is the capital of Bashkiria, a republic in central Russia. ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ...


In 1676, the Bashkirs rebelled under a leader named Seit, and the Russians had great difficulties in pacifying them. Bashkiria rose again in 1707, under Aldar and Kfisyom, on account of ill-treatment by the Russian officials. The third and last insurrection occurred in 1735, at the time of the foundation of Orenburg, and it lasted for six years. Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal April 25 - Allied army is defeated by Bourbonic army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... Orenburg (Оренбу́рг) is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District of Russia. ...


In 1774 Bashkiria supported Pugachev's rebellion. Bashkir troops fought under the Bashkir noble Salawat Yulayev, but suffered defeat. 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Emelyan Pugachov Emelyan Ivanovich Pugachov ( Russian: Емелья́н Ива́нович Пугачёв), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some... Salawat Yulayev (Bashkir: Салауат Юлаев) is a Bashkir national hero, participated at Pugachevs rebellion. ...


In 1786, the Bashkirs achieved tax-free status; and in 1798 Russia formed an irregular Bashkir army from among them. Residual land ownership disputes continued. 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Bashkir switchman near the town Ust' Katav on the Yuryuzan River between Ufa and Cheliabinsk in the Ural Mountain region, ca. 1910
Enlarge
Bashkir switchman near the town Ust' Katav on the Yuryuzan River between Ufa and Cheliabinsk in the Ural Mountain region, ca. 1910

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x620, 139 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x620, 139 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... The Yuryuzan River (Russian: Юрюзань) is a river in Bashkiria and Chelyabinsk Oblast in Russia, a left tributary of the Ufa River (Kama basin). ... Ufas coat of arms Ufa (Уфа́) (oo-FAH) (Tatar Ufa, Öfä; Bashkir Өфө Chuvash Ěпхӳ) is the capital of Bashkiria, a republic in central Russia. ... Chelyabinsk (Russian Челя́бинск; also Russian city just to the east of the Ural Mountains. ... -1...

Culture

Some Bashkirs traditionally practiced agriculture, cattle-rearing and bee-keeping. The nomadic Bashkirs wandered either the mountains or the steppes, herding cattle. A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian степь or step and pronounced in English as step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by...


Bashkir national dishes include a kind of gruel called yIsryu, and a cheese named skiirt. Porridge (also known in American English as hot cereal), is a simple dish made by boiling oats (normally crushed oats, occasionally oatmeal) or another meal in water and/or milk. ... Cheese is a food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats, sheep, or other mammals. ...


Bashkirs had a reputation as a hospitable but suspicious people, apt to plunder and disinclined to hard work.


References

  • J. P. Carpini, Liber Tartarorum, edited under the title Relations des Mongols ou Tartares, by d'Avezac (Paris, 1838).
  • Gulielmus de Rubruquis, The Journey of William of Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, translated by V.W. Rockhill (London, 1900).
  • Semenoff, Slovar Ross. Imp., s.v.
  • Frhn, "De Baskiris", in Mrn. de l'Acad. de St-Pitersbourg (1822).
  • Florinsky, in Вестник Европы [Vestnik Evropy] (1874).
  • Katarinskij, Dictionnaire Bashkir-Russe (1900).
  • http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/rubruck.html

Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, or John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (c. ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born ca. ...

External links

Bashkir news sites

  • http://www.bashkortostan.ru Official site of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  • http://eng.bashinform.ru/ "Bashinform" news agency
  • http://www.bashkortostan450.ru/index.php?lg=eng&section=0 Official website on the 450th anniversary of Bashkortostan's joining Russia
  • http://allufa.ru/
  • http://www.bashkortostan.net History, culture, language of the Bashkirs

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bashkirs - LoveToKnow 1911 (559 words)
BASHKIRS, a people inhabiting the Russian governments of Ufa, Orenburg, Perm and Samara, and parts of Vyatka, especially on the slopes and confines of the Ural, and in the neighbouring plains.
Till the arrival of the Mongolians, about the middle of the 13th century, the Bashkirs were a strong and independent people and troublesome to their neighbours, the Bulgarians and Petchenegs.
The Bashkirs are usually very poor, and in winter live partly on a kind of gruel called yuryu, and badly prepared cheese named skurt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m