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Encyclopedia > Baseball card


A baseball card is one type of trading card, relating to baseball, usually printed on some type of paper stock or card stock. A card will usually feature one or more baseball players or other baseball-related sports figures. Cards are most often found in the United States but are also common in countries such as Canada, Cuba, and Japan, where baseball is a popular sport and there are professional leagues. Various trading cards A trading card (or collectible card) is a small card which is intended for trading and collecting. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ...

Contents

Production

While baseball cards were first produced in the United States, as the popularity of baseball spread to other countries, so too did the production of baseball cards. Sets appeared in Japan as early as 1898,[1] in Cuba as early as 1909[2] and in Canada as early as 1912.[3] This article is about the sport. ...


Attributes

The obverse, or front of the card, typically displays an image of the subject with identifying information of that subject. This includes, but is not limited to, player name and team affiliation. The reverse of most modern cards displays statistics and/or biographical information. Many early trade cards displayed advertisements for a particular brand or company on the back. Although the function of trade cards had much in common with business card, the format of baseball trade cards also often resembled that of playing cards. Trade card describes small cards, similar to the visiting cards exchanged in social circles, that businesses would distribute to clients and potential customers. ... Attorney business card 1895 Business cards are cards bearing business information about a company or individual. ... For the Russian group of artists, see Jack of Diamonds (artists). ...


While there are no firm standards that limit the size or shape of a baseball card, most cards of today are 2-½ inches by 3-½ inches (6.35 cm by 8.89 cm) and in the shape of a rectangle.[4]


Baseball Card Production Process

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Baseball Card Classification: The Type Card

Since early baseball cards were produced primarily as a marketing vehicle, collectors began to classify those cards by the 'type' of company producing the set. The system implemented by Jefferson Burdick in American Card Catalogue has become the de facto standard in identifying and organizing trade cards produced in the Americas pre-1951. The catalogue itself extends into many other areas of collecting beyond the sport of baseball. There are two major shortcomings of this system: it does not include classifications for non-American cards and there are numerous mistakes and inconsistencies in the system. However, sets like 1909-11 White Borders, 1910 Philadelphia Caramel’s, and 1909 Box Tops most commonly referred to by their ACC catalogue numbers (T206, E95, and W555, respectively). The American Card Catalog is a reference book for American trade cards produced before 1951 and compiled by Jefferson Burdick. ... The American Card Catalog is a reference book for American trade cards produced before 1951 and compiled by Jefferson Burdick. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... // The hobby of collecting consists of acquiring specific items based on a particular interest of the collector. ... 1909-11 T-206 baseball card set The baseball card set known as T-206 was issued from 1909 to 1911 in cigarette packs through 16 different brands owned by the American Tobacco Co. ...


History of Cards

Pre-1900

An 1888 "Godwin Champions" cigarette card of King Kelly, one of the earliest cards using chromolithography to create multi-colored images of players.
An 1888 "Godwin Champions" cigarette card of King Kelly, one of the earliest cards using chromolithography to create multi-colored images of players.

During the mid-19th century in the United States, baseball and photography were both gaining popularity. As a result, baseball clubs began to pose for group and individual pictures, much like members of other clubs and associations posed. Some of these photographs were printed onto small cards similar to modern wallet photos. As baseball increased in popularity and became a professional sport during the late 1860s, trade cards featuring baseball players appeared. These were used by a variety of companies to promote their business, even if the products being advertised had no connection with baseball. In 1868, Peck and Snyder, a sporting goods store in New York, began producing trade cards featuring baseball teams.[5] Peck and Snyder sold baseball equipment, and the cards were a natural advertising vehicle. The Peck and Snyder cards are sometimes considered the first baseball cards. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1695x2984, 5832 KB) King Kelly Boston Beaneaters Boston National League catcher Baseball cards 1 print : chromolithograph CALL NUMBER LOT 13163-08, no. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1695x2984, 5832 KB) King Kelly Boston Beaneaters Boston National League catcher Baseball cards 1 print : chromolithograph CALL NUMBER LOT 13163-08, no. ... No. ... $10,000 Kelly baseball card, ca. ... Folding Card, The Old Woman Who Lived in A Shoe, 6 April 1883. ... This article is about the sport. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... This article is about people called professionals. ... Trade card describes small cards, similar to the visiting cards exchanged in social circles, that businesses would distribute to clients and potential customers. ... Advert redirects here. ...


Typically, a trade card of the time featured an image on one side and information advertising the business on the other. Advances in color printing increased the appeal of the cards. As a result, cards began to use photographs, either in black-and-white or sepia, or color artwork, which was not necessarily based on photographs. Some early baseball cards could be used as part of a game, which might be either a conventional card game or a simulated baseball game. Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... Sepia tone is a type of digital photo in which the picture appears similar to a traditional black-and-white print toned with sepia. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ... This article is about the general term. ...


By early 1886, images of baseball players were often included on cigarette cards with cigarette packs and other tobacco products. This was partly for promotional purposes and partly because the card helped protect the cigarettes from damage. By the end of the century, baseball had become so popular that production had spread well beyond the Americas and into the Pacific Isles[6] Cigarette Cards were issued by tobacco manufacturers both to protect the cigarettes by stiffening the pack, and also to gain customer loyalty to their particular brand of cigarettes. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...


1900-1920

By the turn of the century, most baseball cards were produced by confectionery companies and tobacco companies.[7] The first major set of the 20th century was issued by the Breisch-Williams Company in 1903.[8] Breisch-Williams was a confectionery company based in Oxford, Pennsylvania. Soon after, several other companies began to advertise their products with baseball cards. This included, but was not limited to, the American Tobacco Company, the American Caramel Company, the Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada, and Cabanas, a Cuban cigar manufacturer. Image File history File links HonusWagnerCard. ... Image File history File links HonusWagnerCard. ... Johannes Peter Honus Wagner (February 24, 1874 - December 6, 1955), nicknamed The Flying Dutchman, was an American baseball player who played during the 1890s until the 1910s. ... The American Tobacco Company was founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke as a merger between a number of tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter. ... Imperial Tobacco PLC is the largest cigarette manufacturer in the UK (but the second largest UK based tobacco company by global sales after British American Tobacco), second largest in Germany and fourth worldwide, following its purchase of Reemtsma Zigarettenfabriken, adding brands such as Davidoff, Peter Stuyvesant and West to its... Look up cabana, kabana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The American Tobacco Company decided to introduce baseball advertising cards into their tobacco products with the issue of the T206 White Border Set in 1909. The cards were included in packs of cigarettes and produced over a three-year period until the ATC was dissolved. The most famous, and most expensive card for the grade, is the Honus Wagner card from this set.[9] 1909-11 T-206 baseball card set The baseball card set known as T-206 was issued from 1909 to 1911 in cigarette packs through 16 different brands owned by the American Tobacco Co. ... Johannes Peter Honus Wagner (February 24, 1874 - December 6, 1955), nicknamed The Flying Dutchman, was an American baseball player who played during the 1890s until the 1910s. ...


At the same time, many other non-tobacco companies started producing and distributing baseball trade cards to the public. Between 1909 and 1911, The American Caramel Company produced the E90-1 series and 1911 saw the introduction of the ‘Zee Nut’ card. These sets were produced over a 28-year span by the Collins-McCarthy Company of California. By the mid-teens companies such as The Sporting News magazine began sponsoring card issues. Caramel companies like Rueckheim Bros. & Eckstein were among the first to put 'prizes' in boxes. In 1914, they produced the first of two Cracker Jack card issues, which featured players from both major leagues as well as players from the short lived Federal League. As the teens drew to a close, the Chicago-based Boston Store Department company also issued a set. The Sporting News (TSN) is an American-based sports newspaper. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crackerjack (disambiguation). ... The Federal League was the last major attempt to establish an independent major league in baseball in the United States in direct competition with and opposition to the established National and American Leagues in 1914 and 1915. ...


1920-1930

After the end of World War I in 1918, baseball card production lulled for a few years as foreign markets were not yet developed and the United States’ economy was transitioning away from wartime production. This trend would continue until the late 30’s when the effects of the Great depression finally hit. The twenties produced a second influx of caramel cards, a plethora of postcard issues, and a handful of cards from different regions of the world. During the first two years, an influx of strip cards hit the market. These cards were distributed in long strips and often cut by the consumer or the retailer in the store. The American Caramel Company re-emerged as a producer of baseball cards and started to distribute sets in 1922-23. Few, if any cards, were produced in the mid-twenties until 1927 when companies like York Caramel of York, Pennsylvania got in on the fun. Cards with similar images as the York Caramel set were produced in 1928 for four ice cream companies, Yuengling's, Harrington's, Sweetman and Tharp's. In 1921, the Exhibit Supply Company of Chicago started to release issues on post card stock. Although they are considered a post card issue, many of the cards had statistics and other biographical information on the back.[10] 1922 saw the emergence of the foreign markets after what was essentially a 10-year hiatus. Several Canadian products found their way to the market including products branded by Nielson’s “Big League” Chocolate bars and Willard’s Chocolate Company. Billiken Cigars, a.k.a. “Cigarros Billiken”, were distributed in Cuba, and England, a longtime home to non-sports tobacco cards, got into the baseball card market. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ... D.G. Yuengling & Son, commonly called Yuengling, of Pottsville, Pennsylvania, is the oldest operating brewing company in the United States, having been established in 1829, and is one of the largest breweries by volume in the country. ... No. ...


1930-1950

In the early 1930s, production soared, starting with the 1932 US Caramel set. The popular 1933 Goudey Gum Co. issue, which included cards of Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig, best identifies this era. In contrast to the economical designs common in earlier decades, this card set featured bright, hand-colored player photos on the front. Backs provided brief biographies and personal information such as height, weight, and birthplace. The 240-card set, quite large for the time, included current players, former stars, and prominent minor leaguers. Individual cards measured 2 3/8" by 2 7/8", which Goudey printed on 24-card sheets and distributed throughout the year.[11] The bulk of early National Baseball Hall of Fame inductees appear in this set. The Goudey Gum Co. ... Baseball Hall of Fame redirects here. ...


1933 also saw the delivery of the World Wide Gum issue. World Wide Gum Co. was based in Montreal and clearly had a close relationship with the Goudey Gum Company, as each of their four issues closely resembled a Goudey contemporary. Goudey, National Chicle, Delong and a handful of other companies were competitive in the bubble gum and baseball card market until World War II began. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


After 1941, cards would not be produced in any significant number until a few years after the end of the war. Wartime production transitioned into the post-war civilian consumer goods, and in 1948 baseball card production resumed in the US with issues by the Bowman Gum and the Leaf Candy Company. At the same time, Topps Gum Company issued their Magic Photos set, four years before they issued their first “traditional” card set.[12] By 1950, Leaf had bowed out of the industry. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Bowman Gum was a Philadelphia-based manufacturer of bubble gum and trading cards in the period surrounding World War II. Originally known as Gum, Inc. ... The Leaf Candy Company was a major American producer of candy and trading cards based in Bannockburn, Illinois and later in Brooklyn, New York. ... For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company. ...


Toward the end of the decade, Japanese baseball cards began appearing in large quantities. Many of them were produced and associated with Menko, a popular Japanese card game. More conventional sets from Japan would appear several decades later. Menko (めんこ, 面子) is a Japanese card game played by two or more players. ...


Modern card history

1948-1980

1952 Topps Mickey Mantle card
1952 Topps Mickey Mantle card

Bowman was the major producer of Baseball cards from 1948-1952. In 1952, Topps began to produce large sets of cards as well. The 1952 Topps set is the most sought-after post-World War set among collectors because of the scarcity of the Mickey Mantle card, the first Mantle card issued by Topps. Although it is not his rookie card (that honor belongs to his 1951 Bowman card), it is still considered the ultimate card to own of the post-war era. For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company. ... Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player who was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974. ...


Topps and Bowman then competed for customers and for the rights to any baseball players' likeness. Two-years later, Leaf stopped producing cards. In 1956, Topps bought out Bowman and enjoyed a largely unchallenged position in the US market for the next two decades. From 1952-69, Topps always offered five or six card nickel wax packs and in 1952-64, also offered one card penny packs. For the 1970s, however, Topps increased the cost of a wax pack to a dime (with 10-15 cards depending on year) and also offered cello packs (typically around 28-32 cards) for 25-35 cents, and rack packs of 42-50 cards costing 50-70 cents depending on year. For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company. ...


This did not prevent a large number of regional companies from producing successful runs of trading cards. Additionally, several US companies attempted to crack into the market at a national level. In 1959, Fleer, a gum company, signed Ted Williams to an exclusive contract and sold a set of cards featuring him. Williams retired in 1960 forcing Fleer to produce a set of Baseball Greats cards featuring retired players. Like the Topps cards, they were sold with gum. In 1963, Fleer produced a 67 card set of active players (this time with a cherry cookie in the packs instead of gum), which was not successful, as most players were contractually obligated to Topps. Post Cereals issued cards on cereal boxes from 1960 to 1963 and corporate sibling Jell-O issued virtually identical cards on the back of its packages in 1962 and 1963. Leaf also issued a card set in 1960. The Fleer Corporation, founded by Frank H. Fleer in the mid-19th century, was the first company to successfully manufacture bubblegum. ... Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), best known as Ted Williams, nicknamed The Kid, the Splendid Splinter, Teddy Ballgame and The Thumper, was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball. ...


In 1965, Topps licensed production to Canadian candy maker O-Pee-Chee. The O-Pee-Chee sets were essentially identical to the Topps sets until 1969, when the backs of the cards were branded O-Pee-Chee. In 1970, due to federal legislation, O-Pee-Chee was compelled to add French-language text to the backs of its baseball cards.[13] Bilingual back of a 1984 Mookie Wilson baseball card. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


In the 1970s, several companies took advantage of a new licensing scheme, not to take on Topps, but to create premiums. Kellogg’s began to produce 3D-cards inserted with cereal and Hostess printed cards on packages of its baked goods. Kellogg Company (often referred to as simply Kellogg or Kelloggs) is an American multinational producer of breakfast foods, snack foods, cookies, and crackers, with corporate headquarters in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Kellogg trades under the ticker symbol NYSE: K. Revenues in 2006 were $10. ... Hostess is a brand of the Interstate Bakeries Corporation in the United States, known for its line of snack foods, such as Twinkies, CupCakes, Chocodiles, Ding Dongs, HoHos, SuzyQs, Sno Balls, Donettes, Mini Muffins, Hostess Fruit Pies, Pudding Pies, Donuts and Leopards. ...


In 1976, a company called TCMA, which mainly produced minor league baseball cards, produced a set of 630-cards consisting of Major League Ball players. The cards were produced under the name the Sports Stars Publishing Company, or SSPC. TCMA published a baseball card magazine named Collectors Quarterly which it used to advertise its set offering it directly via mail order. However, the set was basically a failure, as it was unlicensed and brought about a cease and desist order from Topps.[verification needed]


This type of power provided Topps with the ability to thwart competitors from seriously threatening their market share.


1981-Present

Fleer sued Topps and the MLBPA in 1975 to break Topps' monopoly on baseball cards; it won.[citation needed] In 1981, Fleer and Donruss issued baseball card sets, both with gum. An appeal of the Fleer lawsuit by Topps clarified that Topps' exclusive rights only applied to cards sold with gum.[14] After the appeal, Fleer and Donruss continued to produce cards issued without gum; Fleer included team logo stickers with their card packs, while Donruss introduced "Hall of Fame Diamond Kings" puzzles and included three puzzle pieces in each pack. In 1992, Topps' gum and Fleer's logo stickers were discontinued, with Donruss discontinuing the puzzle piece inserts the following year.[15] In 1984, two monthly price guides came on the scene. Tuff Stuff and Beckett Baseball Card Monthly, published by Dr. James Beckett, attempted to track the approximate market value of several types of trading cards. The Fleer Corporation, founded by Frank H. Fleer in the mid-19th century, was the first company to successfully manufacture bubblegum. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Donruss is a U.S. brand of bubble gum and trading card. ... A price guide is a reference work that contains information about the prices of, for example, coins, sports cards, or other collectibles. ... Tuff Stuff is a long-running magazine publishing prices for trading cards and collectibles from a variety of sports. ... James Beckett is a statistician, author, editor, and publisher. ... Various trading cards A trading card (or collectible card) is a small card which is intended for trading and collecting. ...


More collectors entered the hobby during the 1980s. As a result, manufacturers such as Score (which later became Pinnacle Brands) and Upper Deck entered the marketplace in 1988 and 1989 respectively. Upper Deck introduced several innovative production methods including tamper-proof foil packaging, hologram-style logos, and higher quality card stock. This style of production allowed Upper Deck to charge a premium for its product. In 1989, Upper Deck's first set included the Ken Griffey, Jr. rookie card. The card became highly sought-after until Griffey's persistent injury troubles caused his performance level to decline.[16] The other major card companies followed suit and created card brands with higher price points. Topps resurrected the Bowman brand name in 1989. Topps produced a Stadium Club issue in 1991. Two years later, they followed with a Topps Finest set. Topps Finest was the first set to utilize refractors, a shiny modification to the standard card set which proved extremely popular among hobbyists. Meanwhile, Donruss issued its Leaf brand in 1990; Fleer followed with Fleer Ultra sets in 1991; and Score issued Pinnacle brand cards in 1992.[17] The Upper Deck Entertainment logo. ... George Kenneth Griffey, Jr. ... Price Points along a Demand curve Price points are prices for which demand is relatively high. ... For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company. ... Bowman Gum was a Philadelphia-based manufacturer of bubble gum and trading cards in the period surrounding World War II. Originally known as Gum, Inc. ... The Leaf Candy Company was a major American producer of candy and trading cards based in Bannockburn, Illinois and later in Brooklyn, New York. ...


Starting in 1997 with Upper Deck, companies began inserting cards with swatches of uniforms and pieces of game-used baseball equipment as part of a plan to generate interest. Card companies obtained all manner of memorabilia, from uniform jerseys and pants, to bats, gloves, caps, and even bases and defunct stadium seats to feed this new hobby demand.[18]


The process and cost of multi-tiered printings, monthly set issues, licensing fees, and player-spokesman contracts made for a difficult market. Pinnacle Brands folded after 1998. Pacific, which acquired full licensing in 1994, ceased production in 2001. In 2005, Fleer went bankrupt and was bought out by Upper Deck, and Donruss lost the MLB license in 2006 (they also did not produce baseball cards in 1999 and 2000). At that time, the MLBPA limited the number of companies that would produce baseball cards to offset the glut in product, and to consolidate the market.[citation needed] As a result of the measure that included revoking the MLB/MLBPA production licenses from Donruss, only two companies remained; Topps and Upper Deck.[19] The Fleer Corporation, founded by Frank H. Fleer in the mid-19th century, was the first company to successfully manufacture bubblegum. ... The Upper Deck Entertainment logo. ... Donruss is a U.S. brand of bubble gum and trading card. ... The Major League Baseball Players Association (or MLBPA) is the union of professional major-league baseball players. ...


Topps and Upper Deck are the only two companies that retained production licenses for baseball cards of major league players. In a move to expand their market influence, Upper Deck purchased the Fleer brand and the remnants of its production inventory. After purchasing Fleer, Upper Deck took over production of the remaining products that were slated to be released. Upper Deck continues to issue products with the Fleer name, while Topps continues to release Bowman and Bazooka card products. Topps is also the only company that continues to produce pre-collated factory sets of cards.[20] The Upper Deck Entertainment logo. ...


Card companies are trying to maintain a sizable hobby base in a variety of ways. Especially prominent is a focus on transitioning the cards to an online market. Both Topps and Upper Deck have issued cards that require online registration, while Topps has targeted the investment-minded collector with its eTopps offering of cards that are maintained and traded at its website.[citation needed]


During the same time period, MLBPA also introduced a new guideline for players to attain a rookie card. For years, players had been highlighted in previous sets as a rookie while still in the Minor Leagues. Such players would sometimes remain in the Minor Leagues for considerable time before attaining Major League status, making a player's rookie card released years before their first game as a major leaguer. The new guideline requires players to be part of the a Major League team roster before a rookie card would be released in their name, and a designated "rookie card" logo printed on the face of the card.[citation needed]


In early 2007, two developments in the industry occurred within 24 hours of each other, both of which garnered national media attention. First, it was found that Topps' new Derek Jeter card had been purportedly altered just prior to final printing. A reported prankster inside the company had inserted a photo of Mickey Mantle into the Yankees' dugout and another showing a smiling President George W. Bush waving from the stands. Topps Spokesman Clay Luraschi later admitted that it was done on purpose by the Topps creative department. Derek Sanderson Jeter (born June 26, 1974 in Pequannock, New Jersey) is an American Major League Baseball player. ... An office cubicle with all the contents covered in aluminum foil. ... Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player who was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Shortly afterward, the hobby's most expensive card, a near mint-mint professionally graded and authenticated T206 Honus Wagner, was sold to a private collector for $2.35 million. It is believed to be the highest price ever paid for a baseball card of any kind. Johannes Peter Honus Wagner (February 24, 1874 - December 6, 1955), nicknamed The Flying Dutchman, was an American baseball player who played during the 1890s until the 1910s. ...


The card markets

United States

An authentic Milt Thompson autographed 1988 Topps Baseball Card.

This media has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

Baseball cards in the United States have gone through numerous changes in everything from production and marketing to distribution and use. The earliest cards were targeted primarily at adults as they were produced and associated by Photographers selling services and Tobacco companies in order to market wares. By the early teens, many cards were issued as part of games and confection companies began to distribute their own card sets. The market in the United States has been particularly affected by political issues both sports and non-sports related. Economic effects of World War I, World War II, and the Great Depression have all had a major impact on the production of cards. For example, World War I suppressed baseball card production to the point where only a handful of sets were produced until the economy had transitioned away from wartime industrialization. By that same token, the 1994 players' strike caused a decline in interest and industry consolidation. 1988 Topps Ken Caminiti // The 1988 Topps set totals 792 cards and was issued in wax, rack (42 cards plus 1 All-Star Game Commemorative card), and jumbo packs or factory sets. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


The Topps Monopoly

Main article: Topps

Topps' purchase of Bowman led to a stranglehold on player contracts. Since Topps had no competition and there was no easy way for others to break into the national market, the company had a de facto monopoly. However, several regional sets featuring players from local teams, both major league and minor league, were issued by various companies. For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company. ...


Over the years, there was also a great deal of resistance from other companies. In 1967, Topps faced an attempt to undermine its position from the Major League Baseball Players Association, the League’s nascent players' union. Struggling to raise funds, the MLBPA discovered that it could generate significant income by pooling the publicity rights of its members and offering companies a group license to use their images on various products. After initially putting players on Coca-Cola bottlecaps, the union concluded that the Topps contracts did not pay players adequately for their rights. The Major League Baseball Players Association (or MLBPA) is the union of professional major-league baseball players. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Heineken bottle cap Bottle caps are used to seal the opening of a bottle. ...


Fleer even filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission alleging that Topps was engaged in unfair competition through its aggregation of exclusive contracts. A hearing examiner ruled against Topps in 1965, but the Commission reversed this decision on appeal. The Commission concluded that because the contracts only covered the sale of cards with gum, competition was still possible by selling cards with other small, low-cost products. However, Fleer chose not to pursue such options and instead sold its remaining player contracts to Topps for $395,000 in 1966.[verification needed] | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ...


Soon after, MLBPA executive director Marvin Miller then approached Joel Shorin, the president of Topps, about renegotiating these contracts. At this time, Topps had every major league player under contract, generally for five years plus renewal options, so Shorin declined. After continued discussions went nowhere, before the 1968 season, the union asked its members to stop signing renewals on these contracts, and offered Fleer the exclusive rights to market cards.[verification needed]. Although Fleer declined the proposal, by the end of 1973, Topps had agreed to double its payments to each player from $125 to $250, and also to begin paying players a percentage of Topps' overall sales. The figure for individual player contracts has since increased to $500. Since then, Topps used individual player contracts as the basis for its baseball cards. Marvin Julian Miller (born April 14, 1917 in The Bronx, New York City) is the former executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) from 1966 - 1982. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ...


Fleer vs. Topps

In April 1975, Fleer asked for Topps to waive its exclusive rights and allow Fleer to produce stickers, stamps, or other small items featuring active baseball players. Topps refused, and Fleer then sued both Topps and the MLBPA to break the Topps monopoly. After several years of litigation, the court ordered the union to offer group licenses for baseball cards to companies other than Topps. Fleer and another company, Donruss, were thus allowed to begin making cards in 1981. Fleer's legal victory was overturned after one season, but they continued to manufacture cards, substituting stickers with team logos for gum. Donruss distributed their cards with a Jigsaw puzzle piece. Donruss is a U.S. brand of bubble gum and trading card. ... For the Rolling Stones song, see Jigsaw Puzzle A jigsaw puzzle is a tiling puzzle that requires the assembly of numerous small, often oddly shaped, interlocking and tessellating pieces. ...


Canada

Tim Foli cards from 1978: Topps card, left; O-Pee-Chee card, right
Tim Foli cards from 1978: Topps card, left; O-Pee-Chee card, right

The history of baseball cards in Canada is somewhat similar to that of baseball cards in the United States. The first cards were trade cards, then cards issued with tobacco products and later candies and gum. World Wide Gum and O-Pee-Chee both produced major sets during the 1930’s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixel Image in higher resolution (1680 × 1150 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixel Image in higher resolution (1680 × 1150 pixel, file size: 3. ... Timothy John Foli (born December 8, 1950), nicknamed Crazy Horse[1], is a former shortstop in Major League Baseball who played for the New York Mets, Montreal Expos, San Francisco Giants, Pittsburgh Pirates, California Angels and New York Yankees from 1970 to 1985. ... Bilingual back of a 1984 Mookie Wilson baseball card. ...


In 1952, Topps started distributing its American made cards in Canada. In 1965 O-Pee-Chee re-entered the baseball card market producing a licenced version of the Topps set. From 1970 until the last Topps based set was produced in 1992 the cards were bi-lingual French/English to comply with Canadian law[21][22] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


From 1985 until 1988, Donruss issued a parallel Canadian set under the Leaf name. The set was basically identical to the Donruss issues of the same years however it was bi-lingual. All the Leaf sets were produced in the United States. Donruss is a U.S. brand of bubble gum and trading card. ... The Leaf Candy Company was a major American producer of candy and trading cards based in Bannockburn, Illinois and later in Brooklyn, New York. ...


There were several promotional issues issued by Canadian firms since Major League Baseball began in Canada in 1969. There were also several public safety sets issued, most notably the Toronto Blue Jays fire safety sets of the 1980s and early 1990s and the Toronto Public Libraries "Reading is fun" set of 1998 and 1999. These sets were distributed in the Toronto area. Interestingly the cards were monolingual and only issued in English. Major league affiliations American League (1977–present) East Division (1977–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 42 Name Toronto Blue Jays (1977–present) Other nicknames The Jays Ballpark Rogers Centre (1989–present) a. ...


Japan

The first baseball cards appeared in Japan in the late 19th century. Unlike American cards of the same era, the cards utilized traditional Japanese pen and ink illustrations. In the 1920s, black and white photo postcards were issued, but illustrated cards were the norm until the 1950s. The 1950s brought about cards which incorporated photos of players, mostly in black and white. Menko cards also became popular at the time. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Menko (めんこ, 面子) is a Japanese card game played by two or more players. ...


NPB branded baseball cards are currently widely available in Japanese toy stores, convenience stores, sports stores, and as bonus items included in certain packages of potato chips. Part of the History of baseball series. ...


United Kingdom

In 1987 and 1988 the American company Topps issued two series of American baseball cards featuring cards from American and Canadian Major League Baseball teams in the United Kingdom. The full colour cards were produced by Topps Republic of Ireland subsidiary company and contained explanations of baseball terms. Given the unfamiliarity of baseball in the United Kingdom, the issues were unsuccessful. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ...


Latin America

Topps issued licensed sets in Venezuela from 1959 to 1977. Most of the set had Spanish in place of the English text on the cards and the sets included winter league players. There were locally produced cards depicting players from the winter leagues produced by Offset Venezolana C.A., Sport Grafico, and others which were in production until the late 1990s. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


In Cuba, sets were issued first in the early 1900s. By the 1930s various candy and chocolate makers were offering cards, most notably Baguer Chocolate. The post-World War Two era had cards issued by magazines, candy makers, Coca-Cola, and of course a gum company. In post revolution Cuba, baseball cards were still issued. The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ...


Several sets of Mexican League baseball cards have been issued in the past few years. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Rest of the world

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Baseball cards

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about the sport. ... An American Football card is one type of trading card typically printed on paper stock or card stock. ... Hockey cards are a type of trading card typically printed on some sort of card stock, featuring one or more hockey players or other hockey-related editorial and are typically found in countries such as the United States and Canada where hockey is a popular sport and there are professional... Rookie Card is the debut album from popular New Zealand rapper PNC. Rookie Card is set to breathe fresh air into the tiring lungs that is rap. ... Sports card is a generic term for a trading card with a sports-related subject, as opposed to non-sports trading cards. ... A trading card (or collectible card) is a small card which is intended for trading and collecting. ... Cigarette Cards were issued by tobacco manufacturers both to protect the cigarettes by stiffening the pack, and also to gain customer loyalty to their particular brand of cigarettes. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ Fitts, Robert K.. An Introduction to Japanese Baseball Cards. ISBN. 
  2. ^ 1909 Cabanas. Retrieved on 2006-9-19.
  3. ^ 1912 Imperial Tobacco.
  4. ^ Topps Sports History. Retrieved on 2006-9-19.
  5. ^ Early Trade Cards - the First Baseball Cards. Retrieved on 2006-9-19.
  6. ^ Fitts, Robert K.. An Introduction to Japanese Baseball Cards. ISBN. 
  7. ^ Bread Companies, Game Companies, & many other types of companies also produced cards
  8. ^ 1903 E103 Breisch-Williams. Retrieved on 2006-9-19.
  9. ^ Heitman, William R. (1980). The Sport Americana, T206, The Monster. Den's Collectors Den. ISBN. 
  10. ^ The company’s baseball cards last appeared in 1966.
  11. ^ 1933 Goudey R319: A Closer Look at One of the Hobby's "Big Three". Retrieved on 2008-1-8.
  12. ^ Topps Magic Photos. Retrieved on 2006-9-19.
  13. ^ O-Pee-Chee Cards. Retrieved on 2006-9-19.
  14. ^ http://business.enotes.com/company-histories/donruss-playoff-l-p/production-baseball-cards-begins-1981?print=1
  15. ^ 2006 Beckett Almanac of Baseball Cards and Collectibles
  16. ^ 2006 Beckett Almanac of Baseball Cards and Collectibles
  17. ^ 2006 Beckett Almanac of Baseball Cards and Collectibles
  18. ^ 2006 Beckett Almanac of Baseball Cards and Collectibles
  19. ^ 2006 Beckett Almanac of Baseball Cards and Collectibles
  20. ^ 2006 Beckett Almanac of Baseball Cards and Collectibles
  21. ^ A Brief History Of O-Pee-Chee. Retrieved on 2006-9-20.
  22. ^ CBC.ca - Arts - Alternative Canadian Walk of Fame - Inductee: O-Pee-Chee. Retrieved on 2006-9-20.

  Results from FactBites:
 
baseball card - definition of baseball card in Encyclopedia (870 words)
As a result, different types of cards might use photographs, either in fl-and-white or sepia, or color artwork, which might or might not be based on photographs.
Some early baseball cards could be used as part of a game, which might be either a conventional card game or a simulated baseball game.
Starting in about 1886, baseball cards were often included with cigarettes, partly for promotional purposes and partly because the card served to reinforce the packaging and protect the cigarettes from damage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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