FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Base64" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Base64
Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic
Eastern Arabic
Khmer
Indian family
Brahmi
Thai
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Counting rods
Korean
Japanese 
Alphabetic numerals
Abjad
Armenian
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Hebrew
Ionian/Greek
Sanskrit
 
Other systems
Attic
Etruscan
Urnfield
Roman
Babylonian
Egyptian
Mayan
List of numeral system topics
Positional systems by base
Decimal (10)
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…
v  d  e

Base64 is a positional notation using a base of 64. It is the largest power-of-two base that can be represented using single printable ASCII characters. This has led to its use as a transfer encoding for e-mail among other things. All well-known variants that are known by the name Base64 use the characters A–Z, a–z, and 0–9 in that order for the first 62 digits but the symbols chosen for the last two digits vary considerably between different systems. Several other encoding methods such as uuencode and later versions of binhex use a different set of 64 characters to represent 6 binary digits, but these are never called by the name Base64. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Ä€ryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... 64 (sixty-four) is the natural number following 63 and preceding 65. ... In mathematics, a power of two is any of the nonnegative integer powers of the number two; in other words, two times itself a certain number of times. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Uuencode is a form of ASCII armor that originated as a Unix program for encoding binary data for transmission over the uucp mail system. ... BinHex, short for binary-to-hexadecimal, is an ASCII armoring system that was used on the Mac OS for sending binary files through E-mail. ...

Contents

Base 64 encoding schemes

Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM)

The first known use of Base 64 encoding for electronic data transfer was the Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail (PEM) protocol, proposed by RFC 989 in 1987. PEM defines a "printable encoding" scheme that uses Base 64 encoding to transform an arbitrary sequence of octets to a format that can be expressed in short lines of 7-bit characters, as required by transfer protocols such as SMTP. In cryptography, Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail, or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), is a technique for exchanging electronic mail over a public medium securely. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up octet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for email transmission across the Internet. ...


The current version of PEM (specified in RFC 1421) uses a 64-character alphabet consisting of upper- and lower-case Roman alphabet characters (A–Z, a–z), the numerals (0–9), and the "+" and "/" symbols. The "=" symbol is also used as a special suffix code. The original specification, RFC 989, additionally used the "*" symbol to delimit encoded but unencrypted data within the output stream. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


To convert data to PEM printable encoding, the first byte is placed in the most significant eight bits of a 24-bit buffer, the next in the middle eight, and the third in the least significant eight bits. If there are fewer than three bytes left to encode (or in total), the remaining buffer bits will be zero. The buffer is then used, six bits at a time, most significant first, as indices into the string: "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/", and the indicated character is output. The binary representation of decimal 149, with the MSB highlighted. ... The binary representation of decimal 149, with the lsb highlighted. ...


The process is repeated on the remaining data until fewer than four octets remain. If three octets remain, they are processed normally. If fewer than three octets (24 bits) are remaining to encode, the input data is right-padded with zero bits to form an integral multiple of six bits.


After encoding padded data, if two octets were remaining to encode, one "=" character is appended to the output; if one octet was remaining, two "=" characters are appended. This signals the decoder that the zero bits added due to padding should not be emitted in the reconstructed data. This also guarantees that the encoded output length is a multiple of 4 bytes.


PEM requires that all encoded lines consist of exactly 64 printable characters, with the exception of the last line, which may contain fewer printable characters. Lines are delimited by whitespace characters according to local (platform-specific) conventions.


MIME

The MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) specification, defined in RFC 2045, lists "base64" as one of several binary-to-text encoding schemes. MIME's base64 encoding is based on that of the RFC 1421 version of PEM: it uses the same 64-character alphabet and encoding mechanism as PEM, and uses the "=" symbol for output padding in the same way. Look up mime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A binary-to-text encoding is encoding of data in plain text. ...


MIME does not specify a fixed length for base64-encoded lines, but it does specify a maximum length of 76 characters. Additionally it specifies that any extra-alphabetic characters must be ignored by a compliant decoder, although most implementations use a CR/LF newline pair to delimit encoded lines. In computing, a newline is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text. ...


Thus, the actual length of MIME-compliant base64-encoded binary data is usually about 137% of the original data length, though for very short messages the overhead can be a lot higher.


UTF-7

UTF-7, described in RFC 2152, introduced a system called Modified Base64. This data encoding scheme is used to encode UTF-16 as ASCII characters for use in 7-bit transports such as SMTP. It is a variant of the base64 encoding used in MIME. UTF-7 (7-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding that was proposed for representing Unicode-encoded text using a stream of ASCII characters, for example for use in Internet e-mail messages. ... In computing, UTF-16 is a 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a character encoding form that provides a way to represent a series of abstract characters from Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 as a series of 16-bit words suitable for storage or transmission via data networks. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for email transmission across the Internet. ...


The "Modified Base64" alphabet consists of the MIME base64 alphabet, but does not use the "=" padding character. UTF-7 is intended for use in mail headers (defined in RFC 2047), and the "=" character is reserved in that context as the escape character for "quoted-printable" encoding. Modified base64 simply omits the padding and ends immediately after the last BASE64 digit containing useful bits (leaving 0-4 unused bits in the last base64 digit)


OpenPGP

OpenPGP, described in RFC 2440, describes Radix-64 encoding, also known as "ASCII Armor". Radix-64 is identical to the "base64" encoding described from MIME, with the addition of a 24-bit CRC checksum. The checksum is calculated on the input data before encoding; the checksum is then encoded with the same base64 algorithm and, using an additional "=" symbol as separator, concatenated to the encoded output data. A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a type of function that takes as input a data stream of any length and produces as output a value of a certain fixed size. ...


RFC 3548

RFC 3548 (The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings) is an informational (non-normative) memo that attempts to unify the RFC 1421 and RFC 2045 specifications of base64 encodings, alternative-alphabet encodings, and the seldom-used Base 32 and Base 16 encodings.


RFC 3548 forbids implementations from adding non-alphabetic characters unless they are written to a specification that refers to RFC 3548 and specifically requires otherwise; it also declares that decoder implementations must reject data that contains non-alphabetic characters unless they are written to a specification that refers to RFC 3548 and specifically requires otherwise.


RFC 4648

This RFC obsoletes RFC 3548 and focuses on base 64/32/16:

This document describes the commonly used base 64, base 32, and base 16 encoding schemes. It also discusses the use of line-feeds in encoded data, use of padding in encoded data, use of non-alphabet characters in encoded data, use of different encoding alphabets, and canonical encodings.

Example

A quote from Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan: “Hobbes” redirects here. ... Frontispiece of Leviathan, etching by Abraham Bosse, with input from Hobbes For other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ...

Man is distinguished, not only by his reason, but by this singular passion from other animals, which is a lust of the mind, that by a perseverance of delight in the continued and indefatigable generation of knowledge, exceeds the short vehemence of any carnal pleasure.

is encoded in MIME's base64 scheme as follows:

 TWFuIGlzIGRpc3Rpbmd1aXNoZWQsIG5vdCBvbmx5IGJ5IGhpcyByZWFzb24sIGJ1dCBieSB0aGlz IHNpbmd1bGFyIHBhc3Npb24gZnJvbSBvdGhlciBhbmltYWxzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBhIGx1c3Qgb2Yg dGhlIG1pbmQsIHRoYXQgYnkgYSBwZXJzZXZlcmFuY2Ugb2YgZGVsaWdodCBpbiB0aGUgY29udGlu dWVkIGFuZCBpbmRlZmF0aWdhYmxlIGdlbmVyYXRpb24gb2Yga25vd2xlZGdlLCBleGNlZWRzIHRo ZSBzaG9ydCB2ZWhlbWVuY2Ugb2YgYW55IGNhcm5hbCBwbGVhc3VyZS4= 

In the above quote the encoded value of Man is TWFu. Encoded in ASCII, M, a, n are stored as the bytes 77, 97, 110, which are 01001101, 01100001, 01101110 in base 2. These three bytes are joined together in a 24 bit buffer producing 010011010110000101101110. Packs of 6 bits (6 bits has a maximum of 64 different binary values) are converted into 4 numbers (24 = 6x4) which are then converted to their corresponding values in Base 64. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...

Text content M a n
ASCII 77 97 110
Bit pattern 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Index 19 22 5 46
Base64-Encoded T W F u

As this example illustrates, Base 64 encoding converts 3 uncoded bytes (in this case, ASCII characters) into 4 encoded ASCII characters.


The example below illustrates how shortening the input changes the output padding:

 Input ends with: carnal pleasure. Output ends with: c3VyZS4= Input ends with: carnal pleasure Output ends with: c3VyZQ== Input ends with: carnal pleasur Output ends with: c3Vy Input ends with: carnal pleasu Output ends with: c3U= 

Implementation

The traditional (MIME) base64 encoding and decoding processes are fairly simple to implement. Here an example using Javascript is given, including the MIME/etc required line breaks at particular line lengths. It is worth noting however, that many base64 functions (e.g. in PHP) return base64 encrypted strings without the line breaks, as the line breaks can be inserted easily after encoding, and many times the base64 encoding is desired only for safely transferring data via XML or inserting into a database, etc -- times when the line breaks are known to be unnecessary and therefore undesirable. The newline inserting and removing in these functions here can easily be commented out (they are each only one line in the respective functions) if they are not needed. For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


An array of the base 64 characters is necessary for encoding, such as:

 var base64chars = 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/'.split(""); 

And decoding will require the inverse list (swap the indices for the values), such as:

 var base64inv = {}; for (var i = 0; i < base64chars.length; i++) { base64inv[base64chars[i]] = i; } 


Note that in real implementations, it is better to explicitly list the entire array/hash for each list above -- the one-liners here are given to demostrate the idea as directly as possible, rather than being the ideal in practice.



The base64 encoding function:

 function base64_encode (s) { // the result/encrypted string, the padding string, and the pad count var r = ""; var p = ""; var c = s.length % 3; // add a right zero pad to make this string a multiple of 3 characters if (c > 0) { for (; c < 3; c++) { p += '='; s += "0"; } } // increment over the length of the string, three characters at a time for (c = 0; c < s.length; c += 3) { // we add newlines after every 76 output characters, according to the MIME specs if (c > 0 && (c / 3 * 4) % 76 == 0) { r += "rn"; } // these three 8-bit (ASCII) characters become one 24-bit number var n = (s.charCodeAt(c) << 16) + (s.charCodeAt(c+1) << 8) + s.charCodeAt(c+2); // this 24-bit number gets separated into four 6-bit numbers n = [(n >>> 18) & 63, (n >>> 12) & 63, (n >>> 6) & 63, n & 63]; // those four 6-bit numbers are used as indices into the base64 character list r += base64chars[n[0]] + base64chars[n[1]] + base64chars[n[2]] + base64chars[n[3]]; // add the actual padding string, after removing the zero pad } return r.substring(0, r.length - p.length) + p; } 

The base64 decoding function:

 function base64_decode (s) { // replace any incoming padding with a zero pad (the 'A' character is zero) var p = (s.charAt(s.length-1) == '=' ? (s.charAt(s.length-2) == '=' ? 'AA' : 'A') : ""); var r = ""; s = s.substr(0, s.length - p.length) + p; // remove/ignore any characters not in the base64 characters list -- particularly newlines s = s.replace(new RegExp('[^'+base64chars.join("")+']', 'g'), ""); // increment over the length of this encrypted string, four characters at a time for (var c = 0; c < s.length; c += 4) { // each of these four characters represents a 6-bit index in the base64 characters list // which, when concatenated, will give the 24-bit number for the original 3 characters var n = (base64inv[s.charAt(c)] << 18) + base64inv[s.charAt(c+3)] + (base64inv[s.charAt(c+1)] << 12) + (base64inv[s.charAt(c+2)] << 6); // split the 24-bit number into the original three 8-bit (ASCII) characters r += String.fromCharCode((n >>> 16) & 255, (n >>> 8) & 255, n & 255); // remove any zero pad that was added to make this a multiple of 24 bits } return r.substring(0, r.length - p.length); } 

The above implementation is best with a language like Javascript that handles string concatenation of arbitrary length strings very efficiently. Other languages (e.g. C) will work much more efficiently by allocating memory for a new string/array of the appropriate size (the output string length is easily calculated from the input string at the very beginning) and then simply setting each character index, as opposed to concatenation.


URL applications

Base64 encoding can be helpful when fairly lengthy identifying information is used in an HTTP environment. Hibernate, a database persistence framework for Java objects, uses Base64 encoding to encode a relatively large unique id (generally 128-bit UUIDs) into a string for use as an HTTP parameter in HTTP forms or HTTP GET URLs. Also, many applications need to encode binary data in a way that is convenient for inclusion in URLs, including in hidden web form fields, and Base64 is a convenient encoding to render them in not only a compact way, but in a relatively unreadable one when trying to obscure the nature of data from a casual human observer. Hibernate is an object-relational mapping (ORM) solution for the Java language: it provides an easy to use framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a traditional relational database. ... “Java language” redirects here. ... A Universally Unique Identifier is an identifier standard used in software construction, standardized by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) as part of the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). ... A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (spelled out as an acronym, not pronounced as earl), or Web address, is a standardized address name layout for resources (such as documents or images) on the Internet (or elsewhere). ...


Using a URL-encoder on standard Base64, however, is inconvenient as it will translate the '+' and '/' characters into special '%XX' hexadecimal sequences ('+' = '%2B' and '/' = '%2F'). When this is later used with database storage or across heterogeneous systems, they will themselves choke on the '%' character generated by URL-encoders (because the '%' character is also used in ANSI SQL as a wildcard).


For this reason, a modified Base64 for URL variant exists, where no padding '=' will be used, and the '+' and '/' characters of standard Base64 are respectively replaced by '*' and '-', so that using URL encoders/decoders is no longer necessary and has no impact on the length of the encoded value, leaving the same encoded form intact for use in relational databases, web forms, and object identifiers in general.


Another variant called modified Base64 for regexps uses '!-' instead of '*-' to replace the standard Base64 '+/', because both '+' and '*' may be reserved for regular expressions (note that '[]' used in the IRCu variant above would not work in that context). A regular expression (abbreviated as regexp, regex or regxp) is a string that describes or matches a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ...


There are other variants that use '_-' or '._' when the Base64 variant string must be used within valid identifiers for programs, or '.-' for use in XML name tokens (Nmtoken), or even '_:' for use in more restricted XML identifiers (Name). The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


Other applications

Base64 can be used in a variety of contexts:

  • Thunderbird and Evolution both use Base64 to obscure e-mail passwords[citation needed]
  • Base64 is often used as a quick but insecure shortcut to obscure secrets without incurring the overhead of cryptographic key management
  • Spammers use Base64 to evade basic anti-spam tools, which often do not decode Base64 and therefore cannot detect keywords in encoded messages.
  • Base64 is used to encode character strings in LDIF files
  • Base64 is sometimes used to embed binary data in an XML file, using a syntax similar to <data encoding="base64">......</data> e.g.: Firefox's bookmarks.html.
  • Base64 is also used when communicating with Fiscal Signature/Printing devices (usually, over COM or LPT ports) to minimize the delay when transferring receipt characters for signing.

Mozilla Thunderbird is a free, cross-platform e-mail and news client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. ... Evolution or Novell Evolution (formerly Ximian Evolution, prior to Novells 2003 acquisition of Ximian) is the official personal information manager and workgroup information management tool for GNOME. It combines e-mail, calendar, address book, and task list management functions. ... For information on the game Password, see Password (game). ... In cryptography, key management includes all of the provisions made in a cryptosystem design, in cryptographic protocols in that design, in user procedures, and so on, which are related to generation, exchange, storage, safeguarding, use, vetting, and replacement of keys. ... A KMail folder full of spam emails collected over a few days. ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... E.G. is an Australian only release EP from New Zealand four piece Goodshirt. ... Firefox may refer to: Firefox (novel), written by Craig Thomas, published in 1978 Firefox (film), the 1982 movie starring Clint Eastwood, based on the novel Firefox (arcade game), the laserdisc arcade game based on the movie Mozilla Firefox, a web browser The Red Fox or the Red Panda, based on...

See also

Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Ascii85 is a form of ASCII Armor developed by Adobe Systems. ... Quoted-printable is an encoding using ASCII characters for non-ASCII text. ... Uuencode is a form of ASCII armor that originated as a Unix program for encoding binary data for transmission over the uucp mail system. ... yEnc is a binary to text encoding for transferring binary files on the Usenet or via e-mail. ... 8BITMIME (RFC 1652) is an SMTP extension standardized in 1994 that facilitates the exchange of e-mail messages containing octets outside the seven-bit ASCII range. ... A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (spelled out as an acronym, not pronounced as earl), or Web address, is a standardized address name layout for resources (such as documents or images) on the Internet (or elsewhere). ...

External links

  • RFC 989 and RFC 1421 (Privacy Enhancement for Electronic Internet Mail)
  • RFC 2045 (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies)
  • RFC 3548 and RFC 4648 (The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings)
  • Home of the Base64 specification, with an online decoder and C99 implementation
  • Base64 primer tutorial with accompanying lecture slides
  • [1] and [2]
  • Base64 implementation in Java
  • Base64 implementation in JavaScript

  Results from FactBites:
 
Base64: Encode and Decode Base64 Files (506 words)
By default, upon encountering a non white space character which does not belong to the base64 set, or discovering the input file is incorrectly padded to a multiple of four characters, base64 issues an error message and terminates processing with exit status 1.
base64 returns status 0 if processing was completed without errors, 1 if an I/O error occurred or errors were detected in decoding a file which indicate it is incorrect or incomplete, and 2 if processing could not be performed at all due, for example, to a nonexistent input file.
This is inherent in the design of base64, which assumes transmission integrity is the responsibility of a higher-level protocol.
Base64 Encoding / Decoding - Webmaster Tools - Webmaster Tools, Developer Tools, Programming Tools (697 words)
Base64 or quadrosexagesimal is a positional notation using a base of 64.
All well-known variants that are known by the name Base64 use the characters A–Z, a–z, and 0–9 in that order for the first 62 digits but the symbols chosen for the last two digits vary considerably between different systems.
You can use this base64 encoder and decoder to convert source text data from several code pages and encode them to a base64 string or decode base64 strings to a plain text.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m