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Encyclopedia > Base (chemistry)
Acids and bases:

edit For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Acid-base extraction in chemistry is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify amines and acids from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit is a chemical reaction that... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit An acidity function is a... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit Buffer solutions are solutions which resist change... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit The proton affinity, Epa, of... The self-ionization of water is the chemical reaction in which two water molecules react to produce a hydronium (H3O+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-): The reaction is also known as the autoionization or autodissociation of water. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Headline text Happy Hannukah and a happy new year!! POOP e Butt ... An organic acid is an organic compound that is an acid. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A... A superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% sulfuric acid. ... A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was represented by the general formula HA, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of undissolved HA still remains. ... A Lewis base is any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An organic base is an organic compound which acts as a base. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into base (chemistry). ... In chemistry, a superbase is an extremely strong base. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit As... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a weak base is a...

In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as a substance that can accept protons. This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternate definitions of bases include electron pair donors (Lewis), and as sources of hydroxide anions (Arrhenius). Examples of simple bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ... Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


Bases can be thought of as the chemical opposite of acids. A reaction between an acid and base is called neutralization. Bases and acids are seen as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Bases react with acids to produce water and salts (or their solutions). Some general properties of bases include: For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react and produce a salt and water. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other meanings of the word salt see table salt or salt (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The basic tastes are the commonly recognized types of taste sensed by humans. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a compound that contains this functional group. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... Causticity is, in chemistry, the property of a substance that causes corrosion, the deterioration of a material. ... The term litmus test can be literal or metaphorical. ...

Definitions

Main article: acid-base reaction theories

A strong base is a base which hydrolyzes completely, raising the pH of the solution towards 14. Strong bases, like strong acids, attack living tissue and cause serious burns. They react differently to skin than acids do, so while strong acids are corrosive, we say that strong bases are caustic. Superbases are a class of especially basic compounds and non-nucleophilic bases are a special class of strong bases with poor nucleophilicity. Bases may also be weak bases such as ammonia, which is used for cleaning. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and these solutions always have a pH greater than 7. An alkali is a special example of a base, where in an aqueous environment, hydroxide ions(also viewed as OH-) are donated. There are other more generalized and advanced definitions of acids and bases. Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... Strength can mean: Physical strength of organisms means (especially the muscles of most metazoa) of locomotion and movement Strength of materials in physics, engineering and materials science Strength is a rap compilation presented by Asiatic Warriors The word strengths is one of the longest English words with one syllable. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Causticity is, in chemistry, the property of a substance that causes corrosion, the deterioration of a material. ... In chemistry, a superbase is an extremely strong base. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit As... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a weak base is a... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a...


The notion of a base as a concept in chemistry was first introduced by the French chemist Guillaume François Rouelle in 1754. He noted that acids which in those days were mostly volatile liquids (like acetic acid) turned into solid salts only when combined with specific substances. These substances form a concrete base for the salt [1] and hence the name. Guillaume François Rouelle (1703-1770) was a French chemist and apothecary. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ...


Bases and pH

The pH of (impure) water is a measure of its acidity. In pure water, about one in ten million molecules dissociate into hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH), according to the following equation: For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. // Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...

2H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)

The concentration, measured in molarity (M or moles per dm³), of the ions is indicated as [H3O+] and [OH]; their product is the dissociation constant of water with and has the value 10−7 M. The pH is defined as −log [H3O+]; thus, pure water has a pH of 7. (These numbers are correct at 23 °C and slightly different at other temperatures.) For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... Look up mole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry and biochemistry, a dissociation constant or an ionization constant is a specific type of equilibrium constant used for reversible reactions or processes. ...


A base accepts (removes) hydronium ions (H3O+) from the solution, or donates hydroxide ions (OH-) to the solution. Both actions will lower the concentration of hydronium ions, and thus raise pH. By contrast, an acid donates H3O+ ions to the solution or accepts OH, thus lowering pH. In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. // Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...


For example, if 1 mole of sodium hydroxide (40 g) is dissolved in 1 litre of water, the concentration of hydroxide ions becomes [OH] = 1 mol/L. Therefore [H+] = 10−14 mol/L, and pH = −log 10−14 = 14. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ...


The basicity constant or pKb is a measure of basicity and related to the pKa by the simple relationship pKa + pKb = 14. In chemistry and biochemistry, acid dissociation constant, the acidity constant, or the acid-ionization constant () is a specific type of equilibrium constant that indicates the extent of dissociation of hydrogen ions from an acid. ...


Alkalinity is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence points of carbonates or bicarbonates. Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ...


Neutralization of acids

When dissolved in water, the base sodium hydroxide decomposes into hydroxide and sodium ions: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...

NaOH → Na+ + OH-

and similarly, in water hydrogen chloride forms hydronium and chloride ions: R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-

When the two solutions are mixed, the H3O+ and OH ions combine to form water molecules:

H3O+ + OH- → 2 H2O

If equal quantities of NaOH and HCl are dissolved, the base and the acid exactly neutralize, leaving only NaCl, effectively table salt, in solution. Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ...


Weak bases, such as soda or egg white, should be used to neutralize any acid spills. Neutralizing acid spills with strong bases, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide can cause a violent exothermic reaction, and the base itself can cause just as much damage as the original acid spill. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ...


Alkalinity of non-hydroxides

Both sodium carbonate and ammonia are bases, although neither of these substances contains OH groups. That is because both compounds accept H+ when dissolved in water: Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...

Na2CO3 + H2O → 2 Na+ + HCO3- + OH-
NH3 + H2O → NH4+ + OH-

Carbon can act as a base as well as nitrogen and oxygen. This occurs typically in compounds such as butyl lithium For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... An organolithium reagent is a carbon nucleophile similar to a Grignard reagent. ...


Strong bases

A strong base is a basic chemical compound that is able to deprotonate very weak acids in an acid-base reaction. Compounds with a pKa of more than about 13 are called strong bases. Common examples of strong bases are the hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals like NaOH and Ca(OH)2. Very strong bases are even able to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H groups in the absence of water. Hydroxide compounds in order of strongest to weakest:

The cations of these strong bases appear in the 1st and 2nd groups of the Periodic Table (Alkali and Alkali-Earth Metals). The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Barium hydroxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ba(OH)2. ... Caesium hydroxide, (CsOH) is a chemical compound consisting of an atom of caesium and a hydroxide group (also known as hydroxyl). ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... // Preparation Uses Used chiefly in the refining of beet sugar. ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ... Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive alkali. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ...


Group 1 salts of carbanions, amides, and hydrides tend to be even stronger bases due the conjugate acids, which are stable hydrocarbons, amines, and water.

An organolithium reagent is a carbon nucleophile similar to a Grignard reagent. ... Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA), is a strong base, widely used in organic chemistry for the generation of carbanions. ... Sodium amide, also called sodamide, is NaNH2. ... Sodium hydride is a highly flammable, and corrosive chemical compound with formula NaH and CAS number 7646-69-7. ...

Bases as heterogeneous catalysts

Basic substances can be used as insoluble heterogeneous catalysts for chemical reactions. Examples are metal oxides such as magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, and barium oxide as well as potassium fluoride on alumina and some zeolites. A great deal of transition metals make good catalysts, many of which form basic substances. Basic catalysts have been used for hydrogenations, the migration of double bonds, in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verlay reduction, the Michael reaction, and many other reactions. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... ... The chemical compound potassium fluoride (KF) is a metal halide composed of potassium and fluoride. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

  • Acid-base reactions
  • Acids

Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit is a chemical reaction that... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Acid-Base equilibrium diagrams, pH calculation and titration curves simulation and analysis - freeware Link

References

  1. ^ The Origin of the Term Base William B. Jensen Journal of Chemical Education • 1130 Vol. 83 No. 8 August 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
SIUC - CHEM140B - Study Guide (0 words)
Distinguish a nucleoside (base+ sugar) from a nucleotide (base+ sugar+ phosphate).
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acids and bases, two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water.Acids: Any compounds that react with bases to form a salt and turn blue litmus red.
Bases: Compounds that react with acids to form a salt and turn red litmus blue.
One purpose of this lesson is for you to become familiar with many aspects of acids and bases.
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