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Encyclopedia > Bartitsu

Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Self-defense usually refers to the use of violence to protect oneself and is a possible justification for this otherwise illegal act. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

A montage of Bartitsu self defence techniques.
A montage of Bartitsu self defence techniques.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x800, 264 KB)I created this photomontage on 3 Febraury 2005 and give permission for it to pass into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x800, 264 KB)I created this photomontage on 3 Febraury 2005 and give permission for it to pass into the public domain. ...

History

In 1898, Edward William Barton-Wright, a British engineer who had been building railways in Japan, returned to England and announced the formation of a "New Art of Self Defence".[1] This art, he claimed, combined the best elements of a range of fighting styles into a unified whole, which he had named Bartitsu. The word was a portmanteau of his own surname and of "jiujitsu".[2] A montage of techniques from Bartitsu. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ...


As detailed in a series of articles Barton-Wright produced for Pearson's Magazine between 1899 and 1904, Bartitsu was largely drawn from the Shinden Fudo, Tenjin-Shinyo, Fusen and Daito Ryu schools of koryu ("classical") jujutsu and from Kodokan judo. The art also incorporated combat techniques from British boxing, Swiss schwingen, French savate, and a defensive stick fighting style that had been developed by Professeur Pierre Vigny of Switzerland as well as a comprehensive physical culture training system. Shinden Fudo Ryu is a school of dakentaijutsu and jutaijutsu/jujutsu. ... Tenjin Shinyo-ryu can be classified as a koryu (traditional) form of jujutsu. ... Koryu (古流 koryÅ«) is a Japanese word that translates literally as old school or old tradition. It refers to schools of martial arts that predate the Meiji Restoration, a political event that precipitated Japans modernization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kodokan Institute is the headquarters of the Judo World. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... Schwingen is a Swiss version of wrestling. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... Stick fighting is a generic term for martial arts which utilize simple long slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden sticks for fighting such as a staff, cane, walking stick, baton or similar. ... Pierre Vigny (? - ?) was a Swiss master-at-arms who was active during the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... Physical Culture Physical Culture, (or Physie - pronounced fizzy) is a sport for girls and women from 4 years up which aims to build confidence, good posture, strength, grace, and flexibility through exercise. ...


In 1902, Barton-Wright wrote:[3]

Under Bartitsu is included boxing, or the use of the fist as a hitting medium, the use of the feet both in an offensive and defensive sense, the use of the walking stick as a means of self-defence. Judo and jujitsu, which were secret styles of Japanese wrestling, he would call close play as applied to self-defence.
In order to ensure as far as it was possible immunity against injury in cowardly attacks or quarrels, they must understand boxing in order to thoroughly appreciate the danger and rapidity of a well-directed blow, and the particular parts of the body which were scientifically attacked. The same, of course, applied to the use of the foot or the stick.
Judo and jujitsu were not designed as primary means of attack and defence against a boxer or a man who kicks you, but were only to be used after coming to close quarters, and in order to get to close quarters it was absolutely necessary to understand boxing and the use of the foot.

Golden years

Between 1899 and 1903, Barton-Wright set about publicising his art through magazine articles, interviews and a series of demonstrations or "assaults at arms" at various London venues. He established a school called the Bartitsu Academy of Arms and Phyical Culture, also known as the Bartitsu Club, which was located at #67b Shaftesbury Avenue in Soho. In an article for Sandow's Magazine published in 1902, journalist Mary Nugent described the Bartitsu Club as "... a huge subterranean hall, all glittering, white-tiled walls, and electric light, with 'champions' prowling around it like tigers."[4] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Shaftesbury Avenue is a major London street, named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, that runs in a north-easterly direction from Piccadilly Circus to New Oxford Street, crossing Charing Cross Road at Cambridge Circus. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Via correspondence with Professor Jigoro Kano, the founder of Kodokan Judo, and other contacts in Japan, Barton-Wright arranged for Japanese jujutsu practitioners Yukio Tani and Sadakazu Uyenishi to travel to London and serve as instructors at the Bartitsu Club. Swiss master-at-arms Pierre Vigny and wrestler Armand Cherpillod were also employed as teachers at the Club. As well as teaching well-to-do Londoners, their duties included performing demonstrations and competing in challenge matches against fighters representing other combat styles.[5] In addition, the Club became the headquarters for a group of fencing antiquarians led by Egerton Castle and Captain Alfred Hutton, and it served as their base for experimenting with historical fencing techniques, which they taught to members of London's acting elite for use in stage combat.[2] Dr. Jigorō Kanō (嘉納 治五郎 Kanō Jigorō, 1860 in Kobe, Japan - 1938) is the founder of Judo. ... Yukio Tani (1881 – 1950) introduced the art of Judo (originally called Kano Ryu JuJitsu) to the United Kingdom. ... Pierre Vigny (? - ?) was a Swiss master-at-arms who was active during the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Egerton Castle (1858-1920) was a Victorian era antiquarian and swordsman, and an early practitioner of reconstructed historical fencing. ... Captain Alfred Hutton (1839–1910) was a Victorian officer of the Kings Dragoon Guards, antiquarian and swordsman. ... Historical martial arts reconstructions are attempts at reviving martial arts with no living tradition. ... Actresses Uma Thurman (right) and Vivica A. Fox performing a fight choreography Stage combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. ...


Bartitsu Club membership included Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon, who was later to achieve notoriety as one of the few adult male survivors of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, as well as Captain F.C. Laing of the 12th Bengal Infantry, who subsequently wrote an article on Bartitsu stick fighting techniques which was published in the Journal of the United Service Institution of India.[6] Sir Cosmo Edmund Duff Gordon, 5th Baronet (July 22, 1862 - April 20, 1931), the son of the Hon. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ...


Barton-Wright later reported that, during this period, he had challenged and defeated seven larger men within three minutes as part of a Bartitsu demonstration he gave at St. James's Hall. He said this feat earned him a membership in the prestigious Bath Club and also a Royal Command to appear before Edward, Prince of Wales.[7] Unfortunately, Barton-Wright then suffered an injury to his hand, due either to a fight in a Kentish country lane or a bicycling accident, which prevented him from appearing before the Prince.[8] See Gentlemens club for an explanation of this particular sort of club. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ...


Self defence

It is unclear whether Barton-Wright ever devised a formal curriculum for Bartitsu as a self defence method. He encouraged members of the Bartitsu Club to study each of the four major hand-to-hand combat styles taught at the Club, with the goal of mastering each style well enough that they could be used against the others if needed. This process was similar to the modern concept of cross-training. For a curriculum vitae, see Résumé. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... Cross training also known as conditioning refers to training in different ways to improve overall performance. ...


Based on Barton-Wright's writings upon this subject, contemporary researchers believe that Bartitsu placed greatest emphasis upon the Vigny cane fighting system at the striking range and upon jujutsu (and, secondarily, the "all-in" style of European wrestling) at the grappling range. Savate and boxing methods were used to segue between these two ranges, or as a means of first response should the defender not be armed with a walking stick. Barton-Wright also modified the techniques of both boxing and savate for self defence purposes, as distinct from academic training and sporting competition. [2] In music, segue is a direction to the performer. ...


According to interviewer Mary Nugent, Barton-Wright instituted an unusual pedagogical system whereby students were first required to attend private training sessions before being allowed to join class groups.[8] It is currently believed that both private and group classes included pre-arranged exercises, especially for use in rehearsing those techniques that were too dangerous to be performed at full speed or contact, as well as free-sparring and fencing bouts.[2]


Many Bartitsu self defence techniques and sequences were recorded by Barton-Wright himself in his series of articles for Pearson's Magazine. The specific details of other Bartitsu stick fighting training drills were recorded in Captain Laing's article.


Decline

Despite his enthusiasm, Barton-Wright seems to have been a mediocre promoter and the fame of his associates and their jujutsu quickly eclipsed that of Bartitsu. By 1903, the Bartitsu Club had closed its doors for the last time; subsequent speculation had it that both the enrollment fee and the tuition fees had been too high.


Most of Barton-Wright's assistants, including jujutsuka Yukio Tani and Sadekazu Uyenishi and Swiss self defence expert Pierre Vigny, established their own self defence and combat sports gymnasia in London. After breaking with Barton-Wright, purportedly due to an argument and a fight, Tani also continued his work as a professional music-hall wrestler under the shrewd management of William Bankier, a strength performer and magazine publisher who went by the stage name of "Apollo".[7] Music hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960. ...


Although Barton-Wright may have continued to develop and teach his martial art at least until the 1920s, it never again returned to prominence. Bartitsu might have been completely forgotten if not for a chance mention by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in one of his Sherlock Holmes mystery stories. In "The Adventure of the Empty House" (1903), Holmes explained that he had escaped the clutches of his enemy Professor Moriarty through his knowledge of "baritsu, or Japanese wrestling". Doyle mis-spelled the name of the art; this error, in addition to the anachronism of portraying Bartitsu in a story set several years before the art had actually been invented, was enough to intrigue and confuse Holmesian scholars for most of the next century.[9] Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 - July 7, 1930) is the British author most famously known for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... The Adventure of the Empty House, one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of 13 stories in the cycle collected as The Return of Sherlock Holmes. ... Professor Moriarty, illustration by Sidney Paget which accompanied the original publication of The Final Problem. Professor James Moriarty is a fictional character who is the best known antagonist (and archenemy) of the detective Sherlock Holmes. ... Jujutsu (also jujitsu, ju jitsu, ju jutsu, or jiu jitsu; from the Japanese 柔術 jūjutsu gentle/yielding/compliant Art) is a Japanese martial art. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


E.W. Barton-Wright spent the rest of his career working as a physical therapist specialising in innovative (and sometimes controversial) forms of heat, light, and radiation therapy.[2] In 1950, Barton-Wright was interviewed for an article appearing in the Budokwai newsletter, and later that year he was presented to the audience at a Budokwai gathering in London. He died in 1951, at the age of 90, and was buried in what the late martial arts historian Richard Bowen described as being "a pauper's grave."[10] The Budokwai (The Way of Knighthood Society) was the first Judo club in Europe with membership open to the general public. ...


Legacy

In many ways, E.W. Barton-Wright was a man ahead of his time. He was among the first Europeans known to have studied the Japanese martial arts, and was almost certainly the first to have taught them in Europe, the Commonwealth of Nations or the Americas. Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Bartitsu was probably the first martial art to have deliberately combined Asian and European fighting styles towards addressing the problems of civilian/urban self-defence in an "unarmed society". In this, Barton-Wright anticipated Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do approach by over seventy years. Barton-Wright's philosophy of pragmatic eclecticism was taken up by other early 20th century European self-defence specialists, including Percy Longhurst, George Dubois and Jean-Joseph Renaud, all of whom had studied with former Bartitsu Club instructors.[2] Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a... Jeet Kune Do (Chinese: Cantonese: Jitkyùndou Pinyin: Jiéquándào, lit. ... Look up pragmatism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A similar philosophy was later to be embraced by Bill Underwood, William E. Fairbairn and others charged with developing close combat systems for use by Allied troops during the Second World War. Underwood had actually studied jujutsu with Yukio Tani and another jujutsuka, Taro Miyake, in London during the first decade of the 20th century. The systems founded by Underwood, Fairbairn, and their contemporaries became the basis for most military and police close-combat training throughout the Western world during the 20th century. William Ewart Fairbairn (1885-1960) was a soldier, police officer, and exponent of hand-to-hand combat methods for the Shanghai police between the World Wars, and allied special forces in World War II. He served with the Royal Marine Light Infantry starting in 1901. ... Close Combat is the name of a series of tactical real-time (RTT) computer games by Atomic Games, as well as a first-person shooter by Destineer Games. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Taro Miyake was a Japanese professional wrestler who toured all over the U.S. in the 1920s. ...


E.W. Barton-Wright is also remembered as a pioneering promoter of mixed martial arts or MMA contests, in which experts in different fighting styles compete under common rules. Barton-Wright's champions, including Yukio Tani and Swiss schwingen wrestler Armand Cherpillod, enjoyed considerable success in these contests, which anticipated the MMA phenomenon of the 1990s by a hundred years. For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Schwingen is a Swiss version of wrestling. ...


The Bartitsu Club was the first school of its type in Europe to offer specialised classes in women's self defence, a practice taken up after the Club's demise by students of Yukio Tani and Sadekazu Uyenishi including Edith Garrud and Emily Watts. Mrs. Garrud established her own jiujitsu dojo (school) in London and also taught the art to members of the militant Suffragette movement, establishing an early association between self defence training and the political philosophy of feminism. Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ... Feminists redirects here. ...


Contemporary interest

In 2001, the Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences (EJMAS) web site[7] began to re-publish many of Barton-Wright's magazine articles that had been uncovered by Richard Bowen.[11] Almost immediately, the "Self Defence with a Walking Stick" articles attracted a minor cult following and the illustrations were reproduced, often with humorous captions or other alterations, on a number of other sites.


In 2002, an international association of Bartitsu enthusiasts, known as the Bartitsu Society, was formed to research and then revive E.W. Barton-Wright's "New Art of Self Defence". The Bartitsu Society divides Bartitsu research into two related fields, those of canonical Bartitsu (the self-defense sequences that were detailed by Barton-Wright and his assistants between 1899-1902) and neo-Bartitsu (modern, individualised interpretations drawing from, but not bound to, the original source material). Associated interests include social phenomena such as street gangsterism at the turn of the Twentieth Century, the martial training of the militant Suffragette movement, and the study of the martial arts as Victorian and Edwardian social history. The Bartitsu Society communicates via an email group established by author Will Thomas and individual members occasionally offer practical seminars in Bartitsu fighting techniques. Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gang. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Victorian can refer to: people from or attributes of places called Victoria (disambiguation page), including Victoria, Australia, people who lived during the British Victorian era of the 19th century, and aspects of the Victorian era, for example: Victorian architecture Victorian fashion Victorian morality Victorian literature This is a disambiguation page... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Will Thomas (Born 1958 in Bucks County, Pennsylvania) is a novelist who writes a Victorian mystery series featuring Cyrus Barker, a Scottish detective or private enquiry agent, and his Welsh assistant, Thomas Llewelyn. ...


In August 2005, the Society published a book, The Bartitsu Compendium, which was edited by Tony Wolf.[2] The Compendium details the complete history of the art as well as a technical curriculum for canonical Bartitsu.


In September 2006, Bartitsu Society member Kirk Lawson released a DVD presentation entitled Bartitsu - the Martial Art of Sherlock Holmes, which is a presentation of Bartitsu techniques as demonstrated at the Spring '06 Cumann Bhata Western Martial Arts Seminar.


In October 2006, the Bartitsu Society launched the Bartitsu.org website, which includes information on the history, theory and practice of Barton-Wright's martial art.


Proceeds from the sales of the Bartitsu Compendium and the Martial Art of Sherlock Holmes DVD have been dedicated to creating a memorial for E.W. Barton-Wright.


Online essays by Barton-Wright

  • "The New Art of Self-defence: How a Man May Defend Himself against Every Form of Attack," Pearson's Magazine, March 1899, v. 7, pp. 268-275.[8]
  • "The New Art of Self-defence," Pearson's Magazine, April 1899, v. 7, pp. 402-410.[9]
  • "Self-defence with a Walking Stick," Pearson's Magazine, February 1901, v. 11, pp. 130-139.[10]

References

  1. ^ Wolf, Tony and Marwood, James. (2007) "The Origins of Bartitsu."[1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Wolf, Tony (ed.) The Bartitsu Compendium. Lulu Publications, 2005.
  3. ^ Barton-Wright, E.W. "Ju-jitsu and judo." Transactions of the Japan Society, 1902, v. 5, p. 261.
  4. ^ Wolf, Tony and Marwood, James. (2006) "The Bartitsu Club."[2]
  5. ^ Anonymous. "The Bartitsu Tournament," Sandow's Magazine, January 1902, v. 43:18, pp. 28-31. [3]
  6. ^ Laing, F.C. "The 'Bartitsu' Method of Self-Defence."[4]
  7. ^ a b Koizumi, Gunji. "Facts and History," Budokwai Quarterly Bulletin, July 1950, 17-19.
  8. ^ a b Nugent, Mary. "Barton-Wright and his Japanese Wrestlers," Health and Strength, December 1901, v. 3:6, pp. 336-341.
  9. ^ Bowen, Richard. "Further Lessons in Baritsu," The Ritual: Review of the Northern Musgraves Sherlock Holmes Society, 1997, v. 20, pp. 22-26.
  10. ^ Noble, Graham. "The Master of Bartitsu," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 1999, v. 8:2, pp. 50-61.[5]
  11. ^ University of Bath Archives, Richard Bowen Collection.[6]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Bartitsu (1924 words)
Under Bartitsu is included boxing, or the use of the fist as a hitting medium, the use of the feet both in an offensive and defensive sense, the use of the walking stick as a means of self-defence.
Bartitsu was probably the first martial art to have deliberately combined Asian and European fighting styles towards addressing the problems of civilian/urban self-defence in an "unarmed society".
The Bartitsu Society divides Bartitsu research into two related fields, those of canonical Bartitsu (the self-defense sequences that were detailed by Barton-Wright and his assistants between 1899-1902) and neo-Bartitsu (modern, individualised interpretations drawing from, but not bound to, the original source material).
Bartitsu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1689 words)
Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 1890s and early 1900s.
Under Bartitsu is included boxing, or the use of the fist as a hitting medium, the use of the feet both in an offensive and defensive sense, the use of the walking stick as a means of self-defence.
Bartitsu was probably the first martial art to have deliberately combined Asian and European fighting styles towards addressing the problems of civilian/urban self-defence in an “unarmed society”.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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