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Encyclopedia > Bartholomew Roberts
Bartholomew Roberts
1682-1722

Bartholomew Roberts at Ouidah with his ship and captured merchantmen in the background.
Nickname: Black Bart
Type: Pirate
Place of birth: Flag of WalesCasnewydd Bach, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Place of death: At sea off Cape Lopez, Gabon
Years of service: 1719-1722
Rank: Captain
Base of Operations: Off the coast of the Americas and West Africa
Commands: Royal Fortune, Ranger, Little Ranger
Wealth: over 470 vessels
Pirates and privateers

PiratesPrivateers
BuccaneersCorsairs
Barbary piratesWokou
Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Edward_England. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ...

Jolly Roger
Golden Age of Piracy
Timeline of piracy
List of pirate films
Places:

Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Strait of Malacca
Port RoyalTortugaSaint-Malo
LibertatiaBarbary Coast
Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This is a timeline of the history of piracy. ... List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... For other uses, see Tortuga (disambiguation). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a legendary country, or free colony, forged by pirates, under the leadership of Captain Misson in the late 1600s. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ...

Famous Pirates and Privateers:

Sir Francis Drake • Sir Henry Morgan
Bartholomew RobertsGrace O'Malley
Blackbeard • Redbeard
Anne BonnyMary Read
Robert Surcouf • René Duguay-Trouin
Stede BonnetJean Bart
François l'OllonaisWilliam Kidd
Calico Jack RackhamHenry Every
List of pirates Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... The meeting of Grace OMalley and Queen Elizabeth I Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... Anne Bonny (c. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre#Students killed in Room 211 Mary Read Mary Read ( 1690–1721) was a female English pirate. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... An illustration of François lOllonais from a 1684 edition of The History of the Bucaniers of America Jean-David Nau (c. ... William Captain Kidd (c. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... Henry Every or Avery (born c. ... This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ...

Naval officers:

Robert MaynardCaptain Ogle
William Rhett Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Colonel William Rhett moved to South Carolina in 1698. ...

 v  d  e 

Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. He was the most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, capturing far more ships than some of the best-known pirates of this era such as Blackbeard or Captain Kidd.[1] He is estimated to have captured over 470 vessels.[2] He is also known as Black Bart, but this name was never used in his lifetime.[3] is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Captain Kidd (c. ...

Contents

Early life

Bart Roberts' memorial stone in Little Newcastle
Bart Roberts' memorial stone in Little Newcastle

Roberts was born in 1682 in the village of Casnewydd-Bach,[4] (Little Newcastle), between Fishguard and Haverfordwest in Pembrokeshire, Wales. His name was originally John Roberts, and his father is thought to have been George Roberts.[5] It is unknown why he changed his name from John to Bartholomew,[6] but pirates often adopted aliases, and he may have chosen that name after the well-known buccaneer Bartholomew Sharp.[7] He apparently went to sea at the age of 13 in 1695 but there is no further record of him until 1718, when he was mate of a Barbados sloop.[8] In 1719 he was third mate aboard the slave ship Princess of London, under Captain Abraham Plumb. In early June that year the Princess was anchored at Anomabu, then spelled Annamaboa, which is situated along the Gold Coast of West Africa (present-day Ghana), when she was captured by pirates. The pirates were in two ships, the Royal Rover and the Royal James, and were led by captain Howell Davis. Davis, like Roberts, was a Welshman, originally from Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire. Several of the crew of the Princess of London were forced to join the pirates, including Roberts. Davis quickly discovered Roberts' abilities as a navigator and took to consulting him.[9] Roberts is said to have initially been reluctant to become a pirate, but soon came to see the advantages of his new life. Captain Charles Johnson reports him as saying: Image File history File links Bart_Roberts. ... Image File history File links Bart_Roberts. ... Lower Fishguard Fishguard (Welsh: = Mouth of the River Gwaun) is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, Wales, with a population of 3,300 (est. ... Haverfordwest (Welsh: Hwlffordd) is the county town of Pembrokeshire, in south-west Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Bartholomew Sharp (born c. ... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ... Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ... Anomabu outlook Anomabu (also known as Anomabo and Annamaboe), is a town on the coast of Ghana, Africa. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... Howell Davis Howell Davis (born c. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the town. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ...

In an honest service there is thin commons, low wages, and hard labour. In this, plenty and satiety, pleasure and ease, liberty and power; and who would not balance creditor on this side, when all the hazard that is run for it, at worst is only a sour look or two at choking? No, a merry life and a short one shall be my motto.[10]

Life as a pirate

"Better being a commander than a common man"

The death of Captain Howell Davis in an ambush on Príncipe
The death of Captain Howell Davis in an ambush on Príncipe

It is easy to understand the lure of piracy; in the merchant navy, Roberts' wage was less than £3 per month and he had no chance of promotion to captaincy.[11] Image File history File links HowelDav. ... Image File history File links HowelDav. ...


A few weeks later the Royal Marlesa had to be abandoned because of worm damage. The Royal Rover headed for the Isle of Princes, now Príncipe. Davis hoisted the flags of a British man-of-war, and was allowed to enter the harbour. After a few days Davis invited the governor to lunch on board his ship, intending to hold him hostage for a ransom. As Davis had to send boats to collect the governor, he was invited to call at the fort for a glass of wine first. The Portuguese had by now discovered that their visitors were pirates, and on the way to the fort Davis' party were ambushed and Davis himself shot dead.[12] Príncipe is the smaller of the two major islands of São Tomé and Príncipe off of Africas west coast. ...


A new captain now had to be elected. Davis' crew was divided into "Lords" and "Commons", and it was the "Lords" who had the right to propose a name to the remainder of the crew. Within six weeks of his capture, Roberts was elected captain. This was an unusual move since he was openly against his even being on board the vessel, and was probably due to his navigational abilities and his demeanor, which history reflects was outspoken and opinionated. According to Johnson:

He accepted of the Honour, saying, that since he had dipp'd his Hands in Muddy Water, and must be a Pyrate, it was better being a Commander than a common Man.[13]

His first act as captain was to lead the crew back to Príncipe to avenge the death of Captain Davis. Roberts and his crew sprang onto the island in the darkness of night, killed a large portion of the male population, and stole all items of value that they could carry away. Soon afterwards he captured a Dutch Guineaman, then two days later an English ship called the Experiment. While the ship took on water and provisions at Anamboe, a vote was taken on whether the next voyage should be to the East Indies or to Brazil. The vote was for Brazil.[14] The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...


The combination of bravery and success that marked this adventure cemented most of the crew's loyalty to Roberts. They concluded that he was "pistol proof" and that they had much to gain by staying with him.[15]


Brazil and the Caribbean July 1719 - May 1720

Roberts' first flag shows him and Death holding an hourglass
Roberts' first flag shows him and Death holding an hourglass

Roberts and his crew crossed the Atlantic and watered and boot-topped[16] their ship on the uninhabited island of Ferdinando. They then spent about nine weeks off the Brazilian coast, but saw no ships. They were about to leave for the West Indies when they encountered a fleet of 42 Portuguese ships in the Todos os Santos' Bay, waiting for two men-of-war of 70 guns each to escort them to Lisbon. Roberts took one of the vessels, and ordered her master to point out the richest ship in the fleet. He pointed out a ship of 40 guns and a crew of 170, which Roberts and his men boarded and captured. The ship proved to contain 40,000 gold moidors and jewelry including a cross set with diamonds, designed for the King of Portugal.[17] Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts_Flag. ... Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts_Flag. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Baía de Todos os Santos is the main and biggest bay of the state of Bahia, Brazil. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


The Rover now headed for Devil's Island off the coast of Guiana to spend the booty. A few weeks later they headed for the River Surinam, where they captured a sloop. When a brigantine was sighted, Roberts took forty men to pursue it in the sloop, leaving Walter Kennedy in command of the Rover. The sloop became wind-bound for eight days, and when Roberts and his men were finally able to return, they discovered that Kennedy had sailed off with the Rover and what remained of the loot.[18] Roberts and his crew renamed their sloop the Fortune and agreed new articles, which they swore on a Bible to uphold.[19] For other uses, see Devils Island. ... Description In sailing, a brigantine is a vessel with two masts, at least one of which is square rigged. ... Walter Kennedy (died 19 July 1721) was an Irish pirate who served as a crew member under Howell Davis and Bartholomew Roberts. ...

  1. Every man shall have an equal vote in affairs of moment. He shall have an equal title to the fresh provisions or strong liquors at any time seized, and shall use them at pleasure unless a scarcity may make it necessary for the common good that a retrenchment may be voted.
  2. Every man shall be called fairly in turn by the list on board of prizes, because over and above their proper share, they are allowed a shift of clothes. But if they defraud the company to the value of even one dollar in plate, jewels or money, they shall be marooned. If any man rob another he shall have his nose and ears slit, and be put ashore where he shall be sure to encounter hardships.
  3. None shall game for money either with dice or cards.
  4. The lights and candles should be put out at eight at night, and if any of the crew desire to drink after that hour they shall sit upon the open deck without lights.
  5. Each man shall keep his piece, cutlass and pistols at all times clean and ready for action.
  6. No boy or woman to be allowed amongst them. If any man shall be found seducing any of the latter sex and carrying her to sea in disguise he shall suffer death.
  7. He that shall desert the ship or his quarters in time of battle shall be punished by death or marooning.
  8. None shall strike another on board the ship, but every man's quarrel shall be ended on shore by sword or pistol in this manner. At the word of command from the quartermaster, each man being previously placed back to back, shall turn and fire immediately. If any man do not, the quartermaster shall knock the piece out of his hand. If both miss their aim they shall take to their cutlasses, and he that draweth first blood shall be declared the victor.
  9. No man shall talk of breaking up their way of living till each has a share of 1,000. Every man who shall become a cripple or lose a limb in the service shall have 800 pieces of eight from the common stock and for lesser hurts proportionately.
  10. The captain and the quartermaster shall each receive two shares of a prize, the master gunner and boatswain, one and one half shares, all other officers one and one quarter, and private gentlemen of fortune one share each.
  11. The musicians shall have rest on the Sabbath Day only by right. On all other days by favor only.
Black Bart's new flag showed him standing on two skulls, representing the heads of a Barbadian and a Martiniquian
Black Bart's new flag showed him standing on two skulls, representing the heads of a Barbadian and a Martiniquian

In late February 1720 they were joined by the French pirate Montigny la Palisse in another sloop, the Sea King. The inhabitants of Barbados equipped two well-armed ships, the Summerset and the Philipa, to try to put an end to the pirate menace. On 26 February they encountered the two pirate sloops. The Sea King quickly fled, and after sustaining considerable damage the Fortune broke off the engagement and was able to escape.[20] Roberts headed for Dominica to repair the sloop, with twenty of his crew dying of their wounds on the voyage. There were also two sloops from Martinique out searching for the pirates, and Roberts swore vengeance against the inhabitants of Barbados and Martinique. He had a new flag made with a drawing of himself standing upon 2 skulls, one labelled ABH (A Barbadian's Head) and the other AMH (A Martiniquian's Head). Marooning is the act of leaving someone behind intentionally in an uninhabited area. ... The boatswain on a modern merchant ship supervising cargo operations. ... Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts_Flag1. ... Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts_Flag1. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Newfoundland and the Caribbean June 1720 - April 1721

The Fortune now headed northwards towards Newfoundland. After capturing a number of ships around the Newfoundland banks Roberts raided the harbour of Ferryland, capturing a dozen vessels. On 21 June he attacked the larger harbour of Trepassey, sailing in with black flags flying. All the ships in the habour were abandoned by their panic-stricken captains and crews, and the pirates were masters of Trepassey without any resistance being offered. Roberts had captured 22 ships, but was angered by the cowardice of the captains who had fled their ships. Every morning when a gun was fired, the captains were forced to attend Roberts on board his ship; they were told that anyone who was absent would have his ship burnt. One brig from Bristol was taken over by the pirates to replace the sloop Fortune and fitted out with 16 guns. When the pirates left in late June, all the other vessels in the harbour were set on fire. During July, Roberts captured nine or ten French ships and commandeered one of them, fitting her with 26 cannons and changing her name to the Good Fortune. With this more powerful ship, the pirates captured many more vessels before heading south for the West Indies, accompanied by Montigny la Palisse's sloop, which had rejoined them.[21] For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Trepassey , is a small fishing community located on the south eastern corner of the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Brigantine. ... This article is about the English city. ...


In September 1720 the Good Fortune was careened and repaired at the island of Carriacou before being renamed the Royal Fortune, the first of several ships to be given this name by Roberts. In late September the Royal Fortune and the Fortune headed for the island of St. Christopher's, and entered Basse Terra Road flying black flags and with their drummers and trumpeters playing. They sailed in among the ships in the Road, all of whom promptly struck their flags.[22] The next landfall was at the island of St. Bartholomew, where the French governor allowed the pirates to remain for several weeks to carouse. By 25 October they were at sea again, off St. Lucia, where they captured up to 15 French and English ships in the next three days.[23] Among the captured ships was the Greyhound, whose chief mate, James Skyrme, joined the pirates. He would later become captain of Roberts' consort, the Ranger. The careening of a sailing vessel is laying her up on a calm beach at high tide in order to expose one side or another of the ships hull for maintenance below the water line when the tide goes out. ... view from Hillsborough looking south over the beach Carriacou Island in the Caribbean Sea, is the largest island of the Grenadines, an archipelago in the Windward Islands chain. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early April 1721 the pirates captured a French man of war and discovered that one of the passengers was the Governor of Martinique. Roberts had him hanged from the yardarm.[24] By the spring of 1721, Roberts' depredations had almost brought sea-borne trade in the West Indies to a standstill.[25] The Royal Fortune and the Good Fortune therefore set sail for West Africa. On 20 April Thomas Anstis, the commander of the Good Fortune, left Roberts in the night and continued to raid shipping in the Caribbean. The Royal Fortune continued towards Africa. is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Anstis (d. ...


West Africa April 1721 - January 1722

Bartholomew Roberts at Ouidah with his ship and captured merchantmen in the background.
Bartholomew Roberts at Ouidah with his ship and captured merchantmen in the background.

By late April, Roberts was at the Cape Verde islands. The Royal Fortune was found to be leaky, and was abandoned here. The pirates transferred to the Sea King, which was renamed the Royal Fortune. The new Royal Fortune made landfall off the Guinea coast in early June, near the mouth of the Senegal River. Two French ships, one of 10 guns and one of 16 guns, gave chase, but were captured by Roberts. Both these ships were commandeered. One, the Comte de Toulouse was renamed the Ranger, while the other was named the Little Ranger and used as a storeship. Thomas Sutton was made captain of the Ranger and James Skyrme captain of the Little Ranger.[26] Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts. ... Image File history File links Bartholomew_Roberts. ...


Roberts now headed for Sierra Leone, arriving on 12 June. Here he was told that two Royal Navy ships, H.M.S. Swallow and H.M.S. Weymouth, had left at the end of April, planning to return before Christmas.[27] On 8 August he captured two large ships at Point Cestos, now River Cess in Liberia. One of these was the frigate Onslow, transporting soldiers bound for Cape Coast (Cabo Corso) Castle. A number of the soldiers wished to join the pirates and were eventually accepted, but as landlubbers were given only a quarter share. The Onslow was converted to become the fourth Royal Fortune.[28] In November and December the pirates careened their ships and relaxed at Cape Lopez and the island of Annobon.[29] Sutton was replaced by Skyrme as captain of the Ranger. They captured several vessels in January 1722, then sailed into Ouidah harbour with black flags flying. All the eleven ships at anchor there immediately struck their colours.[30] is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... River Cess is the capital city of River Cess County, Liberia. ... Cape Coast Castle is a fortification in Ghana. ... Annob n is an island south of S o Tom Island (S o Tom and ncipe), belonging to Equatorial Guinea. ... Ouidah is a city on the Atlantic coast of Benin. ...


Death in battle February 1722

Bartholomew Roberts' crew carousing at the Calabar River. Most of the crew were drunk when the Swallow appeared.
Bartholomew Roberts' crew carousing at the Calabar River. Most of the crew were drunk when the Swallow appeared.

On 5 February H.M.S. Swallow, commanded by Captain Chalonor Ogle, came upon the three pirate ships, the Royal Fortune, the Ranger and the Little Ranger careening at Cape Lopez. The Swallow veered away to avoid a sandbank, making the pirates think that she was a fleeing merchant ship. The Ranger, commanded by James Skyrme, departed in pursuit. Once out of earshot of the other pirates, the Swallow opened her gun ports and an engagement began. Ten of the pirates were killed and Skyrme had his leg taken off by a cannon ball, but refused to leave the deck. Eventually the Ranger was forced to strike her colours and the surviving crew were captured. Image File history File links BartRobCrew. ... Image File history File links BartRobCrew. ... Calabar is a city in southeastern Nigeria. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ...


On 10 February the Swallow returned to Cape Lopez and found the Royal Fortune still there. The previous day Roberts had captured the Neptune, and many of his crew were drunk and unfit for duty just when he needed them most.[31] The pirates at first thought that the approaching ship was the Ranger returning, but a deserter from the Swallow recognized her and informed the captain. Roberts was breakfasting in company with Captain Hill, the master of the Neptune, when he was given the news. As he usually did before action, he dressed himself in his finest clothes: is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Roberts himself made a gallant figure, at the time of the engagement, being dressed in a rich crimson damask waistcoat and breeches, a red feather in his hat, a gold chain round his neck, with a diamond cross hanging to it, a sword in his hand, and two pairs of pistols slung over his shoulders ...[32]

The pirates' plan was to sail past the Swallow, which meant exposing themselves to one broadside. Once past, they would have a good chance of escaping. However the helmsman failed to keep the Royal Fortune on the right course, and the Swallow was able to approach to deliver a second broadside. Captain Roberts was killed by grapeshot cannon fire, which struck him in the throat, while he stood on the deck. Before his body could be captured by Ogle, Roberts' wish to be buried at sea was fulfilled by his crew, who weighted his body down and threw his body overboard after being tied in his ship's sail. It was never found. Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ...


Aftermath

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Death sentence for Roberts' crew

The battle continued for another two hours, until the Royal Fortune's mainmast fell and the pirates signalled for quarter. One member of the crew, John Philips, tried to reach the magazine with a lighted match to blow up the ship, but was prevented by two forced men. Only three pirates, including Roberts, had been killed in the battle. A total of 272 men had been captured by the navy. Of these, 75 were black, and these were sold into slavery. The remainder, apart from those who died on the voyage back, were taken to Cape Coast Castle. 54 were condemned to death, of whom 52 were hanged and two reprieved. Another 20 were allowed to sign indentures with the Royal African Company; Burl comments that they "exchanged an immediate death for a lingering one".[33] Seventeen men were sent to the Marshalsea prison in London for trial, while over a third of the total were acquitted and released. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in 1660. ...


Of the captured pirates who gave their place of birth, 42% were from Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and another 19% from London. There were smaller numbers from northern England and from Wales, and another quarter from a variety of countries including Ireland, Scotland, the West Indies, the Netherlands and Greece.[34] After problems with mutinous Irishmen early in his pirate career, Roberts was known to generally avoid recruiting Irishmen, to the extent that captured merchant sailors would sometimes affect an Irish accent to discourage Roberts from forcing them into his pirate crew. For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ...


Captain Chalonor Ogle was rewarded with a knighthood; the only British naval officer to be honoured specifically for his actions against pirates.[35] He also profited financially, taking gold dust from Roberts' cabin, and eventually became an admiral.[36] Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ...


According to Cordingly, this battle was to prove a turning point in the war against the pirates.[37] Cawthorne considers the death of Roberts to mark the end of the golden age of piracy,[38] while Rediker comments:

The defeat of Roberts and the subsequent eradication of piracy off the coast of Africa represented a turning point in the slave trade and even in the larger historys of capitalism.[39] The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Treasure

Captain Chalonor Ogle claimed to have missed out on the treasure which the pirates had left on the Little Ranger when they sailed to their last engagement with the Swallow. Of the lesser loot Ogle did admit having taken possession of, from the Ranger and Royal Fortune, the crew did not receive their share until Ogle was reluctantly forced to give it to them by the legal system, three years later. By the time Ogle and his men arrived to take the treasure in the Little Ranger it had gone, with Captain Hill of the Neptune. Several weeks after the defeat of Bartholemew Roberts, however, Captain Ogle and Captain Hill had both sailed across the Atlantic and were in Port Royal at the same time. Even if this is assumed to be a coincidence, it seems nearly inconceivable that Captain Ogle, who was already swindling his own crew, would not have then confronted Captain Hill, who in theory Ogle could easily have had hanged for trading with pirates. It therefore seems likely that the larger part of Bartholemew Robert's treasure ended up in the hands of Captain Ogle, and some part in the hands of Captain Hill. Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ...


Personal characteristics

Most of the information on Roberts comes from the book A General History of the Pyrates, published a few years after Roberts' death. The original 1724 title page credits one Captain Charles Johnson as the author. (The book is often printed under the byline of Daniel Defoe, on the assumption that "Charles Johnson" is a pseudonym, but there is no proof Defoe is the author, and the matter remains in dispute.) Johnson devotes more space to Roberts than to any of the other pirates in his book, describing him as: There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Captain Charles Johnson is the author of the 1724 book A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates, though his identity remains a mystery. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was an English writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ...

... a tall black man, near forty years of age ... of good natural parts and personal bravery, though he applied them to such wicked purposes as made them of no commendation, frequently drinking 'Damn to him who ever lived to wear a halter'.[40]

After his exploits in Newfoundland the Governor of New England commented that "one cannot with-hold admiration for his bravery and courage".[41] He hated cowardice, and when the crews of 22 ships in Trepassey harbour fled without firing a shot he was angry at their failure to defend their ships.[42] This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Roberts was the archetypal pirate captain in his love of fine clothing and jewelry, but had some traits unusual in a pirate, notably a preference for drinking tea rather than rum. He is often described as a teetotaler and a Sabbatarian, but there is no proof of this. He certainly disliked drunkenness while at sea, but Johnson does not state that he was a teetotaller and implies that he drank beer.[43] The claim that he was a sabbatarian is based on the article which stated that the musicians were not obliged to play on Sundays, but this may merely have been intended to ensure the musicians a day's rest, as they were obliged to play music whenever the crew demanded it of them on other days. Teetotalism is the principle or practice of complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages. ... Etymology: Latin sabbatarius, from sabbatum sabbath Function: noun 1 : one who observes the Sabbath on Saturday in conformity with the letter of the fourth commandment 2 : an adherent of Sabbatarianism Function: adjective 1 : of or relating to the Sabbath 2 : of or relating to the Sabbatarians or Sabbatarianism External links...


Black Bart was not as cruel to prisoners as some pirates, such as Edward Lowe, but did not treat them as well as did Howell Davis or Edward England. Johnson says that he would sometimes ill-use prisoners if he felt that the crew demanded it, but: A portrait of Edward Lowe hanging in the National Maritime Museum in London Edward Ned Lowe (or Low, or Loe), often known as Ned Low was a notorious pirate during the Golden Age of Piracy. ... Edward Englands flag Edward England, born Edward Seegar in Ireland, was a famous African coast and Indian Ocean pirate from 1717 to 1720. ...

When he found that rigour was not expected from his people (for he often practised it to appease them) then he would give strangers to understand that it was pure inclination that induced him to a good treatment of them, and not any love or partiality to their persons; "For", says he, "there is none of you but will hang me, I know, whenever you can clinch me within your power".[44]

In 1997, the claim was put forward in Women Pirates and the Politics of the Jolly Roger, edited by Gabriel Kuhn and Tyler Austin, that Bartholomew Roberts was a female transvestite. It was argued that Roberts' corpse was thrown overboard to conceal this fact. Left unexplained was the supposedly female Roberts' decision to draft articles that provided the death penalty for bringing a woman aboard in disguise, which would have led to "her" own death had "she" been discovered. Other than the disposal of Roberts' body, no evidence was produced to support the thesis, and it has not been accepted by the majority of nautical historians. Whatever the truth of Roberts' gender, he could not possibly have been Anne Bonny in disguise as some supporters of the thesis have claimed. Bonny was aboard Calico Jack Rackham's sloop, cruising off Jamaica in October, 1720, at the same time that Roberts, on the Royal Fortune, was in the mid-Atlantic trying to reach the Cape Verde islands. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Anne Bonny (c. ... John Rackham (died 17 November 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ...


Popular culture

Bartholomew Roberts is one of four pirate captains mentioned in Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island.[45] In it, Long John Silver says that the surgeon who amputated his leg was one of Roberts' men: Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ... Long John Silver is a fictional character in the novel Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson. ...

It was a master surgeon, him that ampytated me - out of college and all - Latin by the bucket, and what not; but he was hanged like a dog, and sun-dried like the rest, at Corso Castle. That was Roberts' men, that was, and comed of changing names of their ships - Royal Fortune and so on.[46]

Historical novels with Bartholomew Roberts as the main character include The Devil's Captain by Philip Shea (1992), The Requiem Shark by Nicholas Griffin (1999) and The Devil's Captain by Frank Sherry (2000).


A number of novels and poems featuring Bartholomew Roberts have been published in Welsh, notably a ballad by I. D. Hooson, for which a vocal score was later composed by Alun Hoddinott, and a novel by T. Llew Jones. Isaac Daniel Hooson (September 2, 1880-1948) or I. D. Hooson as he was commonly known, solicitor and poet was born in Victoria House, Market St. ... Cover of recordings of Hoddinotts second, third and fifth symphonies. ... Thomas Llewelyn Jones (born 1915 at 1 Bwlch Melyn Pentrecwrt, Carmarthenshire) is a Welsh language writer who over a writing career of more than 50 years has been one of the most prolific and popular authors of childrens books in Welsh. ...


In the video game Sid Meier's Pirates! (2004) Bart Roberts makes the Top Ten Pirates List. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Dread Pirate Roberts, a fictional pirate in the novel and film The Princess Bride, is an homage to Roberts. The Dread Pirate Roberts was a fictional pirate in the novel and movie, The Princess Bride. ... This article is about the novel. ...


Roberts is the subject of the song "Bartholomew Roberts (The Pirate Song)" by David Grossman released on the CD Graffiti (1984)


Roberts' flag was one of several taken from real-life accounts and used in the film Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End. Also in the film, Barbossa says that the pirates' code was first set down by "Morgan and Bartholomew" - referring to Henry Morgan and Bartholomew Roberts. However, as Roberts was only six years old when Henry Morgan died, it is unlikely that the two were actually acquainted. The Pirate Code of the Bretheren is a loose Code of Conduct common with Piracy in the Caribbean during the classic age of Piracy set down by the Pirates Henry Morgan and Bartholomew Roberts. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Rediker p. 33. Roberts was not, as is sometimes stated, the most successful pirate of all time; the Chinese pirate Ching Shih captured more vessels.
  2. ^ Breverton p. 172
  3. ^ Sanders, p. 18. "Black Bart" was coined as the title of a 20th-century poem by the Welsh poet I. D. Hooson, who apparently picked that name because Johnson described Roberts as having a "black" complexion.
  4. ^ Yount p.74
  5. ^ Burl p. 55
  6. ^ Yount p.64
  7. ^ Sanders, p. 18.
  8. ^ Richards p. 20
  9. ^ Burl p. 59
  10. ^ Johnson p. 213-4
  11. ^ Breverton p. 69
  12. ^ Burl p. 62
  13. ^ Johnson p. 162
  14. ^ Johnson p. 163
  15. ^ Yount p. 78
  16. ^ "Boot-topping" was similar to careening, except that only the upper part of the hull was cleaned.
  17. ^ Johnson pp. 172-3
  18. ^ Richards pp. 31-2
  19. ^ Yount p. 79
  20. ^ Burl pp. 122-6
  21. ^ Burl pp. 133-143
  22. ^ Richards pp. 47-8
  23. ^ Richards p. 50
  24. ^ Breverton p. 137
  25. ^ Richards p. 59
  26. ^ Burl pp. 207-8
  27. ^ Richards pp. 62-3
  28. ^ Burl pp. 211-13
  29. ^ Burl p. 215
  30. ^ Burl pp. 218-9
  31. ^ Yount p.81-82
  32. ^ Johnson p.212
  33. ^ Burl pp. 254-5
  34. ^ Burl pp. 263-4
  35. ^ Cawthorne p. 135
  36. ^ Cawthorne p. 135
  37. ^ Cordingly p. 8
  38. ^ Cawthorne p. 135
  39. ^ Rediker p. 143
  40. ^ Johnson p.213
  41. ^ Breverton p. 120
  42. ^ Breverton p. 115
  43. ^ Johnson p. 211
  44. ^ Johnson p. 183
  45. ^ Breverton p. 64
  46. ^ Stevenson p. 88

An 1836 drawing of Ching Shih Ching Shih (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Cantonese: Jihng Sih), also known as Zheng Yi Sao (lit. ... Isaac Daniel Hooson (September 2, 1880-1948) or I. D. Hooson as he was commonly known, solicitor and poet was born in Victoria House, Market St. ...

References

  • Breverton, Terry (2004) Black Bart Roberts : the greatest pirate of them all. Glyndwr Publishing. ISBN 1-903529-12-3
  • Burl, Aubrey (2006) Black Barty: Bartholomew Roberts and his pirate crew 1718-1723. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-4312-2
  • Cawthorne, Nigel (2005) Pirates: an Illustrated History. Capella. ISBN 1-84193-520-4
  • Cordingly, David (1999) Life Among the Pirates: the Romance and the Reality. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11314-9
  • Johnson, Charles (1724). A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates (1998 ed.). Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-732-5.
  • Rediker, Marcus (2004) Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5025-3
  • Richards, Stanley (1966) Black Bart. Christopher Davies.
  • Sanders, Richard (2007), If a Pirate I Must Be ... The True Story of "Black Bart," King of the Caribbean Pirates. Aurum Press, Ltd. ISBN 1-60239-019-3
  • Stevenson, Robert Louis (1994) Treasure Island Puffin Books. ISBN 0-14-036672-5
  • Yount, Lisa (2002) Pirates. Lucent Books. ISBN 1-56006-955-4

External links

  • PiratesInfo.com biography
  • Biography of Roberts
  • Biography of Bartholomew Roberts
Persondata
NAME Roberts, Bartholomew
ALTERNATIVE NAMES John Robert; Black Bart; Black Barty; Barti Ddu (Welsh)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pirate
DATE OF BIRTH 1682
PLACE OF BIRTH Casnewydd Bach, Pembrokeshire, Wales
DATE OF DEATH February 10, 1722
PLACE OF DEATH At sea, off Cape Lopez, Gabon.

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