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Encyclopedia > Barrel
Traditional wooden barrels in Cutchogue
Traditional wooden barrels in Cutchogue
Modern stainless steel beer barrels—also called casks or kegs—outside the Castle Rock microbrewery in Nottingham, England
Modern stainless steel beer barrels—also called casks or kegs—outside the Castle Rock microbrewery in Nottingham, England

A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves and bound with iron hoops. Someone who makes such barrels is known as a cooper. Contemporary barrels are also made in aluminium (also called kegs) and plastic. Barrel can refer to: Barrels for storage; especialy Barrels for aging alcoholic beverages. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Barrels2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Barrels2. ... The Cutchogue Public Library Cutchogue is a hamlet located in Suffolk County, New York (USA). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x853, 239 KB) Beer barrels outside the Caste Rock Brewery, Nottingham, England Photo by Tagishsimon taken on the 4th November 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x853, 239 KB) Beer barrels outside the Caste Rock Brewery, Nottingham, England Photo by Tagishsimon taken on the 4th November 2004. ... Tynemill is a British pub chain based in the East Midlands and Yorkshire. ... Beer barrels outside the Castle Rock microbrewery in Nottingham, England. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... Look up container in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... A hoop is a circular band with a number of uses: Hoop rolling, an ancient game played with a hoop Hula hoop, a usually plastic hoop designed as a toy Hoop (rhythmic gymnastics), a gymnastic apparatus Hoops are also used in the popular sport basketball to shoot the ball into. ... Assembly of a barrel in progress A cooper readies, or rounds off, the end of a barrel using a coopers hand adze at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Traditionally, a cooper is someone who makes wooden staved vessels of a conical form, of greater length than... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Barrels often have a convex shape, bulging at the middle. This constant bulge makes it relatively easy to roll a well built wooden barrel on its side, changing directions with little friction. It also helps to distribute stress evenly in the material by making the container more spherical. Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ...


Casks used for ale or beer are equipped with shives, spiles and keystones in their openings. For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... The top of a cask, showing an unopened wooden shive with a plastic seal. ... A spile is a small wooden peg used to control the flow of carbon dioxide out of a cask of real ale. ... Casks of ale. ...


The "chime hoop" is the iron hoop nearest the end of a wooden barrel. The "bilge hoops" are the hoops nearest the bulge, or centre.


The stopper used to seal the hole in a barrel is called the bung. A jug with a cork bung. ...

Contents

History

In ancient times, in Europe, liquids like oil and wine were carried in vessels, for instance amphora, sealed with pine resin. The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century AD, as a result of their commercial and military contacts with the Gauls, who had been making barrels for several centuries. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


For nearly 2,000 years barrels were the most convenient form of shipping or storage container, for those who could afford the superior price. All kinds of bulk goods, from nails to gold coins, were stored in them. Bags and most crates were cheaper, but they were not as sturdy and they were more difficult to manhandle, for the same weight. Barrels slowly lost their importance in the 20th century, with the introduction of pallet-based logistics and containerization. A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ...


In the mid 20th century, large 55 gallon steel drums began to be used for the storage and transportation of many fluids, such as water, oils and hazardous waste. Empty drums occasionally became musical instruments. A typical drum A 44 gallon drum (known as a 55 gallon drum in the United States) is a cylindrical metal container (drum) with a nominal capacity of 44 imperial gallons, 55 U.S. gallons or 205 litre. ...


Ageing in barrels

Main article: Ageing barrel
Wine barrels in Napa Valley, California.
Wine barrels in Napa Valley, California.

The term "Barrel" typically refers to wooden vessels that are small enough to be moved by hand. This would include up to Puncheon size (see below.) Barrels are used for the storage of liquids, to ferment wine, and to age wine (notably brandy, sherry, and port) and whiskey. Some wine is said to be fermented "in barrel," as opposed to a neutral container such as a steel or concrete tank. Wine can also be fermented in large wooden tanks, often called "open-tops", because they are open to the atmosphere. Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits is called "casks", and they are large (up to thousands of gallons) with either elliptical or round heads. Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... Image File history File links Lightmatter_wine_barrels. ... Image File history File links Lightmatter_wine_barrels. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Sherry solera For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... A glass of tawny port. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ...


Beer "Barrels"

Although it is common to refer to draught beer containers of any size as barrels, in the UK this is strictly correct only if the container actually holds 36 imperial gallons. The terms "keg" and "cask" refer to containers of any size, the distinction being that kegs are used for beers intended to be served using external gas cylinders. Cask ales undergo part of their fermentation process in their containers, which are called casks. Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Café in Brussels Draught beer (also called draft beer or tap beer) has several related though slightly different understandings. ... Cask ales on racks Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned and served from a cask, usually without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure. ...


Casks are available in several sizes, and it is also usual to refer to "a firkin" or "a kil" (kilderkin) instead of a cask.


Sizes

English traditional, wine

English casks of wine [1]
gallon rundlet barrel tierce hogshead firkin, puncheon, tertian pipe, butt tun
1 tun
1 2 pipes, butts
1 1+12 3 firkins, puncheons, tertians
1 1+13 2 4 hogsheads
1 1+12 2 3 6 tierces
1 1+13 2 2+23 4 8 barrels
1 1+34 2+13 3+12 4+23 7 14 rundlets
1 18 31+12 42 63 84 126 252 gallons (US/wine)
3.79 68.14 119.24 158.99 238.48 317.97 476.96 953.92 litres
1 15 26+14 35 52+12 70 105 210 gallons (imperial)
4.55 68.19 119.3 159.1 238.7 318.2 477.3 954.7 litres

Like other units, the pre-1824 definitions continued to be used in the US, the wine gallon of 231 cubic inches staying (since 1707) the standard gallon for liquids (accompanied by the corn gallon of 268.8 cubic inches for solids), whereas in Britain that gallon was abolished and replaced by the Imperial gallon. The tierce later became the petrol barrel. The tun originally was 256 gallons, which explains where the quarter, being 8 bushels or 64 (wine) gallons, comes from. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The rundlet is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 68 litres. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... The tierce is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 159 litres. ... A hogshead is a large cask of liquid (less often, of a food commodity). ... A Firkin is an old English unit of volume. ... The puncheon, in the United States also called pon for brevity, is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 318 litres. ... The puncheon, in the United States also called pon for brevity, is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 318 litres. ... The butt (from the medieval French and Italian botte) or pipe is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 477 litres or rather two hogsheads. ... The butt (from the medieval French and Italian ) or pipe is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 477 litres or rather two hogsheads. ... The tun is an old English unit of wine cask volume, holding about 954 litres, almost a cubic metre. ... The U.S. customary units (more commonly known in the US as English units or standard units) are the non-metric units of measurement that are presently used in the United States, in some cases alongside the metric system of units. ... English unit is the American name for a unit in one of a number of systems of units of measurement, some obsolete, and some still in use. ... The Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of English units, first defined in the Weights and Measures Act of 1824, later refined (until 1959) and reduced. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The tierce is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 159 litres. ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics, which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... A table of weights from the secretaries of the different states, showing the no. ...


English traditional, beer and ale

English casks of ale and beer [2]
gallon firkin kilderkin barrel hogshead (butt) (tun) Year designated
1 tuns
1 1+34 butts
1 3 5+14 hogsheads
1 1+12 4+12 7+78 barrels
1 2 3 9 15+34 kilderkins
1 2 4 6 18 31+12 firkins
1 8 16 32 48 144 252 ale gallons (ale) (1454)
= 4.62 = 36.97 = 73.94 = 147.88 = 221.82 = 665.44 = 1164.52 litres (ale)
1 9 18 36 54 162 283+12 ale gallons (beer)
= 4.62 = 41.59 = 83.18 = 166.36 = 249.54 = 748.62 = 1310.09 litres (beer)
1 8+12 17 34 51 ale gallons 1688
= 4.62 = 39.28 = 78.56 = 157.12 = 235.68 litres
1 9 18 36 54 ale gallons 1803
= 4.62 = 41.59 = 83.18 = 166.36 = 249.54 litres
1 9 18 36 54 imperial gallons 1824
= 4.55 = 40.91 = 81.83 = 163.66 = 245.49 litres

The US beer barrel is exactly 31 US gallons, i.e. 117.34777 L, which is half a gallon less than the traditional wine barrel. (26 U.S.C. §5051[3]) For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... A Firkin is an old English unit of volume. ... The kilderkin is an old English unit of brewery casks, holding about 82 litres. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... A hogshead is a large cask of liquid (less often, of a food commodity). ... The butt (from the medieval French and Italian ) or pipe is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 477 litres or rather two hogsheads. ... The tun is an old English unit of wine cask volume, holding about 954 litres, almost a cubic metre. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of English units, first defined in the Weights and Measures Act of 1824, later refined (until 1959) and reduced. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Oil barrel

Standard Oil Company blue 55-gallon (208 l) barrel

The standard barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (about 35 Imperial gallons or 159 L). This measurement originated in the early Pennsylvania oil fields, and permitted both British and American merchants to refer to the same unit, which was based on the old English wine measure, the tierce. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Standard Oil was an oil refining organization founded by John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and partners beginning in 1863. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... BBL can refer to: an abbreviation for the Baltic Basketball League Bank Brussels Lambert, a Belgian bank, now merged into ING Group an abbreviation for a barrel, see Bbl an Internet acronym for Be Back Later an abbreviation for the Bird Banding Laboratory an abbreviation for the British Basketball League... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... The tierce is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 159 litres. ...


Earlier, another size of whiskey barrel was once the most common size; this was the 40 US-gallon (151.4 litres) barrel for proof spirits, which was of the same volume as 5 US bushels. However, by 1866 the oil barrel was standardized at 42 US-gallons.


Oil has not been shipped in barrels for a long time [4] since the introduction of oil tanker ships, but the 42-US-gallon size is still used as a unit for measurement, pricing, and in tax and regulatory codes, each 42-US-gallon barrel making about 19½ gallons of gasoline.[citation needed] “Petrol” redirects here. ...


The current standard volume for barrels for chemicals and food is 55 US gallons or 208 litres.


Dry goods

A barrel is standardized for several other products. A barrel of wheat or rye flour is three bushels or 196 pounds (88.9 kg), but a barrel of cornmeal is 200 pounds (90.7 kg). A barrel of sugar is five cubic feet. A barrel of portland cement is four cubic feet or 376 pounds (170.6 kg).[1] For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... A table of weights from the secretaries of the different states, showing the no. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Cornmeal products include tortillas and taco shells. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ...


Other uses

Being over a barrel is to be in a predicament, or helpless in a situation where others are in control. ("I have no choice in the matter—my creditors have me over a barrel.") The phrase is said to originate from either of two 19th century practices: rolling drowning victims over a barrel to clear their lungs of water, or flogging someone who is bent over a barrel. Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ...


See also

A typical drum A 44 gallon drum (known as a 55 gallon drum in the United States) is a cylindrical metal container (drum) with a nominal capacity of 44 imperial gallons, 55 U.S. gallons or 205 litre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cask ales on racks Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned and served from a cask, usually without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure. ... Wine barrels, especially those made of oak, have long been used as containers in which wine is typically aged. ...

References

  1. ^ U.S. Traditional and Commercial Barrel Sizes. 2000 Sizes, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Barrels

  Results from FactBites:
 
Barrel (storage) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (708 words)
A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves and bound with iron hoops.
Barrels slowly lost their importance in the 20th century, with the introduction of pallet based logistics and Containerization.
Barrels are used for the storage of liquids, to ferment wine, and to age wine (notably brandy, sherry, and port) and whiskey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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