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Encyclopedia > Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. New architectural concerns for color, light and shade, sculptural values and intensity characterize the Baroque. But whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts, and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Council of Trent (1545–1563) is usually given as the beginning of the Counter-Reformation. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The Baroque played into the demand for an architecture that was on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and, on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church. The new style manifested itself in particular in the context of new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits, which aimed to improve popular piety. By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France—as in the Château de Maisons (1642) near Paris by François Mansart—and then throughout Europe. The Theatines or the Congregation of Clerks Regular of the Divine Providence are a male religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials C.R. // The order was founded by Saint Cajetan (Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene), Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa (afterwards... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Château de Maisons, southeast-facing garden front The Château de Maisons (now Château de Maisons-Laffitte), in Yvelines, ÃŽle-de-France, designed by François Mansart from 1630 to 1651, is a prime example of French baroque architecture and a reference point in the history of European... This article is about the capital of France. ... Château de Maisons, by Mansart. ...

Giacomo della Porta's façade of the Church of the Gesù, a precursor of Baroque architecture
Giacomo della Porta's façade of the Church of the Gesù, a precursor of Baroque architecture

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Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (801x1011, 634 KB) Summary Description: Il Gesu, motherchurch of the Society of Jesus, Rome, Source: english Wikipedia ([1]) Original photographer: User:Chirho Version history from the English Wikipedia: (del) (cur) 22:40, 6 July 2005 . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (801x1011, 634 KB) Summary Description: Il Gesu, motherchurch of the Society of Jesus, Rome, Source: english Wikipedia ([1]) Original photographer: User:Chirho Version history from the English Wikipedia: (del) (cur) 22:40, 6 July 2005 . ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... Giacomo della Portas façade of the Church of the Gesù, a precursor of the baroque The Church of the Gesù (in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Church of the Holy Name of Jesus) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus, known as the...

Precursors and features of Baroque architecture

Notre-Dame de Québec Basilica-Cathedral
Notre-Dame de Québec Basilica-Cathedral
Castle of Trier (Germany)
Castle of Trier (Germany)
Sicilian Baroque: San Benedetto in Catania
Sicilian Baroque: San Benedetto in Catania

Michelangelo's late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors of Baroque architecture, as the design of the latter achieves a colossal unity that was previously unknown. His pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome, particularly in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesu, which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna by Carlo Maderno. In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by the Jesuits. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x3072, 1787 KB) fr: La fr:Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de Québec, dans la vieille ville de Québec. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x3072, 1787 KB) fr: La fr:Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de Québec, dans la vieille ville de Québec. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 542 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,947 × 2,155 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 542 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,947 × 2,155 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1869, 318 KB) Santa Susanna, Rome Photo taken by Panairjdde, on May 7, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1869, 318 KB) Santa Susanna, Rome Photo taken by Panairjdde, on May 7, 2005. ... Baroque façade of Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno (1603). ... Façade of St. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (752x943, 307 KB) Author : Urban Description : Chiesa San Benedetto, Catane, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Sicilian Baroque ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (752x943, 307 KB) Author : Urban Description : Chiesa San Benedetto, Catane, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Sicilian Baroque ... Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. ... The Roman Odeon. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Church of the Gesù. The Church of the Gesù is home to the famous painting of Madonna Della Strada, venerated by millions of Roman Catholics. ... Baroque façade of Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno (1603). ... Façade of St. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Important features of Baroque architecture include:

Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... For other use of the term, see Chiaroscuro (disambiguation). ... Weltenburg Abbey (Kloster Weltenburg) is a Benedictine monastery in Weltenburg in Kelheim on the Danube in Bavaria, Germany. ... Weingarten Abbey 1525 Weingarten Abbey or St. ... sculpted putto The putto is a figure of a pudgy baby, almost always male, often naked and having wings, found especially in Italian Renaissance art. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... This article is about the building material. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Faux finishing or faux marbling is the preparation and finishing of a surface to imitate the appearance of polished marble. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... The word projection can mean more than one thing. ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture. ... The plague Column of the Virgin Mary Immaculate in Kutná Hora, the Czech Republic, built between 1713 and 1715 Erecting religious monuments in the form of a column surmounted by a figure or a Christian symbol was a gesture of public faith that flourished in the Catholic countries of Europe... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ...

The Baroque and Colonialism

Though the tendency has been to see Baroque architecture as a European phenomenon, one must not forget that it coincided with—and is integrally enmeshed with—the rise of European colonialism. Colonialisms required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction.[1] Colonialism brought in huge amounts of wealth not only in the silver that was extracted from the mines in Bolivia, Mexico and elsewhere, but also in the resultant trade in commodities, such as sugar and tobacco. The need to control trade routes, monopolies and slavery controlled primarily by the French during the 17th century, created an almost endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French Religious Wars, the Thirty Years' War (1618 and 1648), Franco–Spanish War (1653), the Dutch War (1672–1678) and so on. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards lead them into bankruptcy in the 16th century (1557 and 1560), recovering only slowly in the following century. This explains why the Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed in Spain, was to a large extent, in Spain, an architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria where we see the construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French, under Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683), the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize their economy and thus were able to become initially at least the prime benefactors of the flow of wealth. While this was good for the building industries and the arts, the new wealth created an inflation, the likes of which had never been experienced before. Basically, the rich became richer and the poor became poorer. Rome was known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds.[2] It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Dutch War may refer to: The Dutch-Portuguese War, 1588–1661 Any of the four Anglo-Dutch Wars: The First Anglo-Dutch War, 1652–1654 The Second Anglo-Dutch War, 1665–1667 The Third Anglo-Dutch War, 1672–1674 The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, 1780–1784 The Franco-Dutch War... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ...


Rome and South Italy

The sacred architecture of the Baroque period had its beginnings in the Italian paradigm of the basilica with crossed dome and nave. One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, still maintaining rigor. They had domed roofs. For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Mannerism is the usual English term for an approach to all the arts, particularly painting but not exclusive to it, a reaction to the High Renaissance, emerging after the Sack of Rome in 1527 shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to their foundations, and even Religion had split apart. ... The Church of the Gesù. The Church of the Gesù is home to the famous painting of Madonna Della Strada, venerated by millions of Roman Catholics. ... Baroque façade of Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno (1603). ... Façade of St. ...


The same emphasis on plasticity, continuity and dramatic effects is evident in the work of Pietro da Cortona, illustrated by San Luca e Santa Martina (1635) and Santa Maria della Pace (1656). The latter building, with concave wings devised to simulate a theatrical set, presses forward to fill a tiny piazza in front of it. Other Roman ensembles of the period are likewise suffused with theatricality, dominating the surrounding cityscape as a sort of theatrical environment. Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berettini (November 1, 1596- May 16, 1669) was a prolific artist and architect of High Baroque. ... The façade of Santa Maria della Pace in an engraving by Giuseppe Vasi (18th century). ...


Probably the best known example of such an approach is trapezoidal Saint Peter's Square, which has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre. The square is shaped by two colonnades, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini on an unprecedented colossal scale to suit the space and provide emotions of awe. Bernini's own favourite design was the polychromatic oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658), which, with its lofty altar and soaring dome, provides a concentrated sampling of the new architecture. His idea of the Baroque townhouse is typified by the Palazzo Barberini (1629) and Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), both in Rome. Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... SantAndrea al Quirinale (St. ... In Palazzo Barberini, which still dominates Piazza Barberini, Rione Trevi, Rome, three great architects worked to create a harmonious whole: Carlo Maderno, who began it in 1627, his nephew and assistant Francesco Borromini, working on his first important commission, and a young sculptor, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ...

Bernini's chief rival in the papal capital was Francesco Borromini, whose designs deviate from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance even more dramatically. Acclaimed by later generations as a revolutionary in architecture, Borromini condemned the anthropomorphic approach of the 16th century, choosing to base his designs on complicated geometric figures (modules). Borromini's architectural space seems to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the late style of Michelangelo. His iconic masterpiece is the diminutive church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, distinguished by a corrugated oval plan and complex convex-concave rhythms. A later work, Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza, displays the same antipathy to the flat surface and playful inventiveness, epitomized by a corkscrew lantern dome. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1194x1932, 1261 KB) Oggetto Rome, church of SantIvo alla Sapienza, by Borromini, view of upper elicoidal part from Teatro Valle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1194x1932, 1261 KB) Oggetto Rome, church of SantIvo alla Sapienza, by Borromini, view of upper elicoidal part from Teatro Valle. ... SantIvo, embraced by the wings of the Palazzo alla Sapienza. ... Francesco Borromini (September 25, 1599 – August 3, 1667 in Rome) was a prominent and influential Baroque architect, and active in Rome and contemporary with the prolific papal architect and often rival, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... Francesco Borromini (September 25, 1599 – August 3, 1667 in Rome) was a prominent and influential Baroque architect, and active in Rome and contemporary with the prolific papal architect and often rival, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Facade of San Carlo alle quattro fontane. ... SantIvo, embraced by the wings of the Palazzo alla Sapienza. ...


Following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome. His early style is exemplified by the slightly concave façade of San Marcello al Corso). Fontana's academic approach, though lacking in the dazzling inventiveness of his Roman predecessors, exerted substantial influence on Baroque architecture both through his prolific writings and through a number of architects whom he trained and who would disseminate the Baroque idioms throughout 18th-century Europe. Carlo Fontana (Bruciato, Canton Ticino, 1634 or 1638 - Roma 1714) was an Italian architect, sculptor, engineer and author of important writings on the St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... San Marcello al Corso is a church in Rome, devoted to Pope Marcellus. ...


The 18th century saw the capital of Europe's architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris. The Italian Rococo, which flourished in Rome from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. The most talented architects active in Rome — Francesco de Sanctis (Spanish Steps, 1723) and Filippo Raguzzini (Piazza Sant'Ignazio, 1727) — had little influence outside their native country, as did numerous practitioners of the Sicilian Baroque, including Giovanni Battista Vaccarini, Andrea Palma, and Giuseppe Venanzio Marvuglia. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Francesco de Sanctis (March 28, 1817 – December 29, 1883) was an Italian literary critic, considered the most important scholar of Italian language and literature in the 19th century. ... The Spanish Steps, seen from Piazza di Spagna. ... Filippo Raguzzini (c. ... Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. ... Giovanni Battista Vaccarini was born in Palermo in 1702, he did in 1768 He was a Sicilian architect, notable for his work in the Baroque style in his homeland during the period of massive rebuilding following the earthquake of 1693. ... Cathedral in Syracuse Andrea Palmas cathedral facade (begun in 1728). ... Giuseppe Venanzio Marvuglia (Palermo, 1729 – Palermo, 1814) He received received his first architectural training in his native Palermo. ...

Basilica di Superga near Turin: Filippo Juvarra
Basilica di Superga near Turin: Filippo Juvarra

The last phase of Baroque architecture in Italy is exemplified by Luigi Vanvitelli's Caserta Palace, reputedly the largest building erected in Europe in the 18th century. Indebted to contemporary French and Spanish models, the palace is skilfully related to the landscape. At Naples and Caserta, Vanvitelli practiced a sober classicizing academic style, with equal attention to aesthetics and engineering, a style that would make an easy transition to Neoclassicism. Image File history File links Mg-k_Basilica_Superga1. ... Image File history File links Mg-k_Basilica_Superga1. ... Torino redirects here. ... Filippo Juvarra. ... Luigi Vanvitelli (Naples, May 12, 1700 – March 1, 1773, Caserta), an engineer as well as the most prominent 18th-century Italian architect, practiced a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism. ... The Palace of Caserta, in Italian Reggia di Caserta, is a former royal residence in Caserta, near Naples, constructed for the Borbone kings of Naples. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that...


North Italy

In the north of Italy, the monarchs from the House of Savoy were particularly receptive to the new style. They employed a brilliant triad of architects—Guarino Guarini, Filippo Juvarra and Bernardo Vittone—to illustrate the grandiose political ambitions and the newly acquired royal status of their dynasty. The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Camillo-Guarino Guarini (1624 - 1683), Italian monk, writer and architect, was born at Modena. ... Filippo Juvarra. ... Bernardo Vittone (1702 - 1750) was an Italian architect of the Rococo period, active mainly in his natal region of the Piedmont. ...


Guarini was a peripatetic monk who combined many traditions (including that of Gothic architecture) to create irregular structures remarkable for their oval columns and unconventional façades. Building upon the findings of contemporary geometry and stereotomy, Guarini elaborated the concept of architectura obliqua, which approximated Borromini's style in both theoretical and structural audacity. Guarini's Palazzo Carignano (1679) may have been the most flamboyant application of the Baroque style to the design of a private house in the 17th century. The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... baroque façade rear façade Palazzo Carignano is an historical building in the center of Turin. ...


Fluid forms, weightless details and airy prospects of Juvarra's architecture anticipated the art of Rococo. Although his practice ranged well beyond Turin, Juvarra's most arresting designs were created for Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia. The visual impact of his Basilica di Superga (1717) derives from its soaring roofline and masterful placement on a hill above Turin. Rustic ambience encouraged a freer articulation of architectural form at the royal hunting lodge of the Palazzina di Stupinigi (1729). Juvarra finished his short but eventful career in Madrid, where he worked on the royal palaces at La Granja and Aranjuez. A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Torino redirects here. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... The Basilica of Superga is a church in the vicinity of Turin. ... The Palace of Stupinigi. ... La Granja is a Royal site in Spain that includes a Royal palace, gardens and sculptural fountains. ... The Palacio Real de Aranjuez at night The Palacio Real de Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, one of the Spanish royal sites. ...


Among the many who were profoundly influenced by the brilliance and diversity of Juvarra and Guarini none was more important than Bernardo Vittone. This Piedmontese architect is remembered for an outcrop of flamboyant Rococo churches, quatrefoil in plan and delicate in detailing. His sophisticated designs often feature multiple vaults, structures within structures and domes within domes. Bernardo Vittone (1702 - 1750) was an Italian architect of the Rococo period, active mainly in his natal region of the Piedmont. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ...


France

Main article: French Baroque
Château de Maisons near Paris: François Mansart, 1642
Château de Maisons near Paris: François Mansart, 1642

The centre of Baroque secular architecture was France, where the open three wing layout of the palace was established as the canonical solution as early as the 16th century. But it was the Palais du Luxembourg by Salomon de Brosse that determined the sober and classicizing direction that French Baroque architecture was to take. For the first time, the corps de logis was emphasized as the representative main part of the building, while the side wings were treated as hierarchically inferior and appropriately scaled down. The medieval tower has been completely replaced by the central projection in the shape of a monumental three-storey gateway. Château de Maisons near Paris: François Mansart, 1642. ... Image File history File links Chateau-de-maison-lafitte. ... Image File history File links Chateau-de-maison-lafitte. ... Château de Maisons, southeast-facing garden front The Château de Maisons (now Château de Maisons-Laffitte), in Yvelines, Île-de-France, designed by François Mansart from 1630 to 1651, is a prime example of French baroque architecture and a reference point in the history of European... Château de Maisons, by Mansart. ... The Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... Salomon de Brosse (1571, Verneuil-sur-Oise, France - Dec. ... Blenheim Palace, unscaled plan of the Corps de logis. ...


De Brosse's melding of traditional French elements (e.g. lofty mansard roofs and complex roofline) with extensive Italianate quotations (e.g. ubiquitous rustication, derived from Palazzo Pitti in Florence) came to characterize the Louis XIII style. Probably the most accomplished formulator of the new manner was François Mansart, a tireless perfectionist credited with introducing the full Baroque to France. In his design for Château de Maisons (1642), Mansart succeeded in reconciling academic and Baroque approaches, while demonstrating respect for the gothic-inherited idiosyncrasies of the French tradition. Château of Dampierre-en-Yvelines: domesticated Baroque at the center of Louis XIVs inner circle A Mansard or Mansard roof in architecture refers to a style of hip and totally awesome roof characterized by two slopes on each of its four sides with the lower slope being much... Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Château de Maisons, by Mansart. ... Château de Maisons, southeast-facing garden front The Château de Maisons (now Château de Maisons-Laffitte), in Yvelines, ÃŽle-de-France, designed by François Mansart from 1630 to 1651, is a prime example of French baroque architecture and a reference point in the history of European...

The Château of Maisons (illustration) demonstrates the ongoing transition from the post-medieval chateaux of the 16th century to the villa-like country houses of the 18th. The structure is strictly symmetrical, with an order applied to each story, mostly in pilaster form. The frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with remarkable plasticity and the whole ensemble reads like a three-dimensional whole. Mansart's structures are stripped of overblown decorative effects, so typical of contemporary Rome. Italian Baroque influence is muted and relegated to the field of decorative ornamentation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 397 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baroque architecture French Baroque architecture ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 397 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baroque architecture French Baroque architecture ... Vaux-le-vicomte was in many ways the most important work built before Louis XIV came to power. ... Louis Le Vau (1612 – 1670) was a French architect who worked for Louis XIV of France. ... Painting of André Le Nôtre by Carlo Maratti André Le Nôtre (March 12, 1613 - September 15, 1700) was a landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV of France from 1645 to 1700. ... A château ( French for castle; plural châteaux) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of gentry, usually French, with or without fortifications. ... In architecture, pilasters comprise slightly-projecting pseudo-columns built into or onto a wall, with capitals and bases. ...


The next step in the development of European residential architecture involved the integration of the gardens in the composition of the palace, as is exemplified by Vaux-le-Vicomte), where the architect Louis Le Vau, the designer Charles Le Brun and the gardener André Le Nôtre complemented each other. From the main cornice to a low plinth, the miniature palace is clothed in the so-called "colossal order", which makes the structure look more impressive. The creative collaboration of Le Vau and Le Nôtre marked the arrival of the "Magnificent Manner" which allowed to extend Baroque architecture outside the palace walls and transform the surrounding landscape into an immaculate mosaic of expansive vistas. Vaux-le-vicomte was in many ways the most important work built before Louis XIV came to power. ... Louis Le Vau (1612 – 1670) was a French architect who worked for Louis XIV of France. ... Charles Le Brun, contemporary portrait Charles Le Brun (February 24, 1619 - February 22, 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France. ... Painting of André Le Nôtre by Carlo Maratti André Le Nôtre (March 12, 1613 - September 15, 1700) was a landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV of France from 1645 to 1700. ...

The same three artists scaled this concept to monumental proportions in the royal hunting lodge and later main residence at Versailles). On a far grander scale, the palace is a hypertrophied and somewhat repetitive version of Vaux-le-Vicomte. It was both the most grandiose and the most imitated residential building of the 17th century. Mannheim, Nordkirchen and Drottningholm were among many foreign residences for which Versailles provided a model. Photo taken by Daniel Levine on 15 July 2003. ... Photo taken by Daniel Levine on 15 July 2003. ... , The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... Jules Hardouin-Mansart, marble bust by Jean-Louis Lemoyne: a full-dress Baroque portrait bust demonstrates that the Kings architect is no mere craftsman Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris, April 16, 1646 РMarly, France, May 11, 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal ch̢teau in Versailles, France. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Nordkirchen is a town with 10286 inhabitants in the district Coesfeld, Germany. ... The Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Swedish royal family. ...


The final expansion of Versailles was superintended by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, whose key design is the Dome des Invalides), generally regarded as the most important French church of the century. Hardouin-Mansart profited from his uncle's instruction and plans to instill the edifice with an imperial grandeur unprecedented in the countries north of Italy. The majestic hemispherical dome balances the vigorous vertical thrust of the orders, which do not accurately convey the structure of the interior. The younger architect not only revived the harmony and balance associated with the work of the elder Mansart but also set the tone for Late Baroque French architecture, with its grand ponderousness and increasing concessions to academicism. Jules Hardouin-Mansart, marble bust by Jean-Louis Lemoyne: a full-dress Baroque portrait bust demonstrates that the Kings architect is no mere craftsman Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris, April 16, 1646 – Marly, France, May 11, 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex... The church at the Invalides Court of the museum of the Army Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans... Academic art was an art movement, and a style of painting that was in fashion in Europe from the 17th to the 19th century. ...


The reign of Louis XV saw a reaction against the official Louis XIV style in the shape of a more delicate and intimate manner, known as Rococo. The style was pioneered by Nicolas Pineau, who collaborated with Hardouin-Mansart on the interiors of the royal Château de Marly. Further elaborated by Pierre Le Pautre and Juste-Aurèle Meissonier, the "genre pittoresque" culminated in the interiors of the Petit Château at Chantilly (c. 1722) and Hôtel de Soubise in Paris (c. 1732), where a fashionable emphasis on the curvilinear went beyond all reasonable measure, while sculpture, paintings, furniture, and porcelain tended to overshadow architectural divisions of the interior. Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Nicolas Pineau (1684 — 1754) was a French carver and ornamental designer, one of the leaders who initiated the exuberant asymmetrical phase of the high Rococo. ... The Château de Marly was located in what has become Marly-le-Roi, the commune that existed at the edge of the royal park. ... Juste Aurèle Meissonier (1695-1750) was a French goldsmith, sculptor, painter, architect, and furniture designer. ... The front entrance and courtyard at the Château de Chantilly The Château de Chantilly is a historic château located in the town of Chantilly, France. ... The corps de logis The Hôtel de Soubise is a city palace, located at 60 rue des Francs-Bourgeois, in the IIIe arrondissement of Paris. ...

Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mellieħa in Malta.
Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mellieħa in Malta.

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mellieħa (Maltese: Il-Madonna tal-Mellieħa) is a Marian shrine in the village of Mellieħa in Malta. ...

Malta

Valletta, the capital city of Malta, was laid out in 1566 to fortify the Knights of Rhodes, who had taken over the island when they were driven from Rhodes by Islamic armies. The city, designed by Francesco Laparelli on a grid plan, and built up over the next century, remains a particularly coherent example of Baroque urbanism. Its massive fortifications, which were considered state of the art, until the modern age, are also largely intact. Valletta became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. Valletta (Maltese: , commonly referred to as Il-Belt - The City) is the capital city of Malta. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1614 KB) Taken by me, Robert Scarth, Koninlijk Paleis (Royal Palace), Amsterdam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1614 KB) Taken by me, Robert Scarth, Koninlijk Paleis (Royal Palace), Amsterdam. ... Koninlijk Paleis The Royal Palace in Amsterdam (Koninklijk Paleis te Amsterdam in Dutch) is one of three palaces in the Netherlands which is at the disposal of Queen Beatrix by Act of Parliament. ... Mauritshuis Jacob van Campen (1596 - 1657) was a Dutch artist and architect. ...

Netherlands

Main article: Dutch Baroque architecture

There is little Baroque about Dutch architecture of the 17th century. The architecture of the first republic in Northern Europe was meant to reflect democratic values by quoting extensively from classical antiquity. Like contemporary developments in England, Dutch Palladianism is marked by sobriety and restraint. Two leading architects, Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post, used such eclectic elements as giant-order pilasters, gable roofs, central pediments, and vigorous steeples in a coherent combination that anticipated Wren's Classicism. A villa with a superimposed portico, from Book IV of Palladios I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura, in a modestly priced English translation published in London, 1736. ... Mauritshuis Jacob van Campen (1596 - 1657) was a Dutch artist and architect. ... Pieter Post (Born 1608-Died 1669) was a Dutch architect, painter, printmaker. ...


The most ambitious constructions of the period included the seats of self-government in Amsterdam (1646) and Maastricht (1658), designed by Campen and Post, respectively. On the other hand, the residences of the House of Orange are closer to a typical burgher mansion than to a royal palace. Two of these, Huis ten Bosch and Mauritshuis, are symmetrical blocks with large windows, stripped of ostentatious Baroque flourishes and mannerisms. The same austerely geometrical effect is achieved without great cost or pretentious effects at the stadholder's summer residence of Het Loo. City Hall is a 1996 film directed by Harold Becker. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (from 1702 Orange-Nassau). ... Huis ten Bosch is one of the four official palaces of the Dutch Royal Family, located in the Hague in the Netherlands. ... Mauritshuis The Mauritshuis is a museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. ... Het Loo and its gardens, more ambitious than they were actually executed, in an early 18th century engraving (watercolor added) The former royal residence Het Loo near Apeldoorn, Netherlands, was built starting in 1684 for the Stadtholder Willem, known to English-language readers as William III of Orange and his...


The Dutch Republic was one of the great powers of 17th-century Europe and its influence on European architecture was by no means negligible. Dutch architects were employed on important projects in Northern Germany, Scandinavia and Russia, disseminating their ideas in those countries. The Dutch colonial architecture, once flourishing in the Hudson River Valley and associated primarily with red-brick gabled houses, may still be seen in Willemstad, Netherlands Antilles. Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... , The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois,[1][2][3] or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, Θkahnéhtati[4] in Tuscarora), is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and... Willemstad Willemstad is the territorial capital of the Netherlands Antilles. ...


Belgium

Carolus-Borromeuskerk in Antwerp
Carolus-Borromeuskerk in Antwerp

Baroque Architecture in the Southern Netherlands developed rather differently than in the Protestant North. After the Twelve Years' Truce the Southern Netherlands remained in Catholic hands, ruled by the Spanish Habsburg Kings. Important architectural projects were set up in the spirit of the Counter Reformation. Flemish architects such as Wenceslas Cobergher were trained in Italy and their works were inspired by architects such as Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta. Cobergher's most major project was the Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel which he designed as the center of a new town in a the form of a heptagon. The influence of the painter Pieter Paul Rubens on architecture was very important. With his book "I Palazzi di Genova" he introduced novel Italian models for the conception of profane buildings and decoration in the Southern Netherlands. The Courtyard and Portico of his own house in Antwerp (Rubenshuis) are good examples of his architectural activity. He also took part in the decoration of the Antwerp Jesuit Church (now Carolus-Borromeuskerk) were he introduced a lavish Baroque decoration, integrating sculpture and painting in the architectural program. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (768 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Para and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (768 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Para and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The five orders, engraving from Vignolas Regole delle cinque ordini darchitettura set the standards Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi da Vignola (Vignola, near Modena, October 1, 1507 - July 7, 1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism, also known as Vignola. ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 50. ... In geometry, a heptagon is a polygon with seven sides and seven angles. ... Pieter Pauwel (Peter Paul) Rubens (June 28, 1577 - May 30, 1640) was a Flemish baroque painter. ...


England

Main article: English Baroque

Baroque aesthetics, whose influence was so potent in mid-17th century France, made little impact in England during the Protectorate and the first Restoration years. For a decade between the death of Inigo Jones in 1652 and Christopher Wren's visit to Paris in 1665 there was no English architect of the accepted premier class. Unsurprisingly, general interest in European architectural developments was slight. Greenwich Hospital: Sir Christopher Wren, 1694. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 835 KB) Picture of an Greenwich Hospital from the banks of the Thames in Greenwich, London, England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 835 KB) Picture of an Greenwich Hospital from the banks of the Thames in Greenwich, London, England. ... The Greenwich Hospital was founded in 1694 as the Royal Naval Hospital for Seamen. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... For other uses, see Restoration. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ...


It was Wren who presided over the genesis of the English Baroque manner, which differed from the continental models by clarity of design and subtle taste for classisism. Following the Great Fire of London, Wren rebuilt fifty-three churches, where Baroque aesthetics are apparent primarily in dynamic structure and multiple changing views. His most ambitious work was St Paul's Cathedral, which bears comparison with the most effulgent domed churches of Italy and France. In this majestically proportioned edifice, the Palladian tradition of Inigo Jones is fused with contemporary continental sensibilities in masterly equilibrium. Less influential were straightforward attempts to engraft the Berniniesque vision onto British church architecture (e.g. by Thomas Archer in St. John's, Smith Square, 1728). Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... A villa with a superimposed portico, from Book IV of Palladios I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura, in a modestly priced English translation published in London, 1736. ... Thomas Archer (1668-1743) was an English baroque architect. ... St. ...

Although Wren was also active in secular architecture, the first truly Baroque country house in England was built to a design by William Talman at Chatsworth, starting in 1687. The culmination of Baroque architectural forms comes with Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. Each was capable of a fully developed architectural statement, yet they preferred to work in tandem, most notably at Castle Howard (1699) and Blenheim Palace (1705). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1003 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Vanbrugh Baroque architecture Seaton Delaval Hall Talk:Seaton Delaval Hall English Baroque ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1003 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Vanbrugh Baroque architecture Seaton Delaval Hall Talk:Seaton Delaval Hall English Baroque ... Seaton Delaval Hall, drawn before completion, as Vanbrugh envisaged the house. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... A country house is a large dwelling, such as a mansion, located on a country estate. ... The South Front of Chatsworth from Colen Campbells Vitruvius Britannicus. ... A view of Chatsworth from the south-west circa 1880. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... The garden front of Castle Howard John Vanburghs complete project for Castle Howard, which was not all built. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ...


Although these two palaces may appear somewhat ponderous or turgid to Italian eyes, their heavy embellishment and overpowering mass captivated the British public, albeit for a short while. Castle Howard is a flamboyant assembly of restless masses dominated by a cylindrical domed tower which would not be out of place in Dresden or Munich. Blenheim is a more solid construction, where the massed stone of the arched gates and the huge solid portico becomes the main ornament. Vanbrugh's final work was Seaton Delaval Hall (1718), a comparatively modest mansion yet unique in the structural audacity of its style. It was at Seaton Delaval that Vanbrugh, a skillful playwright, achieved the peak of Restoration drama, once again highlighting a parallel between Baroque architecture and contemporary theatre. Despite his efforts, Baroque was never truly to the English taste and well before his death in 1724 the style had lost currency in Britain. This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Seaton Delaval Hall, drawn before completion, as Vanbrugh envisaged the house. ...


Scandinavia

French châteaux of the 17th century provided models for numerous country houses across Northern Europe
French châteaux of the 17th century provided models for numerous country houses across Northern Europe
Tessin's Drottningholm Palace illustrates the proximity between French and Swedish architectural practice.
Tessin's Drottningholm Palace illustrates the proximity between French and Swedish architectural practice.

During the golden age of the Swedish Empire, the architecture of Nordic countries was dominated by the Swedish court architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and his son Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. Their aesthetic was readily adopted across the Baltic, in Copenhagen and Saint Petersburg. Image File history File links Chateau of Dampierre-en-Yvelines French Wikipedia: Château_de_Dampierre-en-Yvelines. ... Image File history File links Chateau of Dampierre-en-Yvelines French Wikipedia: Château_de_Dampierre-en-Yvelines. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 3298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Drottningholm Palace Baroque architecture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 3298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Drottningholm Palace Baroque architecture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Swedish royal family. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (born 1615 in Stralsund; dead 1684 in Stockholm was an important Swedish architect. ... Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728), Swedish architect, son of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Born in Germany, Tessin the Elder endowed Sweden with a truly national style, a well-balanced mixture of contemporary French and medieval Hanseatic elements. His designs for the royal manor of Drottningholm seasoned French prototypes with Italian elements, while retaining some peculiarly Nordic features, such as the hipped roof (säteritak). The Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Swedish royal family. ... Hipped roof is a special type of a roof, widely used in Russian architecture for churches and belltowers. ...

Amalienborg, a Baroque quarter in the center of Copenhagen
Amalienborg, a Baroque quarter in the center of Copenhagen

Tessin the Younger shared his father's enthusiasm for discrete palace façades. His design for the Stockholm Palace draws so heavily on Bernini's unexecuted plans for the Louvre that one could well imagine it standing in Naples, Vienna, or Saint Petersburg. Another example of the so-called International Baroque, based on Roman models with little concern for national specifics, is the Royal Palace of Madrid. The same approach is manifested is Tessin's polychrome domeless Kalmar Cathedral, a skillful pastiche of early Italian Baroque, clothed in a giant order of paired Ionic pilasters. Image File history File links Copenhagen_amalienborg_seen_from_opera_house. ... Image File history File links Copenhagen_amalienborg_seen_from_opera_house. ... Amalienborg, with the Marble Church at the top Amalienborg Palace (Danish: Amalienborg Slot) is the winter home of the Danish royal family. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The Stockholm Palace (Swedish: Stockholms slott) is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. ... This article is about the museum. ... Palacio Real redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kalmarer_Dom_aussen. ...


It was not until the mid-18th century that Danish and Russian architecture emancipated from Swedish influence. A milestone of this late period is Nicolai Eigtved's design for a new district of Copenhagen centred on the Amalienborg Palace). The palace is composed of four rectangular mansions for the four greatest nobles of the kingdom, arranged across the angles of an octagonal square. The restrained façades of the mansions hark back to French antecedents, while their interiors contain some of the finest Rococo decoration in Northern Europe. Nicolai Eigtved, also known as Niels Eigtved, (June 4 or June 22, 1701-June 7, 1754), Danish architect, introduced and was the leading proponent of the French rococo style in Danish architecture during the 1730s-1740s. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Amalienborg seen from the Copenhagen Operahouse. ...

Doorway of the Jesuit college, Heiligenstadt.
Doorway of the Jesuit college, Heiligenstadt.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Holy Roman Empire

In the Holy Roman Empire, the Baroque period began somewhat later. Although the Augsburg architect Elias Holl (1573–1646) and some theoretists, including Joseph Furttenbach the Elder already practised the Baroque style, they remained without successors due to the ravages of the Thirty Years' War. From about 1650 on, construction work resumes, and secular and ecclesiastical architecture are of equal importance. During an initial phase, master-masons from southern Switzerland and northern Italy, the so-called magistri Grigioni and the Lombard master-masons, particularly the Carlone family from Val d'Intelvi, dominated the field. However, Austria came soon to develop its own characteristic Baroque style during the last third of the 17th century. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was impressed by Bernini. He forged a new Imperial style by compiling architectural motifs from the entire history, most prominently seen in his church of St. Charles Borromeo in Vienna. Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt also had an Italian training. He developed a highly decorative style, particularly in façade architecture, which exerted strong influences on southern Germany. This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656- 5 April 1723) was an Austrian architect in the Baroque period. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Façade of the Karlskirche The Karlskirche, or Charles Church, was commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI in 1715 after Vienna was delivered from a plague epidemic in 1713. ... Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (born in Genoa, 1668, died in Vienna, 1745) was an Italian-trained Austrian architect who designed many stately buildings and churches. ...


Frequently, the Southern German Baroque is distinguished from the Northern German Baroque, which is more properly the distinction between the Catholic and the Protestant Baroque.

Augustusburg, a typical Baroque palace from North Rhine-Westphalia
Augustusburg, a typical Baroque palace from North Rhine-Westphalia
The Church of St. Nicolas in Prague; Radical Bohemian Baroque
The Church of St. Nicolas in Prague; Radical Bohemian Baroque

In the Catholic South, the Jesuit church of St. Michael in Munich was the first to bring Italian style across the Alps. However, its influence on the further development of church architecture was rather limited. A much more practical and more adaptable model of church architecture was provided by the Jesuit church in Dillingen): the wall-pillar church, i.e. a barrel-vaulted nave accompanied by large open chapels separated by wall-pillars. As opposed to St. Michael's in Munich, the chapels almost reach the height of the nave in the wall-pillar church, and their vault (usually transverse barrel-vaults) springs from the same level as the main vault of the nave. The chapels provide ample lighting; seen from the entrance of the church, the wall-pillars form a theatrical setting for the side altars. The wall-pillar church was further developed by the Vorarlberg school, as well as the master-masons of Bavaria. The wall-pillar church also integrated well with the hall church model of the German late Gothic age. The wall-pillar church continued to be used throughout the 18th century (e.g. even in the early neo-classical church of Rot an der Rot Abbey), and early wall-pillar churches could easily be refurbished by re-decoration without any structural changes, e.g. the church at Dillingen. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 199 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): North Rhine-Westphalia Baroque architecture Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces, Brühl User:Ghirlandajo ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 199 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): North Rhine-Westphalia Baroque architecture Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces, Brühl User:Ghirlandajo ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 130 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 130 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... The Michaelskirche in Munich The High Altar The former Jesuit church of St Michael in Munich is the largest Renaissance church north of the Alps. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... There are two towns named Dillingen in Germany Dillingen, Bavaria, capital of the district Dillingen Dillingen, Saarland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Barrel vault In architecture, a barrel vault is an extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. ... Vorarlberg is the westernmost state (Land) of Austria. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof. ... Parish church St Verena Monastery building View of the monastery Interior of parish church St Verena Choir stalls and organ in St Verena Abbots chair Parish church St Verena, pulpit Fresco by Januarius Zick in monastery church St Verena Upper Gate Lower Gate The economy building of Rot an...


However, the Catholic South also received influences from other sources, e.g. the so-called radical Baroque of Bohemia. The radical Baroque of Christoph Dientzenhofer and his son Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, both residing at Prague, was inspired by examples from northern Italy, particularly by the works of Guarino Guarini. It is characterized by the curvature of walls and intersection of oval spaces. While some Bohemian influence is visible in Bavaria's most prominent architect of the period, Johann Michael Fischer, e.g. in the curved balconies of some of his earlier wall-pillar churches, the works of Balthasar Neumann are generally considered to be the final synthesis of Bohemian and German traditions. The Church of St. ... Kilián Ignác Dienzenhofer (1689–1751) was an important Czech architect of the Baroque era. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Camillo-Guarino Guarini (1624 - 1683), Italian monk, writer and architect, was born at Modena. ... Johann Michael Fischer (* 1692 in Burglengenfeld/Upper Palatinate, † 1766 in Munich) was a German architect in the late Baroque period. ... Johann Balthasar Neumann (January 27, 1687 _ August 19, 1753) was a German Baroque architect who designed the Vierzehnheiligen and several churches in Würzburg. ...


Protestant sacred architecture was of lesser importance during the Baroque, and produced only a few works of prime importance, particularly the Frauenkirche in Dresden. Architectural theory was more lively in the north than in the south of Germany, e.g. Leonhard Christoph Sturm's edition of Nikolaus Goldmann, but Sturm's theoretical considerations (e.g. on Protestant church architecture) never really made it to practical application. In the south, theory essentially reduced to the use of buildings and elements from illustrated books and engravings as a prototype. The Dresden Frauenkirche in October 2005, only two weeks prior to its reconsecration and opening to the public. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Palace architecture was equally important both in the Catholic South and the Protestant North. After an initial phase when Italian architects and influences dominated (Vienna, Rastatt), French influence prevailed from the second decennium of the 18th century onwards. The French model is characterized by the horseshoe-like layout enclosing a cour d'honneur (courtyard) on the town side (chateau entre cour et jardin), whereas the Italian (and also Austrian) scheme presents a block-like villa. The principal achievements of German Palace architecture, often worked out in close collaboration of several architects, provide a synthesis of Austro-Italian and French models. The most outstanding palace which blends Austro-Italian and French influences into a completely new type of building is the residence at Würzburg. While its general layout is the horseshoe-like French plan, it encloses interior courtyards. Its façades combine Lucas von Hildebrandt's love of decoration with French-style classical orders in two superimposed stories; its interior features the famous Austrian "imperial staircase", but also a French-type enfilade of rooms on the garden side, inspired by the "apartement semi-double" layout of French castles. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Map of Germany showing Rastatt Rastatt is a city in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... For the German World War II radar system of the same name, see Würzburg radar. ...


Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Wilanów Palace in Warsaw (1677), represents a modest type of Baroque residence.
Wilanów Palace in Warsaw (1677), represents a modest type of Baroque residence.

The first Baroque church in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was the Corpus Christi Church in Niasviž, Belarus (1587). It also holds a distinction of being the first domed basilica with Baroque façade in the world and the first Baroque piece of art in Eastern Europe. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 234 KB) Wilanów palace, Warsaw, Poland Author: Wojsyl, March 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 234 KB) Wilanów palace, Warsaw, Poland Author: Wojsyl, March 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wilanów Palace at Wilanów in Warsaw is, together with its park and other buildings, one of the most precious monuments of Polish national culture. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ... General view of Nesvizh. ...

St. Joseph's Church in Klimontów (1643)
St. Joseph's Church in Klimontów (1643)

The royal patronage was emanating from Warsaw, the new capital of the Commonwealth. The King's residence at the Royal Castle, reconstructed between 1596 and 1619, served as a model for magnates eager to imitate the court architecture, for example, in Voivode Denhoff's residence in Kruszyna (1630), which had only two towers, Lubomirski's castle in Łańcut (1629-1641) and Rzeszów Castle (1682). A suburban palace for King Władysław IV Vasa—Villa Regia, was built by Giovanni Trevano in a beautiful garden in 1637–41. The magnates throughout Poland competed with the kings. The monumental castle Krzyżtopór in Ujazd, built for Krzysztof Ossoliński in the style palazzo in fortezza between 1627 and 1644, had several courtyards surrounded by massive star-shaped fortifications as well as Niasviž Castle, Castle in Pidgirtsy, Kazanowski Palace and Koniecpolski Palace in Warsaw, Bishop's Palace in Kielce, Nowy Wiśnicz Castle, Radziwiłł Palace in Vilnius and Biržai Castle. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (640 × 960 pixels, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Poland, Klimontow. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (640 × 960 pixels, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Poland, Klimontow. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... you such ass Royal Castle, Warsaw. ... Lubomirski Coat of Arms Lubomirski (plural: Lubomirscy) is the surname of a Polish szlachta (nobility) family. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat ŁaÅ„cut County Gmina ŁaÅ„cut Government  - Mayor StanisÅ‚aw Gwizdak Area  - Town 19. ... Rzeszów ( ) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 164,000 (2005), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszów Voivodeship (1945-1998). ... Reign in Poland November 8, 1632 – May 20, 1648. ... Ujazd is a town in Strzelce County in Opole Voivodeship of Poland. ... Noble Family OssoliÅ„ski Coat of Arms Topór Parents Jan Zbigniew OssoliÅ„ski Jadwiga SienieÅ„ska Consorts Zofia Cikowska Zofia KrasiÅ„ska Elżbieta Firlej Children with Zofia Cikowska Krzysztof Baldwin OssoliÅ„ski Date of Birth 1587 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death 1645 Place of Death  ? Krzysztof Ossoli... Niasviž Castle (Polish: ) is a residential castle of the RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ family in Niasviž in Belarus. ... Kazanowski Palace in Warsaw The Kazanowski Palace (Polish: PaÅ‚ac Kazanowskich), also known as the Radziejowski Palace, was a large palace in Warsaw, occupying the place where the Charitable Center Res Sacra Miser stands today. ... Presidential Palace in Warsaw. ... Map of the centre of Kielce Monastery Exbud headquarters-symbol of todays Kielce City The monument to commemorate of tragedy in New York 11 September 2001 Bishops Palace Building of Stefan Å»eromski Theatre The new stadium in Kielce Bus Station in Kielce of characterisic shape of alien saucer Kielce... Castle in Nowy WiÅ›nicz Nowy WiÅ›nicz is a small town in Lesser Poland Voivodship, Poland. ... East and north pavillions of the palace RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Palace (Lithuanian: ) is a Late Renaissance palace in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... The RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ castle of Biržai Biržai Castle is in Biržai, Lithuania. ...


Sculptures that profusely decorated churches, castles, and palaces were made out of stucco, stone, brown marble from Chęciny or black marble from Dębnik near Kraków. Many of them were captured, looted, and destroyed by the Swedes and Brandenburgians between 1655 and 1657, it has never been restored. For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... ChÄ™ciny Castle ChÄ™ciny is a town in Kielce County, ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,252 inhabitants (2006). ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ...

Branicki Palace in Białystok (1726), the Versailles of Podlachia
Branicki Palace in Białystok (1726), the Versailles of Podlachia

The most representative and sumptuous Baroque residence was erected after the Deluge: Wilanów Palace, Sandomierski Palace, Lubomirski bathing pavilion, Marywil, Saxon Palace, Branicki Palace in Warsaw, Sapieha Palace and Slushko Palace in Vilnius, Branicki Palace in Białystok, Potocki Palace in Radzyń Podlaski, Czartoryski Palace in Puławy, Leszczyński Palace in Rydzyna and Raczyński Palace in Rogalin among others. Front side of Branicki Palace Branicki Coat of Arms PaÅ‚ac Branickich (Branicki Palace) in BiaÅ‚ystok, northeast Poland, the Versailles of Podlasie, was built for Count Jan Klemens Branicki, Great Crown Hetman and patron of art and science, raised in the French milieu of the Polish aristocracy, who transformed... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... Old chapel Krzna river Potockis Palace i MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Podlachia, Podlesia, or Podlasie is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland and western Belarus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wilanów Palace at Wilanów in Warsaw is, together with its park and other buildings, one of the most precious monuments of Polish national culture. ... Sandomierski Palace reconstruction design by Tylman van Gameren. ... The southern façade of the palace Łazienki Palace (Polish: ) also called Palace on the Water (Polish: ) or Palace on the Isle (Polish: ) is a Neoclassical palace in Łazienki Park in Warsaw. ... Rendering of the Saxon Palace, as it is to be rebuilt. ... Branicki Palace in Warsaw - courtyard Wing of Branicki Palace facing the Miodowa Street, with profuse rococo decorations The Branicki Palace (Polish: PaÅ‚ac Branickich) is a notable 18th-century magnates mansion in Warsaw, Poland. ... Best preserved eastern façade of the palace Slushko Palace (Lithuanian: , Polish: ) in Vilnius, Lithuania is a Baroque palace situated on Neris River bank in the Old Town elderate, former Antakalnis suburb of the city. ... Front side of Branicki Palace Branicki Coat of Arms PaÅ‚ac Branickich (Branicki Palace) in BiaÅ‚ystok, northeast Poland, the Versailles of Podlasie, was built for Count Jan Klemens Branicki, Great Crown Hetman and patron of art and science, raised in the French milieu of the Polish aristocracy, who transformed... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... Potocki family coat of arms: Pilawa. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Czartoryski is the surname of a Polish szlachta ( gentry) family (also known as the Familia Czartoryskich). ... PuÅ‚awy is a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Voivodeship (province), on the Vistula and Kurówka Rivers. ... LeszczyÅ„ski family coat of arms: Wieniawa. ... Rydzyna Coat of Arms Rydzyna is a Polish town that was the seat of king Stanislaw Leszczynski during LeszczyÅ„skis first short reign from 1704-1709. ... Palace in Rogalin Rogalin is a village in Poland, near PoznaÅ„, situated on the Warta river. ...


In Warsaw, which before WW2 was filled with Baroque residences, churches and houses, and where Tylman van Gameren was active, survived few important buildings—Krasiński Palace, Ostrogski Palace, Kotowski Palace, St. Kazimierz Church, Bernardines church in Czerniaków and Late-Baroque Visitationist Church and Holy Cross Church. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tylman van Gameren (1632 – 1706) was a Dutch architect and engineer who worked for Queen Maria Kasimira of Poland. ... KrasiÅ„ski Palace, 1770. ... The façade of the palace. ... Visitationist Church of St. ... The façade in 1990s Modern view of the interior Sculpture of the Christ under the Cross by Pius WeloÅ„ski The Church after the Second World War. ...

St. Mary Church in Święta Lipka (1730)
St. Mary Church in Święta Lipka (1730)

In the early 17th century, the Baroque style spread over the Commonwealth. Important Baroque churches include the Waza Chapel in the Wawel Cathedral, the SS. Peter and Paul, St. Anna and the Visitationist church in Kraków, St Peter and St Paul's Church, St Casimir's Chapel of the Vilnius Cathedral and St Casimir's Church in Vilnius, Pažaislis monastery in Kaunas the Dominican and St George Church in Lwów, the Jesuit church in Poznań, the Xavier Cathedral in Hrodno, the Royal Chapel of St. Mary's Co-Cathedral in Gdańsk, Jasna Góra Monastery and Święta Lipka in Masuria. Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral – in full, the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Wenceslaus – is Polands national sanctuary. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Front view of the church St. ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas Pažaislis monastery and church (Polish: ) form the largest monastery complex in Lithuania, and one of the most magnificent examples of Italian baroque architecture in Eastern Europe. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... St. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania (about 15 km and 30 km away respectively). ... St Marys Church St. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Medieval Jasna Góra Monastery The Jasna Góra Monastery (Polish: Jasna Góra, Hungarian: Fényes Hegy, Latin: Clarus Mons, English: Bright Hill) is a Pauline Fathers monastery in the City of CzÄ™stochowa, Poland. ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ...

Pažaislis Monastery in Kaunas
Pažaislis Monastery in Kaunas

The style was adopted by Lithuanian magnates the most prominent examples of it being Sapieha Palace (1697) and Slushko Palace (1700) and in its capital Vilnius, designed and decorated by Italian master Pietro Perti. Architects such as Johann Christoph Glaubitz were instrumental in forming the so-called distinctive "Vilnius Baroque" style, which spread throughout the region. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1917 KB) Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas, Lithuania Author: Wojsyl File links The following pages link to this file: Kaunas Talk:Baroque architecture Pažaislis monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1917 KB) Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas, Lithuania Author: Wojsyl File links The following pages link to this file: Kaunas Talk:Baroque architecture Pažaislis monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas Pažaislis monastery and church (Polish: ) form the largest monastery complex in Lithuania, and one of the most magnificent examples of Italian baroque architecture in Eastern Europe. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nəs... Drawing of the palace before reconstruction, in 1830 Sapieha Palace awaits renovation (side view) Sapieha Palace (Lithuanian: ) is one of the palaces in Antakalnis district of Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Best preserved eastern façade of the palace Slushko Palace (Lithuanian: , Polish: ) in Vilnius, Lithuania is a Baroque palace situated on Neris River bank in the Old Town elderate, former Antakalnis suburb of the city. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Facade of St. ...


By the end of the century, Polish Baroque influences crossed the Dnipro into the Cossack Hetmanate, where they gave birth to a particular style of Orthodox architecture, known as the Cossack Baroque. Such was its popular appeal that every medieval church in Kyiv and the Left-Bank Ukraine was redesigned according to the newest fashion. The Dnieper River (Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Ukrainian: Днiпро/Dnipro; Polish: Dniepr; Latin: Borysthenes, Danaper) is a river (2290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... The Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnipro River, comprising the modern-day regions of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy and the eastern part of the Kyiv and Cherkasy regions, in Russian histories...


Hungary and Transylvania

Front view of the palace in Fertőd
Front view of the palace in Fertőd

In the Kingdom of Hungary the first great Baroque building was the Jesuit Church of Nagyszombat built by Pietro Spozzo in 1629-37 modelling the Church of the Gesu in Rome. Jesuits were the main propagators of the new style with their churches in Győr (1634-1641), Kassa (1671-1684), Eger (1731-1733) and Székesfehérvár (1745-1751). The reconstruction of the territories devastated by the Ottomans was carried out in Baroque style in 18th century. Intact Baroque townscapes can be found in Győr, Székesfehérvár, Eger, Veszprém, Esztergom and the Castle District of Buda. The most important Baroque palaces in Hungary were the Royal Palace in Buda, Grassalkovich Castle in Gödöllő and Esterházy Castle in Fertőd. Smaller Baroque castles of the Hungarian aristocracy are scattered all over the country. Hungarian Baroque shows the double influence of Austrian and Italian artistic tendencies as many German and Italian architects worked in the country. The main characteristics of the local version of the style were modesty, lack of excessive decoration and some "rural" flavour, especially in the works of the local masters. Important architects of the Hungarian Baroque were András Mayerhoffer, Ignác Oraschek and Márton Wittwer. Franz Anton Pilgram also worked in the Kingdom of Hungary, for example on the great Premonstratensian monastery of Jászó. In the last decades of the 18th century Neo-Classical tendencies became dominant. The two most important architects of that period were Menyhért Hefele and Jakab Fellner. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnavka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... The Church of the Gesù. The Church of the Gesù is home to the famous painting of Madonna Della Strada, venerated by millions of Roman Catholics. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Raab redirects here. ... ... Eger - Dobó square and the castle. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Raab redirects here. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Eger - Dobó square and the castle. ... Veszprém (in Slovak Vesprím) is a city with county rights in western Hungary. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... Buda Castle from above Buda Castle seen from the opposite side of the Danube, in Pest Buda Castle in the snow, taken from the Buda side of the Danube The Buda Castle (Hungarian: Budai Vár) is the historical castle of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, Hungary. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Buda Castle (Hungarian: Budai Vár, Turkish: Budin Kalesi) is the historical castle of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, Hungary. ... Front view of the palace of GödöllÅ‘ GödöllÅ‘ is a small town situated in Pest county, Hungary, about 30 km northeast from the outskirts of Budapest. ... FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem) and in England, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... KoÅ¡ice-okolie District in the Kosice Region Jasov is a small town and municipality in KoÅ¡ice-okolie District in the Kosice Region of eastern Slovakia. ... Jakab Fellner (Fellenthali Fellner Jakab) (Nikolsburg, 1722. ...


Two representative Baroque structures in Transylvania (now part of Romania) are the Brukenthal Palace in Sibiu and the former Bishopric Palace in Oradea, state museums. This article is about the region in Romania. ... Location of Sibiu within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country Sibiu County Founded 1191 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Klaus Johannis Area  - Total 121 km² (46. ... Location of Oradea Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 111. ...


Russia

View of the Winter Palace from the Palace Square
View of the Winter Palace from the Palace Square

In Russia, Baroque architecture passed through three stages - the early Moscow Baroque, with elegant white decorations on red-brick walls of rather traditional churches, the mature Petrine Baroque, mostly imported from the Low Countries, and the late Rastrelliesque Baroque, in the words of William Brumfield, "extravagant in design and execution, yet ordered by the rhythmic insistence of massed columns and Baroque statuary." Winter Palace with the Alexander Column. ... Winter Palace with the Alexander Column. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... The Assumption church in Pokrovka Street, Moscow (1696-99) Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Kikin Hall (1714), an example of private residence dating from Peter Is reign. ... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ...


Portugal and Brazil

Nothwithstanding a prodigality of sensually rich surface decoration associated with Baroque architecture of the Iberian Peninsula, the royal courts of Madrid and Lisbon generally favoured a more sober architectural vocabulary distilled from 17th-century Italy. The royal palaces of Madrid, La Granja, Aranjuez, Mafra and Queluz were designed by architects under strong influence of Bernini and Juvarra. In the realm of church architecture, Guarini's design for Sta. Maria della Divina Providenza in Lisbon was a pace-setter for structural audacity in the region (even though it was never built). The first fully Baroque church in Portugal was the Church of Santa Engrácia), in Lisbon, designed by royal architect João Antunes. This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Palacio Real redirects here. ... La Granja is a Royal site in Spain that includes a Royal palace, gardens and sculptural fountains. ... The Palacio Real de Aranjuez at night The Palacio Real de Aranjuez is a residence of the King of Spain, one of the Spanish royal sites. ... The Palaces main façade The Mafra National Palace is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal. ... Ceremonial façade of the Palace of Queluz. ... Main façade of the Church of Santa Engrácia. ...

Palácio do Raio in Braga
Palácio do Raio in Braga

By the mid-18th century, northern Portuguese architects had absorbed the concepts of Italian Baroque to revel in the plasticity of local granite in such projects as the surging 75-metre-high Torre dos Clérigos in Porto). The foremost centre of the national Baroque tradition was Braga, whose buildings encompass virtually every important feature of Portuguese architecture and design. The Baroque shrines and palaces of Braga are noted for polychrome ornamental patterns, undulating rooflines, and irregularly shaped window surrounds. Image File history File linksMetadata Palacioraio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Palacioraio. ... For other uses, see Braga (disambiguation). ... Central Porto from Torre dos Clérigos Torre dos Clérigos is a tower in central Porto, in northern Portugal. ... Oporto redirects here. ... For other uses, see Braga (disambiguation). ...

São Francisco de Assis in São João del Rei, by Aleijadinho, 1777
São Francisco de Assis in São João del Rei, by Aleijadinho, 1777

Brazilian architects also explored plasticity in form and decoration, though they rarely surpassed their continental peers in ostentation. The churches of Mariana and the Rosario at Ouro Preto are based on Borromini's vision of interlocking elliptical spaces. At São Pedro dos Clérigos, Recife), a conventional stucco-and-stone façade is enlivened by "a high scrolled gable squeezed tightly between the towers".[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (525x669, 98 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (525x669, 98 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... One of the many ornate churches and the most popular in the city, Igreja São Francisco de Assis. ... Church of the Third Order of St Francis in Ouro Preto. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1724 KB) Palácio Nacional de Mafra, Mafra Foto tirada por Paulo Juntas em 8 de Maio de 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1724 KB) Palácio Nacional de Mafra, Mafra Foto tirada por Paulo Juntas em 8 de Maio de 2005. ... The Palaces main façade The Mafra National Palace is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal. ... Johann Friedrich Ludwig (1670 - 1752), known in Portugal as João Frederico Ludovice, or simply Ludovice, was a famous architect and a goldsmith. ... Mariana is the oldest city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. ... View of Ouro Preto Vila Rica do Ouro Preto, a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque architecture. ... Nickname: Motto: lucea omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location of Recife Country Brazil Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ...


Even after the Baroque conventions passed out of fashion in Europe, the style was long practised in Brazil by Aleijadinho, a brilliant and prolific architect in whose designs hints of Rococo could be discerned. His church of Bom Jesus de Matozinhos at Congonhas is distinguished by a picturesque silhouette and dark ornamental detail on a light stuccoed façade. Although Aleijadinho was originally commissioned to design São Francisco de Assis, São João del Rei his designs were rejected, and were displaced to the church of São Francisco in Ouro Preto instead. Church of the Third Order of St Francis in Ouro Preto. ... Congonhas is a historical city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. ... One of the many ornate churches and the most popular in the city, Igreja São Francisco de Assis. ...


Spain and Belgium

Main article: Spanish Baroque

As Italian Baroque influences penetrated across the Pyrenees, they gradually superseded in popularity the restrained classicizing approach of Juan de Herrera, which had been in vogue since the late 16th century. As early as 1667, the façades of Granada Cathedral (by Alonso Cano) and Jaen Cathedral (by Eufrasio López de Rojas) suggest the artists' fluency in interpreting traditional motifs of Spanish cathedral architecture in the Baroque aesthetic idiom. The most impressive display of Churrigueresque spatial decoration may be found in the west facade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (1738-49). ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ... Tower of Granada Cathedral Inner view Granada Cathedral (Cathedral of the Annunciation) is a cathedral in Granada, in the Autonomous Region of Andalusia, Spain, designed at the peak of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Born 1601, died 1667. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

The most impressive display of Churrigueresque spatial decoration may be found in the west façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela).
The most impressive display of Churrigueresque spatial decoration may be found in the west façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela).

In contrast to the art of Northern Europe, the Spanish art of the period appealed to the emotions rather than seeking to please the intellect. The Churriguera family, which specialized in designing altars and retables, revolted against the sobriety of the Herreresque classicism and promoted an intricate, exaggerated, almost capricious style of surface decoration known as the Churrigueresque. Within half a century, they transformed Salamanca into an exemplary Churrigueresque city. Among the highlights of the style, interiors of the Granada Charterhouse offer some of the most impressive combinations of space and light in 18th-century Europe. Integrating sculpture and architecture even more radically, Narciso Tomé achieved striking chiaroscuro effects in his Transparente for the Toledo Cathedral. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x1200, 128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baroque architecture Churrigueresque User:Garcilaso Spanish architecture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x1200, 128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baroque architecture Churrigueresque User:Garcilaso Spanish architecture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Obradoiro façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela: an all-but-Gothic composition generated entirely of classical details Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is situated in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. ... The Churriguera family consisted of at least two generations of Spanish sculptors and architects, originally from Barcelona, but who had their greatest impact in Salamanca. ... Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Spain. ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... Dome of the tabernacle of Granada Charterhouse. ... For other use of the term, see Chiaroscuro (disambiguation). ... The façade of Toledo cathedral The Cathedral of Toledo is one of the three 13th century High Gothic cathedrals in Spain. ...


The development of the style passed through three phases. Between 1680 and 1720, the Churriguera popularized Guarini's blend of Solomonic columns and composite order, known as the "supreme order". Between 1720 and 1760, the Churrigueresque column, or estipite, in the shape of an inverted cone or obelisk, was established as a central element of ornamental decoration. The years from 1760 to 1780 saw a gradual shift of interest away from twisted movement and excessive ornamentation toward a neoclassical balance and sobriety. Camillo-Guarino Guarini (1624 - 1683), Italian monk, writer and architect, was born at Modena. ... Solomonic columns applied with gilded vines in Poland The Solomonic column is characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft. ... A capital of the Composite order The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. ...

Church of St. Michel in Leuven, Belgium: Willem Hesius, 1650
Church of St. Michel in Leuven, Belgium: Willem Hesius, 1650

Two of the most eye-catching creations of Spanish Baroque are the energetic façades of the University of Valladolid (Diego Tomé, 1719) and Hospicio de San Fernando in Madrid (Pedro de Ribera, 1722), whose curvilinear extravagance seems to herald Antonio Gaudi and Art Nouveau. In this case as in many others, the design involves a play of tectonic and decorative elements with little relation to structure and function. The focus of the florid ornamentation is an elaborately sculptured surround to a main doorway. If we remove the intricate maze of broken pediments, undulating cornices, stucco shells, inverted tapers and garlands from the rather plain wall it is set against, the building's form would not be affected in the slightest. Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... The University of Valladolid is believed to be the oldest university in the Spanish-speaking world, having been founded at the beginning of the 13th century[1]. It currently has 31,780 undergraduate students and over 2,000 faculty[2]. External links Official Website(Spanish language) Official Website in English... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (more widely known in the English speaking world under the Spanish version of his first name, as Antonio Gaudí, or, just simply, Gaudi), (25 June 1852–10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect famous for his unique designs expressing sculptural and individualistic qualities. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


In the wealthy Southern Netherlandish domain of the Spanish kings, Flanders, florid decorative detailing was more tightly knit to the structure, thus precluding concerns of superfluity. A remarkable convergence of Spanish, French and Dutch Baroque aesthetics may be seen in the Abbey of Averbode (1667). Another characteristic example is the Church of St. Michel at Louvain), with its exuberant two-storey façade, clusters of half-columns, and the complex aggregation of French-inspired sculptural detailing. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Abbey of Averbode is the ultimate expression of Flemish Baroque. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ...


Six decades later, a Flemish architect, Jaime Borty Milia, was the first to introduce Rococo to Spain (Cathedral of Murcia, west façade, 1733). The greatest practitioner of the Spanish Rococo style was a native master, Ventura Rodríguez, responsible for the dazzling interior of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar in Saragossa (1750). A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... The Cathedral of Murcia is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Murcia, south-eastern Spain, and dating from the 14th century. ... Ventura Rodríguez, by Francisco Goya, 1786. ... Nuestra Señora del Pilar Basilica The basilica at night The Basilica-Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar or Nuestra Señora del Pilar is a Roman Catholic church in the city of Zaragoza, Aragon, of great importance in Spain. ... For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ...


Spanish America

San Francisco de Asís Church, Lima, 1673.
San Francisco de Asís Church, Lima, 1673.

The combination of the Native American and Moorish decorative influences with an extremely expressive interpretation of the Churrigueresque idiom may account for the full-bodied and varied character of the Baroque in the American and Asian colonies of Spain. Even more than its Spanish counterpart, American Baroque developed as a style of stucco decoration. Twin-towered façades of many American cathedrals of the 17th century had medieval roots and the full-fledged Baroque did not appear until 1664, when a Jesuit shrine on Plaza des Armas in Cusco was built. Even then, the new style hardly affected the structure of churches. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (638x960, 331 KB) Description San Francisco de Lima, Peru. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (638x960, 331 KB) Description San Francisco de Lima, Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... This article is the city in Peru. ...


The Peruvian Baroque was particularly lavish, as evidenced by the monastery of San Francisco at Lima (1673). While the rural Baroque of the Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba in Córdoba, Argentina, followed the model of Il Gesu, provincial "mestizo" (crossbred) styles emerged in Arequipa, Potosí and La Paz. In the 18th century, architects of the region turned for inspiration to the Mudejar art of medieval Spain. The late Baroque type of Peruvian façade first appears in the Church of Our Lady of La Merced, Lima). Similarly, the Church of La Compañia, Quito) suggests a carved altarpiece with its richly sculpted façade and a surfeit of spiral salomónica. For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... The Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba (Spanish:Manzana Jesuítica y Estancias de Córdoba) are a former Jesuit reduction built by missionaries in Córdoba, Argentina, named a World Heritage Site in 2000. ... Córdoba is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas mountains on the Suquía River, about 700 km west-northwest from Buenos Aires. ... For the cactus genus, see Oreocereus. ... Potosí is a city, the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... Mudejar Medieval Spanish corruption of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning domesticated. The term means those who accepted submission to non Muslim authorities in lands taken over by Christians in the Mediterranean. ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... Solomonic columns applied with gilded vines in Poland The Solomonic column (salomónica), also called Barley-sugar column, is a helical column, characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft like a corkscrew. ...

The façade of the church of Ss. Sebastian y Santa Prisca in Taxco) bristles with Mexican Churrigueresque ornamentation.
The façade of the church of Ss. Sebastian y Santa Prisca in Taxco) bristles with Mexican Churrigueresque ornamentation.

To the north, the richest province of 18th-century New SpainMexico — produced some fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic architecture known as Mexican Churrigueresque. This ultra-Baroque approach culminates in the works of Lorenzo Rodriguez, whose masterpiece is the Sagrario Metropolitano in Mexico City). Other fine examples of the style may be found in remote silver-mining towns. For instance, the Sanctuary at Ocotlán (begun in 1745) is a top-notch Baroque cathedral surfaced in bright red tiles, which contrast delightfully with a plethora of compressed ornament lavishly applied to the main entrance and the slender flanking towers (exterior, interior). Image File history File links Taxco_Santa_Prisca. ... Image File history File links Taxco_Santa_Prisca. ... Santa Prisca church in Taxco Aerial view of Taxco Taxco (full name: Taxco de Alarcón) is an antique colonial silver-mining center located in the northern reaches of the Mexican state of Guerrero. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Mexico City Cathedral, with the Sagrario Metropolitano slightly to the right. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Ocotlán is a city in Jalisco, Mexico. ...


The true capital of Mexican Baroque is Puebla, where a ready supply of hand-painted ceramics (talavera) and vernacular gray stone led to its evolving further into a personalised and highly localised art form with a pronounced Indian flavour. There are about sixty churches whose façades and domes display glazed tiles of many colours, often arranged in Arabic designs. The interiors are densely saturated with elaborate gold leaf ornamentation. In the 18th century, local artisans developed a distinctive brand of white stucco decoration, named "alfenique" after a Pueblan candy made from egg whites and sugar. Nickname: Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531 Government  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area  - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Turkey

Istanbul, once the center of the Ottoman Empire, hosts many different varieties of Baroque architecture. The most famous of these are probably the Nuruosmaniye Mosquee and the Ortaköy Mosquee. Built in the 1750s by Simeon Kalfa, the Nuruosmaniye Mosquee is an "eastern" form a baroque expression and probably the most "baroque" architectural structure in Islamic architecture. The arabesque and Ottoman flavour gives it its unique atmosphere, which also distinguishes it from the later "collonial" baroque styles, largely used in the Middle East, especially Lebanon. Later and more mature baroque forms it Istanbul can be found especially in the gates of the Dolmabahce palace, built by the famous Turkish-Armenian Balyan dynasty, which also has a very "eastern" flavour, combining Baroque, Romantic and Oriental architecture.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Baroque architecture

The following is a list of examples of typical Baroque architecture. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... Earthquake Baroque is a style of architecture found in places, such at the Philippines and Guatemala, which suffered earthquakes during the 17th century and 18th century and where large public buildings, such as churches were rebuilt in a Baroque style. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Palaces main façade The Mafra National Palace is a baroque monument located in Mafra, Portugal. ... Aqueduct arches (65 m tall) over the Alcantara valley. ... Centum cellas, Roman ruin Since the 2nd millennium BC, there has been important construction in the area where Portugal is situated today. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Though there is a vast literature on the subject, a succinct overview can be found in: Francis Ching, Mark Jarzombek, Vikram Prakash, A Global History of Architecture, Wiley Press, 2006.
  2. ^ Peter Pater. Renaissance Rome. (University of California Press, 1976) pp.70-3.
  3. ^ Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, ed. by Dan Cruickshank. Architectural Press, 1996. ISBN. Page 1202.
Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | | ... Man has constructed buildings and other structures since prehistory. ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. ... The well preserved temple of Horus at Edfu is an exemplar of Egyptian architecture The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations which developed a vast array of diverse structures encompassing ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. ... Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A wall in the fortress of Ollantaytambo Inca architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Sassanid architecture. ... The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Newari architecture is the architecture developed by Newars. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... The royal palace, later church, of Santa María del Naranco, an example of Asturian architecture of the Ramirense period. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura Hoysala architecture (Kannada: ) is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire, in the region known today as Karnataka, India, between the 11th and 14th centuries. ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, a unique 24 pointed, uninterrupted stellate (star shaped), 7 tiered dravida plan, 12th c. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... The intellectual principles of Rationalism is based on the old architectural theory. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baroque Art and Architecture - MSN Encarta (744 words)
In the arts, the Baroque was a Western cultural epoch, commencing roughly at the turn of the 17th century in Rome.
A number of its characteristics continue in the art and architecture of the first half of the 18th century, although this period is generally termed rococo (see Rococo Style) and corresponds roughly with King Louis XV of France.
Infinite space is often suggested in baroque paintings or sculptures; throughout the Renaissance and into the baroque period, painters sought a grander sense of space and truer depiction of perspective in their works.
Baroque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2712 words)
Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century.
Academic characteristics in the neo-Palladian architectural style, epitomized by William Kent, are a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within doors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hieratic tectonic sculptural elements meant never to be moved from their positions completing the wall elevation.
Baroque actually expressed new values, which often are summarised in the use of metaphor and allegory, widely found in Baroque literature, and in the research for the "maraviglia" (wonder, astonishment — as in Marinism), the use of artifices.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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