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Encyclopedia > Baroque Music
History of European art music
Early
Medieval (500 – 1400)
Renaissance (1400 – 1600)
Common practice
Baroque (1600 – 1760)
Classical (1730 – 1820)
Romantic (1815 – 1910)
Modern and contemporary
20th century classical (1900 – 2000)
Contemporary classical (1975 – present)

Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750.[1] This era is said to begin in music after the Renaissance and was followed by the Classical music era. The original meaning of "baroque" is "irregular pearl", a strikingly fitting characterization of the architecture of this period; later, the name came to be applied also to its music. Baroque music forms a major portion of the classical music canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. It is associated with composers such as Claudio Monteverdi, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, and Johann Sebastian Bach. The baroque period saw the development of diatonic tonality. During the period composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation; made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera as a musical genre. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today. This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1830, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Monteverdi redirects here. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic, thus establishing tonality as relational at its core. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History of the Name

Music conventionally described as Baroque encompasses a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region, mostly in Europe, composed during a period of approximately 150 years. The application of the term "baroque", which literally means "pearl of irregular shape", to this period is a relatively recent development, first used by Curt Sachs in 1919, and only acquiring currency in English in the 1940s. Indeed, as late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academic circles whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti and J.S. Bach with a single term; yet the term has become widely used and accepted for this broad range of music. It may be helpful to distinguish it from both the preceding (Renaissance) and following (Classical) periods of musical history. A small number of musicologists argue that it should be split into Baroque and Mannerist periods to conform to the divisions that are sometimes applied in the visual arts. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Curt Sachs (June 29, 1881 - February 5, 1959) was a German musicologist. ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... Mannerism is the usual English term for an approach to all the arts, particularly painting but not exclusive to it, a reaction to the High Renaissance, emerging after the Sack of Rome in 1527 shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to their foundations, and even Religion had split apart. ...


Styles and forms

The baroque suite

Allemande

Often the first movement of an instrumental suite, the allemande was a very popular dance that had its origins in the Renaissance era, when it was more often called the almain. The allemande was played at a moderate tempo and could start on any beat of the bar. In some suites it could be preceded by a prelude or an ouverture. In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... An allemande (also spelled allemanda, almain, or alman) (from French German) is a type of dance popular in Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite, generally the first or second movement. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... An allemande (also spelled allemanda, almain, or alman) (from French German) is one of the most popular instrumental dance forms in Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite, generally the first or second movement. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... A Prelude is something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows after it. ...


Courante

The courante is a lively French dance in triple meter. The Italian version is called the corrente. The courante, corrente, coranto and corant are just some of the names given to a family of triple metre dances from the late Renaissance and the Baroque era. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ...


Sarabande

This is one of the slowest of the baroque dances with a speed of about 40 to 66 beats per minute. It is also in triple meter and can start on any beat of the bar, although there is an emphasis on the second beat, creating the characteristic 'halting', or iambic rhythm of the sarabande. In music, the sarabande (It. ...


Gigue

The gigue is an upbeat and lively baroque dance in compound meter, typically the concluding movement of an instrumental suite. The gigue can start on any beat of the bar and is easily recognized by its rhythmic feel. The gigue is said to have originated in England, its counterpart in folk music being the jig. The gigue or giga is a lively baroque dance in a compound metre such as 3/8, 6/8, 6/4, 9/8 or 12/16. ... The jig (sometimes seen in its French language or Italian language forms gigue or giga) is a folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type, popular in Ireland and Scotland. ...



These four dance types make up the majority of 17th century suites; later suites interpolate additional movements, sometimes termed intermezzi or gallanteries, between the sarabande and gigue:


Gavotte

The gavotte can be identified by a variety of features; it is in 3/4 time and always starts on the third beat of the bar, although this may sound like the first beat in some cases, as the first and third beats are the strong beats in duple time. The gavotte is played at a moderate tempo, although in some cases it may be played faster. A gavotte dance in Brittany, France, 1878 The gavotte (also gavot or gavote) originated as a French folk dance, taking its name from the Gavot people of the Pays de Gap region of Dauphiné, where the dance originated. ...


Bourée

The bourée is similar to the gavotte as it is in 4/4 time although it starts on the fourth (last) beat of the bar, creating a different feel to the dance. The bourée is commonly played at a moderate tempo, although for some composers, such as Handel, it can be taken at a much faster tempo. The bourree was a dance common in Auvergne and Biscay in Spain in the 17th century, danced in quick double time, somewhat resembling the gavotte. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ...


Minuet

The minuet is perhaps the best known of the baroque dances in triple meter. It can start on any beat of the bar. The speed of the minuet is normally moderate, although this may vary. In some suites there may be a Minuet I and II, played in succession, with the Minuet I repeated. A minuet, sometimes spelled menuet, is a social dance of French origin for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. ...


Passepied

The passepied is a fast dance in binary form and triple meter that originated in Brittany. Examples can be found in later suites such as those of Bach and Handel. The paspy (French: passepied - passing feet) is a 17th and 18th century dance that originated in Brittany. ... For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ...


Rigaudon

The rigaudon is a lively French dance in duple meter, similar to the bourée, but rhythmically simpler. It may have originated in Provence. Rigaudon, rigadon, or rigadoon. ...


Baroque versus Renaissance style

Baroque instruments including hurdy gurdy, harpsichord, bass viol, lute, violin, and baroque guitar.
Baroque instruments including hurdy gurdy, harpsichord, bass viol, lute, violin, and baroque guitar.

Baroque music shares with Renaissance music a heavy use of polyphony and counterpoint. However, its use of these techniques differs from Renaissance music. In the Renaissance, harmony is more the result of consonances incidental to the smooth flow of polyphony, while in the early Baroque era the order of these consonances becomes important, for they begin to be felt as chords in a hierarchical, functional tonal scheme. Around 1600 there is considerable blurring of this definition: for example essentially tonal progressions around cadential points in madrigals are noted, while in early monody the feeling of tonality is still rather tenuous. Another distinction between Renaissance and Baroque practice in harmony is the frequency of chord root motion by third in the earlier period, while motion of fourths or fifths predominates later (which partially defines functional tonality). In addition, baroque music uses longer lines and stronger rhythms: the initial line is extended, either alone or accompanied only by the basso continuo, until the theme reappears in another voice. In this later approach to counterpoint, the harmony was more often defined either by the basso continuo, or tacitly by the notes of the theme itself. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (982x670, 94 KB) Evaristo Baschenis (1617-1677) Title : Musical Instruments Size : 99 cm x 146 cm Signature : yes Localisation : Musées royaux des beaux-arts de Bruxelles Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (982x670, 94 KB) Evaristo Baschenis (1617-1677) Title : Musical Instruments Size : 99 cm x 146 cm Signature : yes Localisation : Musées royaux des beaux-arts de Bruxelles Source: http://www. ... Drawing of a hurdy gurdy A hurdy gurdy (alternately, hurdy-gurdy) is a stringed musical instrument. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Various Viola da gamba The viol or viola da gamba family of musical instruments is related to the vihuela, rebec, etc. ... A renaissance-era lute. ... A baroque violin is, in common usage, any violin whose neck, fingerboard, bridge, and tailpiece are of the type used during the baroque period. ... The guitar player (c. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Tonality is the character of music written with hierarchical relationships of pitches, rhythms, and chords to a center or tonic. ... A madrigal is a setting for 4–6 voices of a secular text, often in Italian. ... Caccini, Le Nuove musiche, 1601, title page In poetry, monody is a poem in which one person laments anothers death. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ...


These stylistic differences mark the transition from the ricercars, fantasias, and canzonas of the Renaissance to the fugue, a defining baroque form. Claudio Monteverdi called this newer, looser style the seconda pratica, contrasting it with the prima pratica that characterized the motets and other sacred choral pieces of high Renaissance masters like Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Monteverdi used both styles; he wrote his Mass In illo tempore in the older, Palestrinan style, and his 1610 Vespers in the new style. A ricercar (or ricercare; the terms are interchangeable) is a type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition. ... The fantasia (also English: , German: , French: ) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ... Canzona (also canzone) is a poetic form, and a type of musical composition. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... Monteverdi redirects here. ... Prima pratica, literally first practice, refers to early Baroque music which looks more to the style of Palestrina, or the style codified by Gioseffo Zarlino, than to more modern styles. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... This article discusses the Mass as a standard form of classical music composition. ... Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 (Vespers for the Blessed Virgin, 1610), or simply the Vespers of 1610, as it is commonly called, is a musical composition by Claudio Monteverdi. ...


There are other, more general differences between baroque and Renaissance style. Baroque music often strives for a greater level of emotional intensity than Renaissance music, and a Baroque piece often uniformly depicts a single particular emotion (exultation, grief, piety, and so forth). Baroque music was more often written for virtuoso singers and instrumentalists and is music, although idiomatic instrumental writing was one of the most important innovations of the period. Baroque music employs a great deal of ornamentation, which was often improvised by the performer. Expressive performance methods such as notes inégales were common and were expected to be applied by performers, often with considerable latitude. Instruments came to play a greater part in baroque music, and a cappella vocal music receded in importance. The doctrine of the affections (also known as the doctrine of affections, affect, and Affektenlehre) was a musical theory popular in the Baroque era (1600-1750). ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ... In music, notes inégales (French: unequal notes) refers to a performance practice, mainly from the Baroque and Classical music eras, in which notes with equal written time values are performed with unequal durations, usually as alternating long and short. ... This article is about the vocal technique. ...


Baroque versus Classical style

In the Classical era, which followed the Baroque, the role of counterpoint was diminished (albeit repeatedly rediscovered and reintroduced), and replaced by a homophonic texture. The role of ornamentation lessened. Works tended towards a more articulated internal structure, especially those written in sonata form. Modulation (changing of keys) became a structural and dramatic element, so that a work could be heard as a kind of dramatic journey through a sequence of musical keys, outward and back from the tonic. Baroque music also modulates frequently, but the modulation has less structural importance. Works in the classical style often depict widely varying emotions within a single movement, whereas baroque works tend toward a single, vividly portrayed feeling. Classical works usually reach a kind of dramatic climax and then resolve it; baroque works retain a fairly constant level of dramatic energy to the very last note. Many forms of the Baroque served as the point of departure for the creation of the sonata form, by creating a "floor plan" for the placement of important cadences. In Baroque music, articulation was emphasized more than dynamics. Dynamics were still important, but baroque-era keyboards (harpsichords and organs) were incapable of producing the full range of dynamics possible in later eras. Thus, articulation given more importance. Homophony is a musical term that describes the texture of two or more instruments or parts moving together and using the same rhythm. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article treats the history of sonata form through the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern eras. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


Other features

  • basso continuo - a kind of continuous accompaniment notated with a new music notation system, figured bass, usually for a sustaining bass instrument and a keyboard instrument
  • monody - music for one melodic voice with accompaniment, characteristic of the early 17th century, especially in Italy
  • homophony - music with one melodic voice and rhythmically similar accompaniment (this and monody are contrasted with the typical Renaissance texture, polyphony)
  • text over music - intelligible text with instrumental accompaniment not overpowering the voice
  • vocal soloists
  • dramatic musical expression
  • dramatic musical forms like opera, dramma per musica
  • combined instrumental-vocal forms, such as the oratorio and cantata
  • new instrumental techniques, like tremolo and pizzicato
  • clear and linear melody
  • notes inégales, a technique of applying dotted rhythms to evenly written notes
  • the aria
  • the ritornello aria (repeated short instrumental interruptions of vocal passages)
  • the concertato style (contrast in sound between orchestra and solo-instruments or small groups of instruments)
  • precise instrumental scoring (in the Renaissance, exact instrumentation for ensemble playing was rarely indicated)
  • idiomatic instrumental writing: better use of the unique properties of each type of musical instrument
  • virtuosic instrumental and vocal writing, with appreciation for virtuosity as such
  • ornamentation
  • development to modern Western tonality (major and minor scales)
  • cadenza- an extended virtuosic section for the soloist usually near the end of a movement of a concerto.

Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... Caccini, Le Nuove musiche, 1601, title page In poetry, monody is a poem in which one person laments anothers death. ... A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... Homophony is a musical term that describes the texture of two or more instruments or parts moving together and using the same rhythm. ... In music texture is the overall quality of sound of a piece, most often indicated by the number of voices in the music and to the relationship between these voices (see below). ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... Tremolo is a musical term with two meanings: A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between two or more notes. ... Jazz bass is played almost exclusively in pizzicato. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music, notes inégales (French: unequal notes) refers to a performance practice, mainly from the Baroque and Classical music eras, in which notes with equal written time values are performed with unequal durations, usually as alternating long and short. ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... In Baroque music, ritornello was the word for a recurring passage for orchestra in the first or final movement of a solo concerto or aria (also in works for chorus). ... Concertato (sometimes called stile concertato) is a term in early Baroque music referring to either a genre or a style of music in which groups of instruments or voices share a melody, usually in alternation, and almost always over a basso continuo. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ... In music theory, the major scale or Ionian scale is one of the diatonic scales. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ...

Genres

Baroque composers wrote in many different musical genres. Opera, invented in the late Renaissance, became an important musical form during the Baroque, with the operas of Alessandro Scarlatti, Handel, and others. The oratorio achieved its peak in the work of Bach and Handel; opera and oratorio often used very similar music forms, such as a widespread use of the da capo aria. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... The da capo aria was a musical form prevalent in the Baroque era. ...


In other religious music, the Mass and motet receded slightly in importance, but the cantata flourished in the work of Bach and other Protestant composers. Virtuoso organ music also flourished, with toccatas, fugues, and other works. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Instrumental sonatas and dance suites were written for individual instruments, for chamber groups, and for (small) orchestra. The concerto emerged, both in its form for a single soloist plus orchestra and as the concerto grosso, in which a small group of soloists is contrasted with the full ensemble. The French overture, with its contrasting slow and fast sections, added grandeur to the many courts at which it was performed. In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ... The French overture is a musical form widely used in the Baroque period. ...


Keyboard works were sometimes written largely for the pleasure and instruction of the performer. These included a series of works by the mature Bach that are widely considered to be the intellectual culmination of the Baroque era: the Well-Tempered Clavier, the Goldberg Variations, and The Art of Fugue. Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Title page of the Goldberg Variations (first edition) For other uses, see Goldberg Variations (disambiguation). ... A portrait which may show Bach in 1750 The Art of Fugue or The Art of the Fugue (original German: Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an unfinished work by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


Vocal

For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zarzuela (disambiguation). ... A caricature of a performance of Handels Flavio, featuring three of the most well-known opera seria singers of their day: Senesino on the left, diva Francesca Cuzzoni in the centre, and art-loving castrato Gaetano Berenstadt on the right. ... The Opéra-Comique is an opera house in Paris. ... Opera Ballet (ballets de cour) is the name given to ballets performed in the 17th century that occurred within an Opera. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... This article discusses the Mass as a standard form of classical music composition. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... Caccini, Le Nuove musiche, 1601, title page In poetry, monody is a poem in which one person laments anothers death. ... A chorale was originally a hymn of the Lutheran church sung by the entire congregation. ...

Instrumental

The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ... For the use of the word in psychology see fugue state In music, a fugue is a type of piece written in counterpoint for several independent musical voices. ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... An allemande (also spelled allemanda, almain, or alman) (from French German) is a type of dance popular in Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite, generally the first or second movement. ... The courante, corrente, coranto and corant are just some of the names given to a family of triple metre dances from the late Renaissance and the Baroque era. ... In music, the sarabande (It. ... The gigue or giga is a lively baroque dance in a compound metre such as 3/8, 6/8, 6/4, 9/8 or 12/16. ... A gavotte dance in Brittany, France, 1878 The gavotte (also gavot or gavote) originated as a French folk dance, taking its name from the Gavot people of the Pays de Gap region of Dauphiné, where the dance originated. ... Menuet (also called MenuetOS or MeOS) is a hobby OS for IBM PC compatible computers originally conceived by Ville Mikael Turjanmaa and released under the GPL. Now the project lies in the hands of Jarek Pelczar. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... Sonata da camera (or chamber sonata) is a type of trio sonata intended for secular performance. ... Sonata da Chiesa is Italian for church sonata. Sonatas are instrumental compositions of three or more movements. ... The trio sonata is a musical form which was particularly popular around the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. ... Partita was originally the name for a single instrumental piece of music (16th and 17th centuries), but Johann Kuhnau and later German composers (notably Johann Sebastian Bach) used it for collections of musical pieces, as a synonym for suite. ... Canzona (also canzone) is a poetic form, and a type of musical composition. ... In music, a sinfonia can be one of three things: 1) In the very late Renaissance and early Baroque, a sinfonia was an alternate name for a canzona, fantasia or ricercar. ... The fantasia (also English: , German: , French: ) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ... A ricercar (or ricercare; the terms are interchangeable) is a type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition. ... Toccata (Italian for to touch) is a Virtuoso piece of classical music for a keyboard instrument or plucked string instrument featuring sections of brilliant passagework, with or without imitative or fugal interludes, generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer. ... A prelude is a short piece of music, usually in no particular internal form, which may serve as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that are usually longer and more complex. ... In music, a chaconne (IPA: ; Italian: ciaccona) is a musical form whose primary formal feature involves variation on a repeated short harmonic progression. ... In music a passacaglia (French: passacaille, Spanish: pasacalle, German: passacalia; Italian: passacaglio, passagallo, passacagli, passacaglie) is a musical form and the corresponding court dance. ... In music, a chorale prelude is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis. ...

History

Composers of the Baroque


Early baroque music (1600–1654)

The conventional dividing line for the Baroque from the Renaissance begins in Italy, with the Florentine Camerata, a group of academics who met informally in Florence in the palace of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss arts, as well as the sciences. Concerning music, their ideals were based on their perception of ancient Greek musical drama, in which the declamation of the text was of utmost importance. As such, they rejected the complex polyphony of the late renaissance and desired a form of musical drama which consisted primarily of a simple solo melody, with a basic accompaniment. The early realizations of these ideas, including Jacopo Peri's Dafne and L'Euridice, marked the beginning of opera. The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Giovanni de Bardi (February 5, 1534 – September 1612), Count of Vernio, was an Italian literary critic, writer, composer and soldier. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera. ...


Musically, the adoption of the figured bass represents a larger change in musical thinking—namely that harmony, that is "taking all of the parts together" was as important as the linear part of polyphony. Increasingly, polyphony and harmony were seen as two sides of the same idea, with harmonic progressions entering the notion of composing, as well as the use of the tritone as a dissonance. Harmonic thinking had existed among particular composers in the previous era, notably Carlo Gesualdo; however the Renaissance is felt to give way to the Baroque at the point where it becomes the common vocabulary. Some historians of music point to the introduction of the seventh chord without preparation as being the key break with the past. This created the idea that chords, rather than notes, created the sense of closure, which is one of the fundamental ideas of what came to be known as tonality. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...


Italy formed one of the cornerstones of the new style, as the papacy—besieged by Reformation but with coffers fattened by the immense revenues flowing in from Hapsburg conquest—searched for artistic means to promote faith in the Roman Catholic Church. One of the most important musical centers was Venice, which had both secular and sacred patronage available. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Giovanni Gabrieli became one of the important transitional figures to come out of the drive to revive Catholicism against the growing doctrinal, artistic and social challenge mounted by Protestantism. His work is largely considered to be in the "High Renaissance" style. However, his innovations came to be considered foundational to the new style. Among these are instrumentation (labeling instruments specifically for specific tasks) and the use of dynamics. Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or...


The demands of religion were also to make the text of sacred works clearer, and hence there was pressure to move away from the densely layered polyphony of the Renaissance, to lines which put the words front and center, or had a more limited range of imitation. This created the demand for a more intricate weaving of the vocal line against backdrop, or homophony.


Claudio Monteverdi became the most visible of a generation of composers who felt that there was a secular means to this "modern" approach to harmony and text, and in 1607 his opera Orfeo became the landmark which demonstrated the array of effects and techniques that were associated with this new school, called seconda pratica, to distinguish it from the older style or prima pratica. Monteverdi was a master of both, producing precisely styled madrigals that extended the forms of Marenzio and Giaches de Wert. But it is his pieces in the new style which became the most influential. These included features which are recognizable even to the end of the baroque period, including use of idiomatic writing, virtuoso flourishes, and the use of new techniques. Orfeo (LOrfeo, favola in musica) is one of the earliest works recognized as an opera, composed by Claudio Monteverdi with text by Alessandro Striggio for the annual carnival of Mantua. ... Prima pratica, literally first practice, refers to early Baroque music which looks more to the style of Palestrina, or the style codified by Gioseffo Zarlino, than to more modern styles. ... Luca Marenzio (1553? - August 22, 1599) was an Italian composer of the late Renaissance. ... Giaches de Wert (1535 – May 6, 1596) was a Franco-Flemish composer active in Italy. ...


This musical language proved to be international, as Heinrich Schütz, a German composer who studied in Venice under both Gabrieli and later Monteverdi, used it to the liturgical needs of the Elector of Saxony and served as the choir master in Dresden. Heinrich Schütz. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ...


Middle baroque music (1654–1707)

The rise of the centralized court is one of the economic and political features of what is often labeled the Age of Absolutism, personified by Louis XIV of France. The style of palace, and the court system of manners and arts which he fostered, became the model for the rest of Europe. The realities of rising church and state patronage created the demand for organized public music, as the increasing availability of instruments created the demand for chamber music. This included the availability of keyboard instruments. Absolutism is a historiographical term used to describe a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ...


The middle Baroque is separated from the early Baroque by the coming of systematic thinking to the new style and a gradual institutionalization of the forms and norms, particularly in opera. As with literature, the printing press and trade created an expanded international audience for works and greater cross-pollenation between national centers of musical activity. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


The middle Baroque, in music theory, is identified by the increasingly harmonic focus of musical practice and the creation of formal systems of teaching. Music was an art, and it came to be seen as one that should be taught in an orderly manner. This culminated in the later work of Fux in systematizing counterpoint.


One preeminent example of a court style composer is Jean-Baptiste Lully. His career rose dramatically when he collaborated with Molière on a series of comedie-ballets, that is, plays with dancing. He used this success to become the sole composer of operas for the king, using not just innovative musical ideas such as the tragedie lyrique, but patents from the king which prevented others from having operas staged. Lully's instinct for providing the material that his monarch desired has been pointed out by almost every biographer, including his rapid shift to church music when the mood at court became more devout. His 13 completed lyric tragedies are based on libretti that focus on the conflicts between the public and private life of the monarch. Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... The French lyric tragedy (French : tragédie lyrique or tragédie en musique) is a specific French form of opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully and used by his followers until the second half of the eighteenth century. ...


Musically, he explored contrast between stately and fully orchestrated sections, and simple recitatives and airs. In no small part, it was his skill in assembling and practicing musicians into an orchestra which was essential to his success and influence. Observers noted the precision and intonation, this in an age where there was no standard for tuning instruments. One essential element was the increased focus on the inner voices of the harmony and the relationship to the soloist. He also established the string-dominated norm for orchestras.


Arcangelo Corelli is remembered as influential for his achievements on the other side of musical technique—as a violinist who organized violin technique and pedagogy—and in purely instrumental music, particularly his advocacy and development of the concerto grosso. Whereas Lully was ensconced at court, Corelli was one of the first composers to publish widely and have his music performed all over Europe. As with Lully's stylization and organization of the opera, the concerto grosso is built on strong contrasts—sections alternate between those played by the full orchestra, and those played by a smaller group. Dynamics were "terraced", that is with a sharp transition from loud to soft and back again. Fast sections and slow sections were juxtaposed against each other. Numbered among his students is Antonio Vivaldi, who later composed hundreds of works based on the principles in Corelli's trio sonatas and concerti. Arcangelo Corelli Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... The trio sonata is a musical form which was particularly popular around the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. ...


In England the middle Baroque produced a cometary genius in Henry Purcell, who despite dying at age 36, produced a profusion of music and was widely recognized in his lifetime. He was familiar with the innovations of Corelli and other Italian style composers; however, his patrons were different, and his musical output was prodigious. Rather than being a painstaking craftsman, Purcell was a fluid composer who was able to shift from simple anthems and useful music such as marches, to grandly scored vocal music and music for the stage. His catalog runs to over 800 works. He was also one of the first great keyboard composers, whose work still has influence and presence. Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ...


In contrast to these composers, Dieterich Buxtehude was not a creature of court but instead was an organist and entrepreneurial presenter of music. Rather than publishing, he relied on performance for his income, and rather than royal patronage, he shuttled between vocal settings for sacred music, and organ music that he performed. His output is not as fabulous or diverse, because he was not constantly being called upon for music to meet an occasion. Buxtehude's employment of contrast was between the free, often improvisatory sections, and more strict sections worked out contrapuntally. This procedure would be highly influential on later composers such as Bach, who took the contrast between free and strict to greater limits. The only surviving portrait of Buxtehude, from a 1674 painting by Johannes Voorhout. ...


Late baroque music (1680–1750)

The dividing line between middle and late Baroque is a matter of some debate. Dates for the beginning of "late" baroque style range from 1680 to 1720. In no small part this is because there was not one synchronized transition; different national styles experienced changes at different rates and at different times. Italy is generally regarded as the first country to move to the late baroque style. The important dividing line in most histories of baroque music is the full absorption of tonality as a structuring principle of music. This was particularly evident in the wake of theoretical work by Jean-Philippe Rameau, who replaced Lully as the important French opera composer. At the same time, through the work of Johann Fux, the Renaissance style of polyphony was made the basis for the study of counterpoint. The combination of modal counterpoint with tonal logic of cadences created the sense that there were two styles of composition—the homophonic dominated by vertical considerations and the polyphonic dominated by imitation and contrapuntal considerations. Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Johann Joseph Fux Johann Joseph Fux (German fyːks) (1660 – February 13, 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. ...


The forms which had begun to be established in the previous era flourished and were given wider range of diversity; concerto, suite, sonata, concerto grosso, oratorio, opera and ballet all saw a proliferation of national styles and structures. The overall form of pieces was generally simple, with repeated binary forms (AABB), simple three part forms (ABC), and rondeau forms being common. These schematics in turn influenced later composers.


Antonio Vivaldi is a figure who was forgotten in concert music making for much of the 19th century, only to be revived in the 20th century. Born in Venice in 1678, he began as an ordained priest of the Catholic church but ceased to say Mass by 1703. Around the same time he was appointed maestro di violino at a Venetian girls' orphanage with which he had a professional relationship until nearly the end of his life. Vivaldi's reputation came not from having an orchestra or court appointment, but from his published works, including trio sonatas, violin sonatas and concerti. They were published in Amsterdam and circulated widely through Europe. It is in these instrumental genres of baroque sonata and baroque concerto, which were still evolving, that Vivaldi's most important contributions were made. He settled on certain patterns, such as a fast-slow-fast three-movement plan for works, and the use of ritornello in the fast movements, and explored the possibilities in hundreds of works—550 concerti alone. He also used programatic titles for works, such as his famous "The Four Seasons". Vivaldi's career reflects a growing possibility for a composer to be able to support himself by his publications, tour to promote his own works, and have an independent existence. Vivaldi redirects here. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... In Baroque music, ritornello was the word for a recurring passage for orchestra in the first or final movement of a solo concerto or aria (also in works for chorus). ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ...


Domenico Scarlatti was one of the leading keyboard virtuosi of his day, who took the road of being a royal court musician, first in Portugal and then, starting in 1733, in Madrid, Spain, where he spent the rest of his life. His father, Alessandro Scarlatti, was a member of the Neapolitan School of opera and has been credited with being among its most skilled members. Domenico also wrote operas and church music, but it is the publication of his keyboard works, which spread more widely after his death, which have secured him a lasting place of reputation. Many of these works were written for his own playing but others for his royal patrons. As with his father, his fortunes were closely tied to his ability to secure, and keep, royal favour. Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ...


But perhaps the most famous composer to be associated with royal patronage was George Frideric Handel, who was born in Germany, studied for three years in Italy, and went to London in 1711, which was his base of operations for a long and profitable career that included independently produced operas and commissions for nobility. He was constantly searching for successful commercial formulas, in opera, and then in oratorios in English. A continuous worker, Handel borrowed from others and often recycled his own material. He was also known for reworking pieces such as the famous Messiah, which premiered in 1741, for available singers and musicians. Even as his economic circumstances rose and fell with his productions, his reputation, based on published keyboard works, ceremonial music, constant stagings of operas and oratorios and concerti grossi, grew exponentially. By the time of his death, he was regarded as the leading composer in Europe and was studied by later classical-era musicians. Handel, because of his very public ambitions, rested a great deal of his output on melodic resource combined with a rich performance tradition of improvisation and counterpoint. The practice of ornamentation in the Baroque style was at a very high level of development under his direction. He travelled all over Europe to engage singers and learn the music of other composers, and thus he had among the widest acquaintance of other styles of any composer. “Handel” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ...


Johann Sebastian Bach has, over time, come to be seen as the towering figure of Baroque music, with what Bela Bartok described as "a religion" surrounding him. During the baroque period, he was better known as a teacher, administrator and performer than composer, being less famous than either Handel or Georg Philipp Telemann. Born in Eisenach in 1685 to a musical family, he received an extensive early education and was considered to have an excellent boy soprano voice. He held a variety of posts as an organist, rapidly gaining in fame for his virtuosity and ability. In 1723 he settled at the post which he was associated with for virtually the rest of his life: cantor and director of music for Leipzig. His varied experience meant that he became the leader of music, both secular and sacred, for the town, teacher of its musicians and leading figure. Bach's musical innovations plumbed the depths and the outer limits of the Baroque homophonic and polyphonic forms. He was a virtual catalog of every contrapuntal device possible and every acceptable means of creating webs of harmony with the chorale. As a result, his works in the form of the fugue coupled with preludes and toccatas for organ, and the baroque concerto forms, have become fundamental in both performance and theoretical technique. Virtually every instrument and ensemble of the age—except for the theatre genres—is represented copiously in his output. Bach's teachings became prominent in the classical and romantic eras as composers rediscovered the harmonic and melodic subtleties of his works. “Bach” redirects here. ... B la Bart k (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. ... Georg Philipp Telemann. ... Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... A Prelude is something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows after it. ...


Georg Philipp Telemann was the most famous instrumental composer of his time, and massively prolific—even by the standards of an age where composers had to produce large volumes of music. His two most important positions—director of music in Frankfurt in 1712 and in 1721 director of music of the Johanneum in Hamburg—required him to compose vocal and instrumental music for secular and sacred contexts. He composed two complete cantata cycles for Sunday services, as well as sacred oratorios. Telemann also founded a periodical that published new music, much of it by Telemann. This dissemination of music made him a composer with an international audience, as evidenced by his successful trip to Paris in 1731. Some of his finest works were in the 1750s and 1760s, when the Baroque style was being replaced by simpler styles but were popular at the time and afterwards. Among these late works are "Der Tod Jesu" ("The death of Jesus") 1755, "Die Donner-Ode" ("The Ode of Thunder") 1756, "Die Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu" ("The Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus") 1760 and "Der Tag des Gerichts" ("The Day of Judgement") 1762 Georg Philipp Telemann. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Influence on later music

Transition to the Classical era (1740–1780)

The phase between the late Baroque and the early Classical era, with its broad mixture of competing ideas and attempts to unify the different demands of taste, economics and "worldview", goes by many names. It is sometimes called "Galant", "Rococo", or "pre-Classical", or at other times, "early Classical". It is a period where composers still working in the Baroque style were still successful, if sometimes thought of as being more of the past than the present—Bach, Handel and Telemann all composed well beyond the point at which the homophonic style is clearly in the ascendant. Musical culture was caught at a crossroads: the masters of the older style had the technique, but the public hungered for the new. This is one of the reasons Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach was held in such high regard: he understood the older forms quite well and knew how to present them in new garb, with an enhanced variety of form; he went far in overhauling the older forms from the Baroque. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... In music, Galant was a term referring to a style, principally occurring in the third quarter of the 18th century, which featured a return to classical simplicity after the complexity of the late Baroque era. ... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ...


The practice of the baroque era was the standard against which new composition was measured, and there came to be a division between sacred works, which held more closely to the Baroque style from secular or "profane" works, which were in the new style. Composition can refer to: // Composition in art In the fine arts, compostion may refer to any of the following: Composition (visual arts) Musical composition MIDI composition In literature, oratory, and rhetoric, composition refers, as the etymology of the word quite literally indicates, to the putting (words) together to produce a...


Especially in the Catholic countries of central Europe, the baroque style continued to be represented in sacred music through the end of the eighteenth century, in much the way that the stile antico of the Renaissance continued to live in the sacred music of the early 17th century. The masses and oratorios of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, while Classical in their orchestration and ornamentation, have many Baroque features in their underlying contrapuntal and harmonic structure. The decline of the baroque saw various attempts to mix old and new techniques, and many composers who continued to hew to the older forms well into the 1780s. Many cities in Germany continued to maintain performance practices from the Baroque into the 1790s, including Leipzig, where J.S. Bach worked in the end of his life. Haydn redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


In England, the enduring popularity of Handel ensured the success of Charles Avison, William Boyce, and Thomas Arne—among other accomplished imitators—well into the 1780s, who competed alongside Mozart and Bach. In Continental Europe, however, it was considered an old-fashioned way of writing and was a requisite for graduation from the burgeoning number of conservatories of music, and otherwise reserved only for use in sacred works. Charles Avison (February 1709, Tyne – May 9 or May 10, 1770, Newcastle upon Tyne) was an English composer during Baroque period. ... William Boyce (September 11, 1711 – February 7, 1779) is widely regarded as one of the most important English-born composers of the 18th century. ... Thomas Augustine Arne (1710-March 5, 1778) was an English composer, best known for the popular patriotic song, Rule Britannia, which is still frequently sung, notably at the Last Night of the Proms; and also his musical settings of songs from the plays of William Shakespeare. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ...


After 1760

Because baroque music was the basis for pedagogy, it retained a stylistic influence even after it had ceased to be the dominant style of composing or of music making. Even as Baroque practice fell out of use, it continued to be part of musical notation. In the early 19th century, scores by baroque masters were printed in complete edition, and this led to a renewed interest in the "strict style" of counterpoint, as it was then called. With Felix Mendelssohn's revival of Bach's choral music, the baroque style became an influence through the 19th century as a paragon of academic and formal purity. Throughout the 19th century, the fugue in the style of Bach held enormous influence for composers as a standard to aspire to and a form to include in serious instrumental works. Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


In the 20th century, Baroque was named as a period, and its music began to be studied. Baroque form and practice influenced composers as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg, Max Reger, Igor Stravinsky and Béla Bartók. There was also a revival of the middle baroque composers such as Purcell and Corelli. Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Bartok redirects here. ...


There are several instances of contemporary pieces being published as "rediscovered" Baroque masterworks. Some examples of this include a viola concerto written by Henri Casadesus but attributed to Handel, as well as several pieces attributed by Fritz Kreisler to lesser-known figures of the Baroque such as Gaetano Pugnani and Padre Martini. Alessandro Parisotti attributed his aria for voice and piano, "Se tu m'ami", to Pergolesi. Today, there is a very active core of composers writing works exclusively in the Baroque style, an example being Giorgio Pacchioni. Henri Casadesus (September 30, 1879 – May 31, 1947) was a violist and music publisher who founded the Society of Ancient Instruments with Camille Saint Saens in 1901. ... Fritz Kreisler (February 2, 1875 – January 29, 1962) was an Austria-born American violinist and composer; one of the most famous violinists of his day. ... Gaetano Pugnani (1731–1798) was born in Turin, on November 27, 1731. ... Giovanni Battista Martini (April 24, 1706 - August 4, 1784), Italian musician, was born at Bologna. ... Pergolesi was the surname of more than one famous person: Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, (1710-1736), composer, the one usually meant. ... Giorgio Pacchioni (b. ...


Various works have been labeled "neo-baroque" for a focus on imitative polyphony, including the works of Giacinto Scelsi, Paul Hindemith, Paul Creston and Martinů, even though they are not in the baroque style proper. Musicologists attempted to complete various works from the Baroque, most notably Bach's The Art of Fugue. Because the baroque style is a recognized point of reference, implying not only music, but a particular period and social manner, Baroque styled pieces are sometimes created for media, such as film and television. Composer Peter Schickele parodies classical and baroque styles under the pen name PDQ Bach. The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ... It has been suggested that List of works by Giacinto Scelsi be merged into this article or section. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Paul Creston (born Giuseppe Guttoveggio October 10, 1906 in New York City – died August 24, 1985 in San Diego, California) was an American composer of classical music. ... Portrait of Martinů Bohuslav Martinů ( ; December 8, 1890—August 28, 1959) was a Czech composer. ... A portrait which may show Bach in 1750 The Art of Fugue or The Art of the Fugue (original German: Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an unfinished work by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... P.D.Q. Bach (1807-1742?) is the pseudonym under which Professor Peter Schickele has written a substantial body of satirical music, recorded on nearly twenty compact discs on the Vanguard and Telarc labels. ...


Baroque performance practice had a renewed influence with the rise of "Authentic" or Historically informed performance in the late 20th century. Texts by Quantz and Leopold Mozart among others, formed the basis for performances which attempted to recover some of the aspects of baroque sound world, including one on a part performance of works by Bach, use of gut strings rather than metal, reconstructed harpsichords, use of older playing techniques and styles. Several popular ensembles adopted some or all of these techniques, including the Anonymous 4, the Academy of Ancient Music, Boston's Handel and Haydn Society, the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, William Christie's Les Arts Florissants and others. This movement then attempted to apply some of the same methods to classical and even early romantic era performance. The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they may have been performed when they were originally written. ... Johann Joachim Quantz (January 30, 1697–July 12, 1773) was a German flutist, flute maker and composer. ... Leopold Mozart Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a composer, music teacher and violinist. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Anonymous 4 is a female a cappella quartet, based in New York City. ... Johann Christoph Pepusch Giovanni Battista Bononcini Francesco Geminiani Bernard Gates Maurice Greene The Academy of Ancient Music (AAM) is a period-instrument orchestra based in London, re-founded by harpsichordist Christopher Hogwood in 1973 and named after an original organisation of the 18th century. ... The Handel and Haydn Society is a choral society in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Academy of St. ... Les Arts Florissants is a Baroque ensemble of singers and musicians founded in 1979 by William Christie and based in France. ...


See also

Composers of the Baroque era, ordered by date of birth: // Composers of the Early Baroque era include the following figures listed by the probable or proven date of their birth: Giulio Caccini (c. ... The guitar player (c. ... Egger copy of a natural trumpet by Johann Leonhard EHE II, Nuremberg 1746. ... A baroque violin is, in common usage, any violin whose neck, fingerboard, bridge, and tailpiece are of the type used during the baroque period. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... A renaissance-era lute. ... Oboe da caccia The oboe da caccia (literally hunting oboe in Italian) is a double reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family, pitched a fifth below the oboe and used primarily in the Baroque period of European classical music. ... Various sizes of viol, from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum (1618) Early Italian tenor viola da gamba, detail from the painting , by Raphael Sanzio, c. ... Viola dAmore from the mid eighteenth century (Library of Congress collection) The viola damore (Italian: love viol) is a 7- or 6-stringed musical instrument with sympathetic strings used chiefly in the baroque period. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Palisca, Grove online

References

  • Claude Palisca: "Baroque", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed August 21, 2007), (subscription access)

Further reading

  • Christensen, Thomas Street, and Peter Dejans. Towards Tonality Aspects of Baroque Music Theory. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2007. ISBN 9789058675873
  • Cyr, Mary. Essays on the Performance of Baroque Music Opera and Chamber Music in France and England. Variorum collected studies series, 899. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2008. ISBN 9780754659266
  • Foreman, Edward. A Bel Canto Method, or, How to Sing Italian Baroque Music Correctly Based on the Primary Sources. Twentieth century masterworks on singing, v. 12. Minneapolis, Minn: Pro Musica Press, 2006. ISBN 1887117180
  • Schubert, Peter, and Christoph Neidhöfer. Baroque Counterpoint. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. ISBN 0131834428
  • Schulenberg, David. Music of the Baroque. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. ISBN 0-19-512232-1
  • Stauffer, George B. The World of Baroque Music New Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006. ISBN 025334798X Table of Contents

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2846 words)
Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 to 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points).
Baroque music would see an expansion in the size, range and complexity of performance, as well as the establishment of opera as a type of musical performance.
Musically the adoption of the figured bass represents a larger change in musical thinking—namely that harmony, that is "taking all of the parts together" was as important as the linear part of polyphony.
Baroque Music - Part One (3416 words)
Music from the Baroque period is the earliest European music which we still generally recognize, whether it be the theme from Masterpiece Theatre (Mouret's Suite de Symphonie), the "Hallelujah Chorus" from Handel's Messiah, or any number of other pieces.
The principal ensemble instruments in Baroque music, as in all subsequent European art music, are the unfretted (that is, without frets), bowed, string instruments of the violin family.
Baroque musicians were not concerned with expressing their own feelings and emotions, rather they sought to describe with objectivity, feelings and emotions which were distinct from what they actually felt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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