FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Baroque" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Baroque
Baroque art redirects here. Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc.
Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. Dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint.
Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. Dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint.
The Church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is a very good example of Baroque architecture with its domed roof and curved contours, and is also a fine example of Baroque painting with the shown altar, which portrays a very dramatized painting of Saint Andrew being crucified.
The Church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is a very good example of Baroque architecture with its domed roof and curved contours, and is also a fine example of Baroque painting with the shown altar, which portrays a very dramatized painting of Saint Andrew being crucified.

In the arts, the Baroque was a Western cultural epoch, commencing roughly at the turn of the 17th century in Rome. It was exemplified by drama and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music[1].[citation needed] In music, the term 'Baroque' applies to the final period of dominance of imitative counterpoint, where different voices and instruments echo each other but at different pitches, sometimes inverting the echo, and even reversing thematic material. Baroque may refer to: the Baroque period of the 17th century. ... Baroque art is the painting and sculpture associated with the Baroque cultural movement, a movement often identified with Absolutism and the Counter Reformation; the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states, however, undercuts this linking. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x882, 93 KB) The Adoration of the Magi, a 1624 oil-on-canvas painting by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x882, 93 KB) The Adoration of the Magi, a 1624 oil-on-canvas painting by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 989 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Torvindus and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 989 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Torvindus and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... SantAndrea al Quirinale (St. ... Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Baroque dance is dance of the Baroque era in Europe (roughly 1600–1750), closely linked with Baroque music, theater and opera. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement[2]. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumphant power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. In similar profusions of detail, art, music, architecture, and literature inspired each other in the Baroque cultural movement[citation needed] as artists explored what they could create from repeated and varied patterns. Some traits and aspects of Baroque paintings that differentiate this style from others are the abundant amount of details, often bright polychromy, less realistic faces of subjects, and an overall sense of awe, which was one of the goals in Baroque art. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ...


The word baroque probably derives from the ancient Portuguese noun "barroco"[citation needed] which is a pearl that is not round but of unpredictable and elaborate shape. Hence, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is "elaborate", with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Baroque Tahitian pearls mounted with diamonds and platinum as earrings Baroque pearls are simply pearls that have an irregular shape. ...

Contents

Evolution of the Baroque

Beginning around the year 1600, the demands for new art resulted in what is now known as the Baroque. The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent (1545–63) by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working in Rome at that time. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (September 28, 1573 – July 18, 1610), usually called Caravaggio after his hometown near Milan, was an Italian Baroque painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... There are several people with the name Carracci. ...

Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598: a moment caught in a dramatic action from a classical source, bursting from the picture plane in a sweeping diagonal perspective.
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598: a moment caught in a dramatic action from a classical source, bursting from the picture plane in a sweeping diagonal perspective.

The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic. Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle, and found inspiration in other artists such as Caravaggio, and Federico Barocci nowadays sometimes termed 'proto-Baroque'. Download high resolution version (1050x729, 119 KB)Federico Barocci, Aeneas Flight from Troy 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (1050x729, 119 KB)Federico Barocci, Aeneas Flight from Troy 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Annunciation (1592-96) Oil on canvas, Santa Maria degli Angeli, Perugia. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Self-portrait, (Uffizi) Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. ... Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (September 28, 1573 – July 18, 1610), usually called Caravaggio after his hometown near Milan, was an Italian Baroque painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... Annunciation (1592-96) Oil on canvas, Santa Maria degli Angeli, Perugia. ...


Germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo and Correggio. Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Antonio Allegri da Correggio. ...


Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful. Contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint ousted polyphony, and orchestral color made a stronger appearance. (See Baroque music.) Similar fascination with simple, strong, dramatic expression in poetry, where clear, broad syncopated rhythms replaced the enknotted elaborated metaphysical similes employed by Mannerists such as John Donne and imagery that was strongly influenced by visual developments in painting, can be sensed in John Milton's Paradise Lost, a Baroque epic. For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ...


Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century. A prominent example, the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace (though in a chaste exterior) that was not even begun until 1752. Critics have given up talking about a "Baroque period." A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The Palace of Caserta, in Italian Reggia di Caserta, is a former royal residence in Caserta, near Naples, constructed for the Borbone kings of Naples. ...


In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque artform. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. It made the sculptures almost seem like they were about to move. See Bernini's David (below, left). For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Doryphoros of Polyclitus, an early example of classical contrapost. ...


The drier, chastened, less dramatic and coloristic, later stages of 18th century Baroque architectural style are often seen as a separate Late Baroque manifestation. (See Claude Perrault.) Academic characteristics in the neo-Palladian architectural style, epitomized by William Kent, are a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within doors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hieratic tectonic sculptural elements meant never to be moved from their positions completing the wall elevation. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich and massy detail. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Though Claude Perrault (Paris, 1613 - Paris, 1688) is best known as the architect of the eastern range of the Louvre in Paris, he also achieved success as physician and anatomist, and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history. ... A villa with a superimposed portico, from Book IV of Palladios I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura, in a modestly priced English translation published in London, 1736. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ...


The Baroque was defined by Heinrich Wölfflin as the age where the oval replaced the circle as the center of composition, balance replaced organization around a central axis, and coloristic and "painterly" effects began to become more prominent. Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion—the Reformation. It has been said that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the Papacy, like secular absolute monarchies, a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Catholic Reformation. Whether this is the case or not, it was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision during this period of time. Heinrich Wölfflin (June 21, 1864 – July 19, 1945) was a famous Swiss art critic, whose objective classifying principles (painterly vs. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Baroque painting

Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de Óbidos, c.1679, Santarém, Portugal, Municipal Library
Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de Óbidos, c.1679, Santarém, Portugal, Municipal Library
Main article: Baroque painting

A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre) [1], in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement. Image File history File links JosefaObidos4. ... Image File history File links JosefaObidos4. ... Nativity by Josefa de Óbidos (1669); National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Alentejo  - Subregion Lezíria do Tejo  - District or A.R. Santarém Mayor Francisco Moita Flores  - Party PSD Area 560. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Marie de Medici (April 26, 1573 - July 3, 1642), born in Italy as Maria de Medici, was queen consort of France under the French name Marie de Médicis. ... Luxembourg Palace The Luxembourg Palace in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... This article is about the museum. ...


There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theater into one grand conceit [2]. For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berettini (November 1, 1596- May 16, 1669) was a prolific artist and architect of High Baroque. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... ...


The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, which, through contrast, further defines Baroque. A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ...


The intensity and immediacy of baroque art and its individualism and detail—observed in such things as the convincing rendering of cloth and skin textures—make it one of the most compelling periods of Western art.


Baroque sculpture

Main article: Baroque sculpture

In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Aleijadinho in Brazil was also one of the great names of baroque sculpture, and his master work is the set of statues of the Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos in Congonhas. The soapstone sculptures of old testament prophets around the terrace are considered amongst his finest work. Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Fountain is also the name of an artwork by Marcel Duchamp An ornamental lit fountain photographed at night for about 6 seconds. ... Church of the Third Order of St Francis in Ouro Preto. ... Congonhas is a historical city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. ...


The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini (1598–1680) give highly charged characteristics of Baroque style. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ...


Bernini's Cornaro chapel: the complete work of art

A good example of Bernini's work that helps us understand the Baroque is his St. Theresa in Ecstasy (1645–52), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Bernini designed the entire chapel, a subsidiary space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family. , by Gian Lorenzo Bernini The Ecstasy of St Theresa (alternatively St Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of St Teresa) is a marble masterpiece sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which is part of his complete architectural design, construction, and decoration the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome completed... Berninis Ecstasy of St Teresa Santa Maria della Vittoria is a church in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Saint Theresa, the focal point of the chapel, is a soft white marble statue surrounded by a polychromatic marble architectural framing. This structure works to conceal a window which lights the statue from above. In shallow relief, sculpted figure-groups of the Cornaro family inhabit in opera boxes along the two side walls of the chapel. The setting places the viewer as a spectator in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and craning forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint. St. Theresa is highly idealized and in an imaginary setting. St. Theresa of Avila, a popular saint of the Catholic Reformation, wrote of her mystical experiences aimed at the nuns of her Carmelite Order; these writings had become popular reading among lay people interested in pursuing spirituality. In her writings, she described the love of God as piercing her heart like a burning arrow. Bernini literalizes this image by placing St. Theresa on a cloud while a Cupid figure holds a golden arrow (the arrow is made of metal) and smiles down at her. The angelic figure is not preparing to plunge the arrow into her heart— rather, he has withdrawn it. St. Theresa's face reflects not the anticipation of ecstasy, but her current fulfillment. A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... , by Gian Lorenzo Bernini The Ecstasy of St Theresa (alternatively St Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of St Teresa) is a marble masterpiece sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which is part of his complete architectural design, construction, and decoration the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome completed... There are a few places named Theresa in the United States: Theresa (town), New York Theresa (village), New York Theresa, Wisconsin Theresa (town), Wisconsin This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Saint Teresa of Avila (known in religion as Teresa de Jesús, baptised as Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada) was a Spanish Roman Catholic mystic and monastic reformer; born at Avila (53 miles north-west of Madrid), Old Castile, March 28, 1515; died at Alba de Tormes October 15, 1582. ... The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ...


This is widely considered the genius of Baroque although this mix of religious and erotic imagery was extremely offensive in the context of neoclassical restraint. However, Bernini was a devout Catholic and was not attempting to satirize the experience of a chaste nun. Rather, he aimed to portray religious experience as an intensely physical one. Theresa described her bodily reaction to spiritual enlightenment in a language of ecstasy used by many mystics, and Bernini's depiction is earnest. Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


The Cornaro family promotes itself discreetly in this chapel; they are represented visually, but are placed on the sides of the chapel, witnessing the event from balconies. As in an opera house, the Cornaro have a privileged position in respect to the viewer, in their private reserve, closer to the saint; the viewer, however, has a better view from the front. They attach their name to the chapel, but St. Theresa is the focus. It is a private chapel in the sense that no one could say mass on the altar beneath the statue (in 17th century and probably through the 19th) without permission from the family, but the only thing that divides the viewer from the image is the altar rail. The spectacle functions both as a demonstration of mysticism and as a piece of family pride. New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ...


Baroque architecture

Castle of Trier (Germany)
Ludwigsburg Palace near Stuttgart, Germany's largest Baroque Palace
Ludwigsburg Palace near Stuttgart, Germany's largest Baroque Palace
Melk Abbey, in Austria near the Wachau valley (architect Jakob Prandtauer)
Melk Abbey, in Austria near the Wachau valley (architect Jakob Prandtauer)
Main article: Baroque architecture

In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The other Baroque innovation in worldly interiors was the state apartment, a processional sequence of increasingly rich interiors that culminated in a presence chamber or throne room or a state bedroom. The sequence of monumental stairs followed by a state apartment was copied in smaller scale everywhere in aristocratic dwellings of any pretensions. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 542 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,947 × 2,155 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 542 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,947 × 2,155 pixels, file size: 3. ... Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2443x1523, 2681 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2443x1523, 2681 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Stift Melk Courtyard of the Stift Melk Melk Abbey Melk Abbey or Stift Melk is an historic Austrian Benedictine abbey, and one of the worlds most famous monastic sites. ... Jakob Prandtauer (1660–1726) was an architect. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... For other use of the term, see Chiaroscuro (disambiguation). ...


Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (see e.g. Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger Dresden), Austria and Russia (see e.g. Peterhof). In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, from ca. 1660 to ca. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took cues from Baroque garden plans.In Sicily, Baroque developed new shapes and themes as in Noto, Ragusa and Acireale "Basilica di San Sebastiano" Ludwigsburg Palace and Baroque Gardens (near Stuttgart, Germany) from the south. ... Aerial view of the Zwinger Palace The Zwinger Palace in Dresden, is a major German landmark. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... See also subsistence gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture. ... Ragusa can refer to: The city of Ragusa in Sicily, Italy. ... Acireale is a seaport city in the north-east of the province of Catania, Sicily (Italy), at the foot of Mount Etna, with mineral waters. ...


Baroque theater

In theater, the elaborate conceits, multiplicity of plot turns, and variety of situations characteristic of Mannerism (Shakespeare's tragedies, for instance) were superseded by opera, which drew together all the arts into a unified whole. In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...


Theater evolved in the Baroque era and became a multimedia experience, starting with the actual architectural space. In fact, much of the technology used in current Broadway or commercial plays was invented and developed during this era. The stage could change from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in a matter of seconds. The entire space became a framed selected area that only allows the users to see a specific action, hiding all the machinery and technology - mostly ropes and pulleys. Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This technology affected the content of the narrated or performed pieces, practicing at its best the Deus ex Machina solution. Gods were finally able to come down - literally - from the heavens and rescue the hero in the most extreme and dangerous, even absurd situations. For other uses, see Deus ex machina (disambiguation). ...


The term Theatrum Mundi - the world is a stage - was also created. The social and political realm in the real world is manipulated in exactly the same way the actor and the machines are presenting/limiting what is being presented on stage, hiding selectively all the machinery that makes the actions happen. There is a wonderful German documentary called Theatrum Mundi that clearly portrays the political extents of the Baroque and its main representative, Louis XIV. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


The films Vatel, Farinelli, and the staging of Monteverdi's Orpheus at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, give a good idea of the style of productions of the Baroque period. The American musician William Christie and Les Arts Florissants have performed extensive research on all the French Baroque Opera, performing pieces from Charpentier and Lully, among others that are extremely faithful to the original 17th century creations. Farinelli is a 1994 biopic film starring Stefano Dionisi as Farinelli, an eighteenth century Italian opera singer, who was a castrato (a man castrated to prevent his voice from breaking). ... For the composer see Claudio Monteverdi For the Swiss automobile brand created by Peter Monteverdi, see Monteverdi (car) Monteverde Monte Verde Category: ... The façade of the Liceu, as viewed from the Ramblas The Gran Teatre del Liceu (or simply Liceu; in Spanish: Liceo) is an opera house on Las Ramblas in Barcelona. ... William Lincoln Christie (born December 19, 1944) is a conductor and harpsichordist. ... Les Arts Florissants is a Baroque ensemble of singers and musicians founded in 1979 by William Christie and based in France. ... Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 - February 24, 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ...


Baroque literature and philosophy

Further information: 17th century in literature17th century philosophy, and Early Modern literature

Baroque actually expressed new values, which often are summarized in the use of metaphor and allegory, widely found in Baroque literature, and in the research for the "maraviglia" (wonder, astonishment — as in Marinism), the use of artifices. If Mannerism was a first breach with Renaissance, Baroque was an opposed language.[citation needed] The psychological pain of Man -- a theme disbanded after the Copernican and the Lutheran revolutions in search of solid anchors, a proof of an "ultimate human power" -- was to be found in both the art and architecture of the Baroque period. A relevant part of works was made on religious themes, since the Roman Catholic Church was the main "customer."[citation needed] See also: 16th century in literature, other events of the 17th century, 1700 in literature, list of years in literature. ... 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Marinism, or Secentismo in Italian literally means 17th century and was a creative style against classical. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Virtuosity was researched by artists (and the virtuoso became a common figure in any art) together with realism and care for details (some talk of a typical "intricacy"). For other uses, see Virtuoso (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ...


The privilege given to external forms had to compensate and balance the lack of content that has been observed in many Baroque works: Marino's "Maraviglia", for example, is practically made of the pure, mere form. Fantasy and imagination should be evoked in the spectator, in the reader, in the listener. All was focused around the individual Man, as a straight relationship between the artist, or directly the art and its user, its client. Art is then less distant from user, more directly approaching him, solving the cultural gap that used to keep art and user reciprocally far, by Maraviglia. But the increased attention to the individual, also created in these schemes some important genres like the Romanzo (novel) and allowed popular or local forms of art, especially dialectal literature, to be put into evidence. In Italy this movement toward the single individual (that some define a "cultural descent", while others indicate it as a possible cause for the classical opposition to Baroque) caused Latin to be definitely replaced by Italian. Giovan Battista Marino (1569 - 1625) was an Italian poet who was born in Naples. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


In Spain, the baroque writers are framed in the Siglo de Oro. Naturalism and sharply critical points of view on Spanish society are common among such conceptista writers as Quevedo, while culterano authors emphasize the importance of form with complicated images and the use of hyperbaton. In Catalonia the baroque took hold as well in Catalan language, with representatives including poets and dramaturgs such as Francesc Fontanella and Francesc Vicenç Garcia as well as the unique emblem book Atheneo de Grandesa by Josep Romaguera. In Colonial Spanish America some of the best-known baroque writers were Sor Juana and Bernardo de Balbuena, in Mexico, and Juan de Espinosa Medrano and Juan del Valle Caviedes, in Peru. The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (September 17, 1580 – September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the . ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Francesc Fontanella 1610-1620?-1680-1685? was a Catalan poet, dramatist, and priest. ... Francesc Vicent Garcia i Torres was an early modern Catalan poet known by the pseudonym of the Vallfogona Rector. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... The Atheneo de Grandesa is an emblem book written in Catalan by Josep Romaguera and published in 1681 by the printer Joan Jolis in Barcelona. ... Josep Romaguera (1642-1723) is the author of the only emblem book ever published in Catalan, the Atheneo de Grandesa. ... Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez Sor Juana (12 November 1651 [or 1648, according to some biographers] – 17 April 1695), also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz or, in full, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ram... Bernardo de Balbuena was born in Valdepeñas, Spain around 1561, Balbuena came to the New World at the early age of two and lived in Guadalajara, Jalisco and Mexico City, where he studied theology. ...


In the Portuguese Empire the most famous baroque writer of the time was Father António Vieira, a Jesuit who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Secondary writers are Gregório de Matos and Francisco Rodrigues Lobo. An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... P. Antonio Vieira, preaching Father António Vieira, pron. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Gregório de Matos e Guerra (?1636-1696) is a Brazilian poet sometimes nicknamed Boca do Inferno or The Mouth of Hell. ... Francisco Rodrigues Lobo (1580 - November 1621) was Portuguese poet and bucolic writer, he was born of rich and noble parents at Leiria, reading philosophy, poetry and writing of shepherds and shepherdesses by the rivers Liz and Lena. ...


In English literature, the metaphysical poets represent a closely related movement; their poetry likewise sought unusual metaphors, which they then examined in often extensive detail. Their verse also manifests a taste for paradox, and deliberately inventive and unusual turns of phrase. The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ...


For German Baroque literature, see German literature of the Baroque period. The Baroque period was one of the most fertile times in German literature. ...


Baroque music

Main article: Baroque music

The term Baroque is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that of Baroque art, but usually encompasses a slightly later period. J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel are often considered its culminating figures. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... “Handel” redirects here. ...


It is a still-debated question as to what extent Baroque music shares aesthetic principles with the visual and literary arts of the Baroque period. A fairly clear, shared element is a love of ornamentation, and it is perhaps significant that the role of ornament was greatly diminished in both music and architecture as the Baroque gave way to the Classical period.


It should be noted that the application of the term "Baroque" to music is a relatively recent development. The first use of the word "Baroque" in music was only in 1919, by Curt Sachs, and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English (in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer). Even as late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academic circles over whether music as diverse as that by Jacopo Peri, François Couperin and J.S. Bach could be meaningfully bundled together under a single stylistic term. Curt Sachs (June 29, 1881 - February 5, 1959) was a German musicologist. ... Manfred Bukofzer (March 27, 1910–December 7, 1955) was a German-American musicologist and humanist. ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... François Couperin. ... For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ...


Many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia. Forms such as the sonata, cantata and oratorio flourished. Also, opera was born out of the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody, who attempted to recreate the theatrical arts of the ancient Greeks. Indeed, it is exactly that development which is often used to denote the beginning of the musical Baroque, around 1600. An important technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass, a repeated bass line. Dido's Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... In music, a sinfonia can be one of three things: 1) In the very late Renaissance and early Baroque, a sinfonia was an alternate name for a canzona, fantasia or ricercar. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. ... Caccini, Le Nuove musiche, 1601, title page In poetry, monody is a poem in which one person laments anothers death. ... In music, a ground bass is a bass part or bassline that repeats continually, as an ostinato, while the melody and possibly harmony over it change. ...


Baroque composers and examples

Monteverdi redirects here. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 (Vespers for the Blessed Virgin, 1610), or simply the Vespers of 1610, as it is commonly called, is a musical composition by Claudio Monteverdi. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Armide is an opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Pachelbel (pronounced , German IPA: , , or [1]) (August 28, 1653 – March 6, 1706) was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Pachelbels Canon also known as Canon in D major, or more formally, Canon and Gigue in D major for three Violins and Basso Continuo (Kanon und Gigue in D-Dur für drei Violinen und Basso Continuo) is the most famous piece of music by Johann Pachelbel. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Arcangelo Corelli Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Arcangelo Corelli Twelve concerti grossi, op. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... Jan. ... The Composer, Henry Purcell Dido and Aeneas is an opera by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell, from a libretto by Nahum Tate. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni (June 8, 1671, Venice, Italy – January 17, 1751, Venice) was an Italian baroque composer. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... The Four Seasons can refer to: Season, the annual cycle of the astronomical, geographic, and climatic phenomenon The Four Seasons (group), a singing group led by Frankie Valli The Four Seasons (Vivaldi), the collective name for four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi The Seasons (Haydn), (Die Jahreszeiten) an oratorio by... Johann David Heinichen (1683 - July 16, 1729) was a Baroque composer and theorist active in Dresden at the court of Augustus the Strong. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Dardanus is an opera written by Rameau in 1739 and performed at the Paris Opera. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Water Music is a collection of orchestral movements, often considered as three suites, composed by George Frideric Handel. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... These are the sonatas for solo keyboard by Domenico Scarlatti, listed in Kirkpatrick number order: Kk. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Sebastian Bach, c. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Georg Philipp Telemann. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Mater dolorosa became an iconic type, as in this sixteenth-century Spanish version by Luis de Morales (c. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ...

Etymology

The word "Baroque", like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by later critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th and early 18th centuries. It is a French transliteration of the Portuguese phrase "pérola barroca", which means "irregular pearl"—an ancient similar word, "Barlocco" or "Brillocco", is used in the Roman dialect for the same meaning[citation needed]—and natural pearls that deviate from the usual, regular forms so they do not have an axis of rotation are known as "baroque pearls". Others derive it from the mnemonic term "Baroco" denoting, in logical Scholastica, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism.[3] Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The axis of rotation of a rotating body is a line such that the distance between any point on the line and any point of the body remains constant under the rotation. ... A syllogism (Greek: — conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ...


The term "Baroque" was initially used with a derogatory meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which sharply contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance. It was first rehabilitated by the Swiss-born art historian, Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass," an art antithetic to Renaissance art. He did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Writers in French and English did not begin to treat Baroque as a respectable study until Wölfflin's influence had made German scholarship pre-eminent. For other uses of the word Switzerland, see Switzerland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Heinrich Wölfflin (June 21, 1864 – July 19, 1945) was a famous Swiss art critic, whose objective classifying principles (painterly vs. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ...


Modern usage

In modern usage, the term "Baroque" may still be used, usually pejoratively, to describe works of art, craft, or design that are thought to have excessive ornamentation or complexity of line, or, as a synonym for "Byzantine", to describe literature, computer programs, contracts, or laws that are thought to be excessively complex, indirect, or obscure in language, to the extent of concealing or confusing their meaning. A "Baroque fear" is deeply felt, but utterly beyond daily reality.

Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... The Byzantine Empire acquired a negative reputation among historians of the 18th and 19th century not only for the complexity of the organization of its ministries and the elaborateness of its court ceremonies (from this came the term still in modern use, Byzantine, often used pejoratively to describe any work...

See also

Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Baroque chess is a chess variant invented in 1962 by Robert Abbott. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ... Royal Palace (Amsterdam): Jacob van Campen, 1646. ... Greenwich Hospital: Sir Christopher Wren, 1694. ... Château de Maisons near Paris: François Mansart, 1642. ... The Assumption church in Pokrovka Street, Moscow (1696-99) Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Kikin Hall (1714), an example of private residence dating from Peter Is reign. ... Polish baroque flourished from the late 16th century to the middle of the 18th century and as with the baroque style elsewhere in Europe, was designed to show off splendor of the art. ... Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. ... The most impressive display of Churrigueresque spatial decoration may be found in the west facade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (1738-49). ... The Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture. ...

References

  1. ^ Claude V. Palisca : "Baroque." Grove Music Online L Macy(2007) 13 Feb 2008 Grove Music
  2. ^ Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J Mamiya "Gardner's Art Through the Ages"
  3. ^ Panofsky, Erwin (1995), "What is Baroque?", Three Essays on Style, The MIT Press, pp. 19 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Baroque art

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Heinrich Wölfflin, 1964. Renaissance and Baroque (Reprinted 1984; originally published in German, 1888) The classic study. ISBN 0-8014-9046-4
  • Michael Kitson, 1966. The Age of Baroque
  • John Rupert Martin, 1977. Baroque A more detailed survey.
  • Germain Bazin, 1964. Baroque and Rococo, (Originally published in French; reprinted as Baroque and Rococo Art, 1974)
Heinrich Wölfflin (June 21, 1864 – July 19, 1945) was a famous Swiss art critic, whose objective classifying principles (painterly vs. ... Michael William Lely Kitson (born Ealing, Middlesex, on 30 January 1926, died Islington, London, 7 August 1998) was an English art historian. ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... International Gothic is a subset of Gothic art developed in Burgundy, Bohemia and northern Italy in the late 1300s and early 1400s. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet. ... Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by the French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1887[1] to characterise the late-19th century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who first exhibited their work in 1884 at the exhibition of the Société des Artistes... Chromoluminarism is a technique used by Neo-impressionists such Georges Seurat (1859-1891). ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... The Yellow Christ (Le Christ jaune) 1889, oil on canvas Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York Cloisonnism is a style of post-Impressionist painting with bold forms separated by dark contours. ... Nabis (or Les Nabis; the prophets, from the Hebrew term for prophet) was a group of young post-impressionist avant-garde Parisian artists of the 1890s that influenced the fine arts and graphic arts in France at the turn of the 20th century. ... Synthetism is a style of painting that developed out of Cloisonnism. ... Thomas Cole (1801-1848) View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm or The Oxbow 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters, whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... 20th Century Art begins with Impressionism through to contemporary art. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... The Neue Künstlervereinigung München, abbreviated NKVM, (German:Munich New Artists Association) formed in 1909 in Munich. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... Max Ernst. ... Color Field painting is an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Adolf Wölflis Irren-Anstalt Band-Hain, 1910 The term Outsider Art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut (which literally translates as Raw Art or Rough Art), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created... Cover Art by Mark Ryden Cover Art by Joe Coleman Todd Schorr, Futility in the Face of a Hostile World, 2003. ... New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... As defined in the glossary of Nicolas Bourriauds book Relational Aesthetics, Relational (Art) is: a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space. ... Videogame art involves the use of patched or modified computer and video games or the repurposing of existing games or game structures. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baroque Music - Part One (3480 words)
Most of the Baroque musical instruments and forms which evolved during the Baroque period survive today, particularly as they were embodied in the most familiar European art music, the music of the Classical and Romantic periods of the nineteenth century.
Baroque woodwinds were all made of wood, even the flute, and had few or no keys, unlike their nineteenth century descendants.
Baroque musicians were not concerned with expressing their own feelings and emotions, rather they sought to describe with objectivity, feelings and emotions which were distinct from what they actually felt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m