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Encyclopedia > Baron d'Holbach
Baron d'Holbach

Paul-Henri Thiry, baron d'Holbach (17231789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. He was born Paul Heinrich Dietrich in Edesheim, Germany but lived and worked mainly in Paris. He is most famous as being one of the first self-described atheists in Europe. Paul Heinrich Dietrich Baron dHolbach Source: german Wikipedia de:Bild:Paul Heinrich Dietrich Baron dHolbach. ... Paul Heinrich Dietrich Baron dHolbach Source: german Wikipedia de:Bild:Paul Heinrich Dietrich Baron dHolbach. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... An author is any person(s) or entity(s) that originates and assumes responsibility for an expression or communication. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

Biography

D'Holbach's mother (née Holbach) was the daughter of the Prince-Bishop's tax collector. His father, Johann Jakob Thiry, was a wine-grower. The young Paul-Henri's studies were financed by his uncle, Franz Adam Holbach, who had become a millionaire by speculating on the Paris stock-exchange. After inheriting two large fortunes the still young d'Holbach became very wealthy and would remain so for life. The French word née (feminine) or né (masculine) (or the English word nee) is still commonly used in some newspapers when mentioning the maiden name of a woman in engagement or wedding announcements. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ...


D'Holbach had one of the more notable salons in Paris. It was one of the most important meeting places for contributors to the Encyclopédie. Meetings were held regularly twice a week from approximately 1750 - 1780. The tone of discussion among the visitors was highly civilized and it covered more diverse topics than that of other salons. This, along with other features including excellent food, expensive wine, and a library of over 3000 volumes, attracted many notable visitors. Among the regulars in attendance at the salon were: Diderot, Grimm, Jean-François Marmontel, D'Alembert, Helvétius, Ferdinando Galiani, and André Morellet. The salon was also well-frequented by British intellectuals: Adam Smith, David Hume, Horace Walpole, Edward Gibbon, amongst others. D'Holbach was owner of Heeze Castle, situated in the Duchy of Brabant, a region of The Netherlands today. A Salon of Ladies by Abraham Bosse A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Friedrich Melchior, baron von Grimm Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (December 26, 1723 - December 19, 1807), author, the son of a German pastor, was born at Ratisbon. ... Jean-François Marmontel (July 11, 1723 - December 31, 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopediste movement. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (January 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Ferdinando Galiani (December 2, 1728 - October 30, 1787) was an Italian economist. ... André Morellet (March 7, 1727 - January 12, 1819) was a French economist and writer. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Heeze Castle (Kasteel Heeze) is situated in the Netherlands, south of Eindhoven. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ...


For the Encyclopédie he authored and translated a large number of articles on topics such as politics, religion, chemistry and mineralogy. The translations he contributed were chiefly from German sources. He was better known, however, for his philosophical writings. These writings expressed a materialistic and atheistic position. His work is today categorised into the philosophical movement called "French materialism". French materialism combined the associationist psychology and Empiricism of John Locke with the Totality of Isaac Newton to create a complex world view in diametrical opposition to the Cartesian dualist world view. ...


In 1761 Christianity unveiled (Christianisme dévoilé) appeared, in which he attacked Christianity and religion as counter to the moral advancement of humanity. 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


This was followed up by other works, and in 1770 by a still more open attack in his most famous book, The System of Nature (Le Système de la nature). Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... The System of Nature is a philosophical book by Baron dHolbach (Paul Henri Thiry, 1723-1789). ...


Denying the existence of a deity, and refusing to admit as evidence all a priori arguments, d'Holbach saw in the universe nothing save matter in motion. In this, he was influenced by John Toland. The foundation of morality is happiness: "It would be useless and almost unjust to insist upon a man's being virtuous if he cannot be so without being unhappy. So long as vice renders him happy, he should love vice." This theory of morality can be seen as a precursor to utilitarianism. Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... John Toland (November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) Very little is known about his true origins other than the fact that he was born in Ardagh on the Inishowen Peninsula, a predominantly Catholic and Irish speaking region, in north west Ulster. ... -1... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ...


Le Système de la nature presented a core of radical ideas which many contemporaries found disturbing, thus prompting a strong reaction. The Catholic Church in France threatened the crown with a withdrawal of financial support unless it effectively suppressed the circulation of the book. The list of people writing refutations of the work was long. The Roman Catholic Church had its pre-eminent theologian Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier write a refutation of the Système titled Examen du matérialisme (Materialism examined). Voltaire hastily seized his pen to refute the philosophy of the Système in the article "Dieu" in his Dictionnaire philosophique, while Frederick the Great also drew up an answer to it. Its principles are summed up in a more popular form in Bon Sens, on idées naturelles opposees aux idées surnaturelles (Amsterdam, 1772), In the Système social (1773), the Politique naturelle (1773-1774) and the Morale universelle (1776) Holbach attempts to describe a system of morality in place of the one he had so fiercely attacked, but these later writings were not as popular or influential as his earlier work. Due to a fear of persecution, he published his books either anonymously or under pseudonyms. Additionally, the books were published outside of France, usually in Amsterdam. D'Holbach was strongly critical of abuses of power in France and abroad. Contrary to the revolutionary spirit of the time however, he called for the educated classes to reform the corrupt system of government and warned against revolution, democracy, and "mob rule". The Catholic Church in France is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a disorganized mass of people. ...


It is thought that the virtuous atheist Wolmar in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse is based on d'Holbach. Many of the main points in d'Holbach's philosophy have now found increasing resonance among the scientifically literate. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse is an epistolary romance novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Rey (Amsterdam). ...


Quote

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Baron d'Holbach

"If we go back to the beginning we shall find that ignorance and fear created the gods; that fancy, enthusiasm, or deceit adorned or disfigured them; that weakness worships them; that credulity preserves them, and that custom, respect and tyranny support them in order to make the blindness of men serve their own interests." Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...


See also

“Atheist” redirects here. ... An atheist is one who disbelieves[1] in the existence of a deity or deities. ... The System of Nature is a philosophical book by Baron dHolbach (Paul Henri Thiry, 1723-1789). ...

References

Bibliography

  • Le christianisme dévoilé, ou Examen des principes et des effets de la religion chrétienne (Christianity unveiled: being an examination of the principles and effects of the Christian religion) published in Nancy, 1761
  • La Contagion sacrée, ou Histoire naturelle de la superstition, 1768
  • Lettres à Eugénie, ou Préservatif contre les préjugés, 1768
  • Théologie Portative, ou Dictionnaire abrégé de la religion chrétienne, 1768
  • Essai sur les préjugés, ou De l'influence des opinions sur les mœurs & le bonheur des hommes, 1770
  • Système de la nature ou des loix du monde physique & du monde moral (The System of Nature, or Laws of the Moral and Physical World), published 1770 in 2 volumes in French under the pseudonym of Mirabaud. vol.1 text, vol.2 text at Project Gutenberg, en français.
  • Histoire critique de Jésus-Christ, ou Analyse raisonnée des évangiles, 1770
  • Tableau des Saints, ou Examen de l'esprit, de la conduite, des maximes & du mérite des personnages que le christiannisme révère & propose pour modèles, 1770
  • Le Bon Sens, published 1772 (Good Sense: or, Natural Ideas Opposed to Supernatural). This was an abridged version of The System of Nature. It was published anonymously in Amsterdam in order to escape persecution, and has also been attributed to Jean Meslier. Project Gutenberg text
  • Politique Naturelle, ou Discours sur les vrais principes du Gouvernement, 1773
  • Système Social, ou Principes naturels de la morale et de la Politique, avec un examen de l'influence du gouvernement sur les mœurs 1773
  • Ethocratie, ou Le gouvernement fondé sur la morale (Ethocracy or Government Founded on Ethics) (Amsterdam, 1776)
  • La Morale Universelle, ou Les devoirs de l'homme fondés sur la Nature, 1776 en français, PDF file.
  • Eléments de morale universelle, ou Catéchisme de la Nature, 1790
  • Lettre à une dame d'un certain âge

Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... The System of Nature is a philosophical book by Baron dHolbach (Paul Henri Thiry, 1723-1789). ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Church of Étrépigny. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Baron d'Holbach at AllExperts (1144 words)
Paul Henry Thiry, baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an homme de lettres, philosophe and encyclopédiste.
D'Holbach's mother (née Holbach) was the daughter of the Prince-Bishop's tax collector.
D'Holbach's exact date of birth is not known, although he was baptised on December 8, 1723.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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