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Encyclopedia > Barley
Barley
Barley field
Barley field
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Hordeum
Species: H. vulgare
Binomial name
Hordeum vulgare
L.
Raw Barley
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 350 kcal   1470 kJ
Carbohydrates     77.7 g
- Sugars  0.8 g
- Dietary fiber  15.6 g  
Fat 1.2 g
Protein 9.9 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.2 mg   15%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.1 mg   7%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  4.6 mg   31%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.3 mg  6%
Vitamin B6  0.3 mg 23%
Folate (Vit. B9)  23 μg  6%
Vitamin C  0.0 mg 0%
Calcium  29.0 mg 3%
Iron  2.5 mg 20%
Magnesium  79.0 mg 21% 
Phosphorus  221 mg 32%
Potassium  280 mg   6%
Zinc  2.1 mg 21%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. It is a member of the grass family Poaceae. In 2005, barley ranked fourth in quantity produced and in area of cultivation of cereal crops in the world (560,000 km²)[1]. (H. vulgare) is descended from wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Both forms are diploid (2n=14 chromosomes). As wild barley is interfertile with domesticated barley, the two forms are often treated as one species, Hordeum vulgare, divided into subspecies spontaneum (wild) and subspecies vulgare (domesticated). The main difference between the two forms is the brittle rachis of the former, which enables seed dispersal in the wild. The earliest finds of wild barley come from Epi-Paleolithic sites in the Levant, beginning in the Natufian. The earliest domesticated barley occurs at Aceramic Neolithic sites in the Near East such as the (PPN B) layers of Tell Abu Hureyra in Syria. Barley was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East, at the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat. Barley could mean Barley, a cereal crop Barley, Lancashire Barley, Hertfordshire Category: ... Barley field From http://www. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Hordeum is a genus of about 30 species of annual and perennial grasses, native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere, temperate South America, and also South Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Hordeum is a genus of about 30 species of annual and perennial grasses, native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere, temperate South America, and also South Africa. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Rachis was also king of the Lombards, 744-749. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight species of plant that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. ... Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ...


Barley was, alongside emmer wheat, a staple cereal of ancient Egypt, where it was used to make bread and beer; together, these were a complete diet. The general name for barley is jt (hypothetically pronounced "eat"); šma (hypothetically pronounced "SHE-ma") refers to Upper Egyptian barley and is a symbol of Upper Egypt. According to Deuteronomy 8:8, barley is one of the "Seven Species" of crops that characterize the fertility of the Promised Land of Canaan, and barley has a prominent role in the Israelite sacrifices described in the Pentateuch (see e.g. Numbers 5:15). Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer Grain is an ancient grain officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Seven Species (Hebrew: שבעת המינים, Shivat Ha-Minim) are seven types of fruits and grains enumerated in the Hebrew Bible[1] as being special products of the Land of Israel. ... Main article: Land of Israel The Kingdom of David and Solomon. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Sacrifice is the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...


In ancient Greece, the ritual significance of barley possibly dates back to the earliest stages of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The preparatory kykeon or mixed drink of the initiates, prepared from barley and herbs, was referred to in the Homeric hymn to Demeter, who was also called "Barley-mother". The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Kykeon (Gr. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ...

Barley in Egyptian hieroglyphs
jt barley determinative/ideogram
jt (common) spelling

šma determinative/ideogram

Practice was to dry the barley groats and roast them before preparing the porridge, according to Pliny the Elder's Natural History (xviii.72). This produces malt that soon ferments and becomes slightly alcoholic. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... In mesopotamian cuneiform texts (i. ... A Chinese character. ... Groats are the hulled and crushed grains of various cereals, such as oats, wheat or buckwheat. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ...


Tibetan barley has been the only major staple food in Tibet for centuries. It is made into a flour product called tsampa. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Tsampa (Tibetan: rtsam pa) is a Tibetan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the country. ...


Palaeoethnobotanists have found that barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula since the Early Mumun Pottery Period (c. 1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes (Crawford and Lee 2003). The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ...

Contents

As of 1881

According to the 1881 Household Cyclopedia: The Household Cyclopedia was an 1881 guide to housekeeping. ...

Next to wheat the most valuable grain is barley, especially on light and sharp soils. It is a tender grain and easily hurt in any of the stages of its growth, particularly at seed time; a heavy shower of rain will then almost ruin a crop on the best prepared land; and in all the after processes greater pains and attention are required to ensure success than in the case of other grains. The harvest process is difficult, and often attended with danger; even the threshing of it is not easily executed with machines, because the awn generally adheres to the grain, and renders separation from the straw a troublesome task. Barley, in fact, is raised at greater expense than wheat, and generally speaking is a more hazardous crop. Except upon rich and genial soils, where climate will allow wheat to be perfectly reared, it ought not to be cultivated. Wild rye ear with awns In botany, an awn is either a hair- or bristle-like appendage on a larger structure, or in the case of the Asteraceae, a stiff needle-like element of the pappus. ...

Preparation of ground
Barley is chiefly taken after turnips, sometimes after peas and beans, but rarely by bad farmers either after wheat or oats, unless under special circumstances. When sown after turnips it is generally taken with one furrow, which is given as fast as the turnips are consumed, the ground thus receiving much benefit from the spring frosts. But often two, or more furrows are necessary for the fields last consumed, because when a spring drought sets in, the surface, from being poached by the removal or consumption of the crop, gets so hardened as to render a greater quantity of ploughing, harrowing and rolling necessary
than would otherwise be called for. When sown after beans and peas, one winter and one spring ploughing are usually bestowed: but when after wheat or oats, three ploughings are necessary, so that the ground may be put in proper condition. These operations are very ticklish in a wet and backward season, and rarely in that case is the grower paid for the expense of his labor. Where land is in such a situation as to require three ploughings before it can be seeded with barley, it is better to summer-fallow it at once than to run the risks which seldom fail to accompany a quantity of spring labor. If the weather be dry, moisture is lost during the different processes, and an imperfect braird necessarily follows; if it be wet the benefit of ploughing is lost, and all the evils of a wet seed time are sustained by the future crop.

The quantity sown is different in different cases, according to the quality of the soil and other circumstances. Upon very rich lands eight pecks per acre [11 t/km²] are sometimes sown; twelve [16 t/km²] is very common, and upon poor land more is sometimes given.

By good judges a quantity of seed is sown sufficient to ensure a full crop, without depending on its sending out offsets; indeed, where that is done few offsets are produced, the crop grows and ripens equally, and the grain is uniformly good.

Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Subsp. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... This article is on the plant. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ...

Production

Barley output in 2005
Barley output in 2005
Top Ten Barley Producers — 2005
(million metric tonne)
Flag of Russia Russia 16.7
Flag of Canada Canada 12.1
Flag of Germany Germany 11.7
Flag of France France 10.4
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 9.3
Flag of Turkey Turkey 9.0
Flag of Australia Australia 6.6
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 5.5
Flag of the United States United States 4.6
Flag of Spain Spain 4.4
World Total 138
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO)
[2]

Barley was grown in about 100 countries worldwide in 2005. The world production in 1974 was 148,818,870 tonnes, showing little change in the amount of barley produced worldwide. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of barley output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Russia - 15,791,370 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of barley output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Russia - 15,791,370 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


Cultivars

Two Row redirects here. For the Wampum Treaty, see Guswhenta.
Barley
Barley

Barley can be divided by the number of kernel rows in the head. Two forms have been cultivated; two-row barley (formerly known as Hordeum distichum but now also classed as Hordeum vulgare), and six-row barley (Hordeum vulgare). In two-row barley only one spikelet at each node is fertile; in the four-row and six-row forms, all three are fertile. A four-row type (formerly classed as (Hordeum tetrastichum) is actually a six-row type with very lax structure. For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... The Two Row Wampum treaty, also known as Guswhenta or Kaswehnta, is an agreement made between representatives of the Five Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) and representatives of the Dutch government in 1613 in what is now upstate New York. ... Download high resolution version (640x886, 254 KB) http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x886, 254 KB) http://www. ...


Two-row barley is the oldest form, wild barley having two rows as well. Two-row barley has higher protein content than six-row barley and thus more enzyme content. High protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is usually lower protein [3]('low grain nitrogen', usually produced without a late fertilizer application) which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale style beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager style beers, whereas two-row malted summer barley is preferred for traditional German beers. Four-row is unsuitable for brewing. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


Barley is widely adaptable and is currently a major crop of the temperate areas were it is grown as a summer crop and tropical areas where it is sown as a winter crop. Its germination time is anywhere from 1 to 3 days. Barley likes to grow under cool conditions but is not particularily winter hardy. Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ...


Uses

Oats, barley, and some products made from them.
Oats, barley, and some products made from them.

Half of the world's barley production is used as an animal feed. A large part of the remainder used for malting and is a key ingredient in beer and whiskey production. Two-row barley is traditionally used in German and English beers, and six-row barley in American beers. Non-alcoholic drinks such as barley water and mugicha are also made from unhulled barley. Barley is also used in soups and stews, particularly in Eastern Europe. A small amount is used in health foods. Oats, barley, and some products made from them. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Barley water, usually flavoured with lemon or other fruit, is a popular soft drink in England. ... Mugicha Mugicha (麦茶) is the Japanese name for a type of tea which, unlike most other teas, is not made from tea leaves but from roasted barley. ...


Barley is more tolerant of soil salinity than wheat, which might explain the increase of barley cultivation on Mesopotamia from the 2nd millennium BC onwards. Barley is not as cold tolerant as the winter wheats (Triticum aestivum), fall rye (Secale cereale) or winter Triticale (X TricticaleWitt.), but may be sown as a winter crop in warmer areas of the world such as Australia.


Barley must have its fibrous outer hull removed before it can be eaten. Barley grains with their hulls still on are called covered barley or 'hulled barley". Once the grain has had the inedible hull removed, it is called dehulled barley. At this stage, the grain still has its bran and germ, which are nutritious. Dehulled barley is considered a whole grain, and is a popular health food. Pearl barley or pearled barley is hulled barley which has been processed further to remove the bran. It may be polished, a process known as "pearling". Dehulled or pearl barley may be processed into a variety of barley products, including flour, flakes similar to oatmeal, and grits. // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... The germ is the heart of the cereal kernel, the embryo of the seed, and a concentrated source of several essential nutrients including Vitamin E, folate (folic acid), phosphorus, thiamin, zinc and magnesium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Maintaining a healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... In the United States and Canada, oatmeal means any crushed oats, rolled oats, or cut oats used in recipes such as oatmeal cookies. ... This article is about the corn-based Southern U.S. food. ...


According to recent studies conducted by Anne Nilsson at Lund University, eating whole grain barley and other low Glycemic Index (GI) grains such as rye can regulate blood sugar for up to 10 hrs after consumption. It was previously not known that certain whole-grain products have this effect all day. This is due to a combination of low GI (glycemic index) in combination with the right amount of so-called indigestible carbohydrates, that is, dietary fibre and resistant starch, that occur in barley and rye. This study also found that subjects eating a low-GI breakfast find it easier to concentrate for the rest of the morning. “It is known that a carbohydrate-rich breakfast with low GI can moderate increases in blood sugar after lunch. But my results show that low GI in combination with the right amount of so-called indigestible carbohydrates, that is, dietary fibre and resistant starch, can keep the blood-sugar level low for up to ten hours, which means until after dinner," says Anne Nilsson, a doctoral student at the Unit for Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry and author of the dissertation.


Plant diseases

This plant is known or likely to be susceptible to barley mild mosaic bymovirus as well as Bacterial blight. Barley can be susceptible to many diseases but plant breeders have been working hard to incorporate resistance. The devastation caused by any one disease will depend upon the susceptiblity of the variety being grown and the environmental conditions during disease development. This article is a list of diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare). ... In epidemiology a susceptible individual (sometimes known simply as a susceptible) is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease, if they are exposed to the infectious agent. ... Barley mild mosaic bymovirus is a plant virus. ... Bacterial blight is a disease of barley caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. ...


Composition

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) cites the following composition of barley meal according to Ernst von Bibra, omitting the salts: Engraving by Weger Dr. Ernst Freiherr von Bibra (* June 9, 1806 in Schwebheim; † June 5 1878 in Nuremberg) was a German Naturalist (Natural history scientist) and author. ...

Water 15%
Nitrogenous compounds 12.981%
Gum 6.744%
Sugar 3.2%
Starch 59.95%
Fat 2.17%

Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large viscosity increase in solution, even at small concentrations. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  • Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards).
  • Crawford, Gary W. and Gyoung-Ah Lee. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87–95, 2003.

Barley mild mosaic bymovirus. Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Barley as a commodity traded in India
  • Genetically modified barley Aim: Resistant barley with improved malting and fodder qualities
  • Barley from NutritionData
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Barley
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hordeum vulgare

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