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Encyclopedia > Barbiturate
Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates
Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates

Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. Some are also used as anticonvulsants. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 666 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1363 × 1227 pixel, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/png) Description: Chemical structure of Barbituric acid. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 666 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1363 × 1227 pixel, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/png) Description: Chemical structure of Barbituric acid. ... Barbituric acid or malonylurea or 4-hydroxyuracyl is an organic compound based on a pyrimidine heterocyclic skeleton. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ... Sedation is a medical procedure involving administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure, such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or minor surgery with local anaesthesia. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ...


Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid. Barbituric acid or malonylurea or 4-hydroxyuracyl is an organic compound based on a pyrimidine heterocyclic skeleton. ...

Contents

History

Barbituric acid, was first synthesised on December 4, 1864, by German researcher Adolf von Baeyer. This was done by condensing urea (an animal waste product) with diethyl malonate (an ester derived from the acid of apples). There are several stories about how the substance got its name. The most likely story is that von Baeyer and his colleagues went to celebrate their discovery in a tavern where the town's artillery garrison were also celebrating the day of Saint Barbara — the patron saint of artillerists. An artillery officer is said to have christened the new substance by amalgamating Barbara with urea.[1] Barbituric acid or malonylurea or 4-hydroxyuracyl is an organic compound based on a pyrimidine heterocyclic skeleton. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 - August 20, 1917) was a German chemist who synthesized indigo, and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry . ... A condensation reaction (also known as a dehydration reaction or dehydration synthesis when water is lost) is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties react and become covalently bonded to one another by the concurrent loss of a small molecule, often water, methanol, or a type of hydrogen... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... St. ...


Barbituric acid itself does not have any effect on the CNS (Central Nervous System), however to date chemists have derived over 2,500 compounds that do possess pharmacologically active qualities. The broad class of Barbiturates is broken down further and classified according to speed of onset and duration of action. Ultra-Short acting Barbiturates are commonly used for anesthesia because their extremely short duration of action allows for greater control. These properties allow doctors to rapidly put a patient "under" in emergency surgery situations. Doctors can also bring a patient out of anesthesia just as quickly should complications arise during surgery. The middle two classes of Barbiturates are often combined under the title Short-Intermediate acting. These Barbiturates are also employed for anesthetic purposes, and are also sometimes prescribed for anxiety or insomnia. This is not a common practice anymore however, due to the addiction liablity associated with Barbiturates, they have been replaced by the Benzodiazepines for these purposes. The final class of Barbiturates are known as Long acting Barbiturates (most notably phenobarbital, which has a half-life of roughly 92 hours). This class of Barbiturates is used almost exclusively as anticonvulsants, although on rare occasions they are sometimes prescribed for daytime sedation. Barbiturates in this class are not used for insomnia, because due to their extremely long half-life, patients would awake with a residual "hang-over" effect and feel groggy. No substance of medical value was discovered, however, until 1903 when two German chemists working at Bayer, Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, discovered that barbital was very effective in putting dogs to sleep. Barbital was then marketed by Bayer under the trade name Veronal. It is said that Von Mering proposed this name because the most peaceful place he knew was the Italian city of Verona.[1] Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Barbital (marketed under the brand name Veronal), also called barbitone, was the first commercially marketed barbiturate. ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the legal name of a business, or the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes. ... In medicine, veronal, also known as barbital, barbitone, diethylmalonyl urea or diethylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate extensively used as a hypnotic. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Barbiturates can in most cases be used as either the free acid or as salts of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, lithium etc. Codeine- and Dionine-based salts of barbituric acid have been developed. For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Ethylmorphine is a drug in the class of both opiates (representing a minor synthetic change from morphine) and opioids (being effective in the CNSs opioid reception system) . Its effects in humans mainly stem from its metabolic conversion to morphine. ...


In 1912, Bayer introduced another barbituric acid derivative, phenobarbital, under the trade name Luminal, as a sedative-hypnotic. Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... Luminal is another name for the hypnotic, anti-epileptic drug phenobarbital. ...


In the 1950s and 1960s, reports began to be published about side effects and dependence related to barbiturates. Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


In 1970 several barbiturates were designated in the United States as controlled substances with the passage of the American Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Pentobarbital, secobarbital and amobarbital were designated schedule II drugs, butabarbital schedule III, and barbital and phenobarbital schedule IV. This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Pentobarbital is a short acting barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. ... Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. ... Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Butabarbital Butisol® is a prescription barbiturate sleep aid. ...


In 1971 the Convention on Psychotropic Substances was signed in Vienna. Designed to regulate amphetamines, barbiturates, and other synthetics, the treaty today regulates secobarbital (III), amobarbital (schedule III), butalbital (III), cyclobarbital (III), pentobarbital (III), allobarbital (IV), methylphenobarbital (IV), phenobarbital (IV), and vinylbital (IV) as scheduled substances. Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Amphetamine is a prescription CNS stimulant commonly used to treat attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. ... Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. ... Butalbital, 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action. ... Cyclobarbital, also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Allobarbital is a barbiturate derivative invented in 1912 by Ernst Preiswerk and Ernst Grether working for CIBA. It was used primarily as an anticonvulsant [1] although it has now been replaced by newer drugs with improved safety profiles. ... Methylphenobarbital (also known as mephobarbital) is marketed in the US as Mebaral by Ovation. ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... Vinylbital, also known as butylvinyl, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ...


Table of Barbiturates


Barbiturates
Short Name R5 R5 Full Name
Allobarbital CH2CHCH2 CH2CHCH2 5,5-diallylbarbiturate
Amobarbital CH2CH3 CH2CH2CH(CH3)2 5-ethyl-5-isopentyl-barbiturate
Aprobarbital CH2CHCH2 CH(CH3)2 5-allyl-5-isopropyl-barbiturate
Alphenal CH2CHCH2 C6H5 5-allyl-5-phenyl-barbiturate
Barbital CH2CH3 CH2CH3 5,5-diethylbarbiturate
Brallobarbital CH2CHCH2 CH2CBrCH2 5-allyl-5-(2-bromo-allyl)-barbiturate
Phenobarbital CH2CH3 C6H5 5-phenyl-5-ethylbarbiturate

Mechanism of action

The principal mechanism of action of barbiturates is believed to be their affinity for the GABAA receptor (Acts on GABA : BDZ receptor cl- channel complex). GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian Central Nervous System (CNS). Barbiturates bind to the GABAA receptor at the alpha subunit, which are binding sites distinct from GABA itself and also distinct from the benzodiazepine binding site. Like benzodiazepines, barbiturates potentiate the effect of GABA at this receptor. In addition to this GABA-ergic effect, barbiturates also block the AMPA receptor, a subtype of glutamate receptor. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Taken together, the findings that barbiturates potentiate inhibitory GABAA receptors and inhibit excitatory AMPA receptors can explain the CNS-depressant effects of these agents. At higher concentration they inhibit the Ca2+ dependent release of neurotransmitters. [2] Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... AMPA Glutamic acid Schematic GluR2 subunit The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is a non-NMDA-type ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). ... Glutamate is a neurotransmitter in nerve cells which binds to all glutamate receptors located on neuron membranes, and is an example of a transmembrane receptor. ...


Therapeutic use

Barbiturates like pentobarbital and phenobarbital were long used as anxiolytics and hypnotics. Today benzodiazepines have largely supplanted them for these purposes, because benzodiazepines have less potential for abuse and less danger of lethal overdose. Today, fewer than 10 percent of all sedative/hypnotic prescriptions in the United States are for barbiturates.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... The term drug overdose (or simply overdose) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced. ...


Barbiturates are still widely used in surgical anesthesia, especially to induce anesthesia. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ...


Phenobarbital is used as an anticonvulsant for people suffering from seizure disorders such as febrile seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, status epilepticus, and eclampsia.[2] Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... A febrile seizure, also known as a fever fit or febrile convulsion is a generalized convulsion caused by elevated body temperature. ... Tonic-clonic seizures (also known as Grand Mal Seizures, though this term is now discouraged and rarely used in a clinical setting) are a type of generalised seizure affecting the whole brain. ...


Effects on the body

Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting, depending on how quickly they act and how long their effects last.[3] Ultrashort barbiturates such as thiopental (Pentothal) produce unconsciousness within about a minute of intravenous (IV) injection. These drugs are used to prepare patients for surgery; other general anesthetics like nitrous oxide are then used to keep the patient from waking up before the surgery is complete. Because Pentothal and other ultrashort-acting barbiturates are typically used in hospital settings, they are not very likely to be abused, noted the DEA.[4] Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (™ of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ... A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...


Abusers tend to prefer short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates.[5] The most commonly abused are amobarbital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), and secobarbital (Seconal). A combination of amobarbital and secobarbital (called Tuinal) is also highly abused. Short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates are usually prescribed as sedatives and sleeping pills. These pills begin acting fifteen to forty minutes after they are swallowed, and their effects last from five to six hours. Veterinarians use pentobarbital to anesthetise animals before surgery; in large doses, it can be used to euthanise animals.[4] Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. ... Pentobarbital is a short acting barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. ... Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. ... Tuinal is the brand name of a drug that combines two barbiturates — secobarbital and amobarbital — in equal proportions. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ...


Long-acting barbiturates such as phenobarbital (Luminal) and mephobarbital (Mebaral) are prescribed for two main reasons. When taken at bedtime, they help treat insomnia. When taken during the day, they have sedative effects that can aid in the treatment of tension and anxiety. These same effects have been found helpful in the treatment of convulsive conditions like epilepsy. Phenobarbital has also been used in the treatment of delirium tremens during alcohol detoxification, although benzodiazepines have a more favorable safety profile and are more often used.[6] Long-acting barbiturates take effect within one to two hours and last 12 hours or longer.[4] Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... Methylphenobarbital (also known as mephobarbital) is marketed in the US as Mebaral by Ovation. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... Alcohol detoxification or detox for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs that have similar effects in order to prevent alcohol withdrawal. ...


Similarity to alcohol

Recreational users report that a barbiturate high makes them feel "relaxed, sociable, and good-humored", according to an independent article. Users typically describe feelings of decreased anxiety, a loss of inhibitions, and an increased sense of confidence. Physical effects include slowed breathing and a lowering of both blood pressure and heart rate.


Like alcohol, barbiturates are intoxicating. During the stage after mild intoxication, the user's speech may be slurred and a loss of coordination may become noticeable. Stumbling and staggering are common. Other symptoms include shallow breathing, fatigue, frequent yawning, and irritability.


When taken in high doses, barbiturates can cause serious side effects, including "unpredictable emotional reactions and mental confusion", noted the Independent. Judgment becomes severely impaired and the user may experience mood swings.


The mental effects of barbiturates generally depend on the amount of the drug taken and the strength of the dosage. Generally, a person falls asleep when taking a prescribed dosage at bedtime. But barbiturates remain in the system for a long time. "At normal doses", explained Cynthia Kuhn and her coauthors in Buzzed: The Straight Facts About the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy, "the major concern is that they can have sedative effects that outlast their sleep-inducing properties. Driving, flying an airplane, or other activities requiring muscle coordination can be impaired for up to a day after a single dose." Some barbiturates can be detected in a user's urine sample days or even weeks after the drug was consumed.


Truth serum

Thiopental is an ultra-short acting barbiturate that is marketed under the name Sodium Pentothal. When dissolved in water, it can be swallowed or administered by intravenous injection. In large doses, it is one of three drugs used in the United States to execute prisoners on death row. In lower doses, it is sometimes used as a "truth serum". Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (™ of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Truth Serum is an independent comic book series created, written and drawn by author Jonathan Adams. ...


The drug does not itself force people to tell the truth, but is thought to decrease inhibitions, making subjects more likely to be caught off guard when questioned.[7]


Dependence, tolerance, and overdose

Barbiturate use can lead to both psychological and physical dependence. Psychological addiction can occur quickly. Signs of drug dependence include relying on a drug regularly for a desired effect. The addicted abuser believes he or she must take a barbiturate to sleep, relax, or just get through the day. Continued use of barbiturates leads to physical dependence. Particularly dangerous is the impact on short-term memory and judgement that can cause the user to re-dose because they do not remember how much they took.


As people develop a tolerance for barbiturates, they may need more of the drug or a higher dosage to get the desired effect. This can lead to an overdose, which results when a person takes a larger-than-prescribed dose of a drug. "People who get in the habit of taking sleeping pills every night to fall asleep", noted Andrew Weil and Winifred Rosen in From Chocolate to Morphine, "might start out with one a night, progress to two, then graduate to four to get the same effect. One night the dose they need to fall asleep might also be the dose that stops their breathing." Generally, barbiturate overdoses "occur because the effective dose of the drug is not too far away from the lethal dose", explained Dr. Eric H. Chudler on the Neuroscience for Kids Web site.


Symptoms of an overdose typically include severe weakness, confusion, shortness of breath, extreme drowsiness, an unusually slow heartbeat, and darting eye movements. The amount of a fatal dosage of barbiturate varies from one individual to another. However, the lethal dose is usually ten to fifteen times as large as a usual dose. An overdose affects the heart and the respiratory system. The user then falls into a coma and dies.


Clayton pointed out that barbiturates "can have a 'multiplying' effect when taken with other depressants. For example, if someone drinks alcohol and takes a barbiturate, the effect may be ten times stronger than either one taken separately." According to Weil, "many people have died because they were ignorant of this fact".


Older adults and pregnant women should consider the risks associated with barbiturate use. When a person ages, the body becomes less able to rid itself of barbiturates. As a result, people over the age of sixty-five are at higher risk of experiencing the harmful effects of barbiturates, including drug dependence and accidental overdose. When barbiturates are taken during pregnancy, the drug passes through the mother's bloodstream to her fetus. After the baby is born, it may experience withdrawal symptoms and have trouble breathing. In addition, nursing mothers who take barbiturates may transmit the drug to their babies through breast milk.


Slang terms for barbiturates include reds (Seconal), yellow jackets (Nembutal), Christmas Trees (Tuinal or barbiturate-amphetamine combinations), tuies (Tuinal), blue devils, red devils, dolls, and many others.


Other non-therapeutic use

Barbiturates in high doses are used for physician-assisted suicide (PAS), and in combination with a muscle relaxant for euthanasia and for capital punishment by lethal injection. Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


Famous users

Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Akutagawa RyÅ«nosuke Akutagawa ); (March 1, 1892 - July 24, 1927) was a Japanese writer active in Taisho period Japan. ... Rashōmon (羅生門) is a short story by Akutagawa RyÅ«nosuke based on tales from the Konjaku MonogatarishÅ«. The story was first published in 1915 in Teikoku Bungaku. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... Gertrude Bobby Hullett (?? ?? 1906 - 23 July 1956), was a resident of Eastbourne and patient of the suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... John Bodkin Adams, (January 21, 1899–July 4, 1983) was a general practitioner in Eastbourne cleared of murdering one of his patients. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson;[1] June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe-winning[2] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[3] cultural icon, fashion icon,[4] pop icon, film executive and sex symbol. ... This article is about the actor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jean Seberg (November 13, 1938 – September 8, 1979) was an American actress who spent an important part of her career in France. ... Michael Rabin (May 2, 1936 - January 19, 1972, USA) was a violin virtuoso who studied under Ivan Galamian, who regarded Rabin as having an extraordinary talent – no weaknesses, never. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs. ... For other persons named Tim Buckley, see Tim Buckley (disambiguation). ... Jeffrey Scott Buckley (November 17, 1966 – May 29, 1997), raised as Scotty Moorhead,[1] was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Ruan Lingyu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; April 26, 1910 – March 8, 1935) was a Chinese silent film actress. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... Elvis redirects here. ... Margaux Louise Hemingway (February 16, 1955 – July 1, 1996) was a film actress and model who appeared in several movies. ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... Dorothy Mae Kilgallen (July 3, 1913 – November 8, 1965) was an Irish-American journalist and television game show panelist, perhaps best known nationally for her coverage of the Sam Sheppard trial, her syndicated newspaper column, The Voice of Broadway, and her role as panelist on the television game show What... Seconal is a trademark name for the barbiturate sodium quinalbarbitone. ... It has been suggested that Olympia 74 be merged into this article or section. ... Diane Arbus (March 14, 1923 – July 26, 1971) was an American photographer, noted for her portraits of people on the fringes of society, such as transvestites, dwarfs, giants, prostitutes, and ordinary citizens in unconventional poses and settings. ... Pier Angeli (born Anna Maria Pierangeli) (June 19, 1932 - September 10, 1971) was an Italian-born actress who made her debut in Domani é troppo tardi (1949). ... Inger Stevens (October 18, 1934 – April 30, 1970) was an American movie and TV actress. ... Donald Sinclair (1910 - June 28, 1995) was a British veterinary surgeon made famous as the eccentric character Siegried Farnon in the semi-autobiographical books of James Herriot (Alf Wight), later adapted for film and television as All Creatures Great and Small. ... Michael Reeves (October 17, 1943 - February 11, 1969) was an English film director. ... Jean Seberg (November 13, 1938 – September 8, 1979) was an American actress who spent an important part of her career in France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Edith Minturn Edie Sedgwick (April 20, 1943 – November 16, 1971)[1] was an American actress, socialite, and heiress who starred in several of Andy Warhols short films in the 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Carry On films were a long-running series of British low-budget comedy films, directed by Gerald Thomas and produced by Peter Rogers. ... Aimee Semple McPherson (October 9, 1890 – September 27, 1944), also known as Sister Aimee or Sister, was a Canadian-born evangelist and media sensation in the 1920s and 1930s; she was also the founder of the Foursquare Church. ... George Dyer (1755-1841) was an English classicist and writer. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Larry Eugene Phillips, Jr. ... Emil Matasareanu Emil Dechebal Matasareanu is best known as one of two men who robbed a Bank of America in North Hollywood, California, on February 28, 1997. ... Phenobarbital (also phenobarbitone or luminal) is a weak acid with the chemical formula C12H12N2O3. ... Wilson performing at Woodstock. ... For other uses, see Canned Heat (disambiguation). ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b Barbiturates. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  2. ^ a b Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith L.; Goodman, Louis Sanford; Gilman, Alfred Goodman. Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071422803. 
  3. ^ Barbiturates: How Is It Taken?. azdrugs.org (2005–2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  4. ^ a b c DEA Brief on Barbiturates
  5. ^ Coupey SM. "Barbiturates." Pediatrics in Review. 1997 Aug;18(8):260-4. PMID 9255991
  6. ^ Kosten TR, O'Connor PG. "Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal." New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 May 1;348(18):1786-95. PMID 12724485
  7. ^ Neuroscience for Kids - Barbiturates. Retrieved on 6-2-2008.
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1958 Issue 3 - 003 (2563 words)
Initial observations of addicts who employ barbiturates as a base powder during the smoking of heroin suggested that some of these individuals might suffer from the deleterious effects of chronic barbiturate intake, or in fact be addicted to both barbiturates and heroin.
Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine (1) the nature of the base powder, (2) the amount of base powder used by addicts, (3) the effect of volatilization of the base powder and (4) the amount of volatilized base powder inhaled by the addicts.
The addicting dose of the barbiturates varies with the potency of the compound, and therefore larger amounts of barbitone would be required to produce addiction.
eMedicine - Toxicity, Barbiturate : Article by Rania Habal, MD (5265 words)
Barbiturates are used mainly as intravenous (IV) anesthetics, as anticonvulsants, and in the resuscitation of patients with cerebral injuries.
Barbiturates are weak acids that are absorbed rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and are distributed to all tissues and fluids.
Because barbiturates and other sedative-hypnotics have predictable effects on the EEG, the pattern of EEG waves may be used to evaluate the depth of coma and the progress of patients in the intensive care unit.
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