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Encyclopedia > Barbary Pirates
Battle between the British frigate HMS Mary Rose and seven Algerine pirates, 1669.
Battle between the British frigate HMS Mary Rose and seven Algerine pirates, 1669.

Though at least a proportion of them are better described as privateers, the Barbary pirates were pirates that operated out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salè and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time of the Crusades as well as on ships on their way to Asia around Africa until the early 19th century. Their stronghold was along the stretch of northern Africa known as the Barbary Coast (a medieval term for the Maghreb after its Berber inhabitants), although their predation was said to extend throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard, and into the North Atlantic, purportedly as far north as Iceland. As well as preying on shipping, raids were often made on European coastal towns. The pirates were responsible for capturing large numbers of Christian slaves from Europe, who were sold in slave markets in places such as Morocco. Image File history File links HMS_Mary_Rose_and_pirates. ... Image File history File links HMS_Mary_Rose_and_pirates. ... Nine ships of the Royal Navy have been named Mary Rose. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... This article is about sea pirates. ... Tripoli Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Map of Algeria showing Algiers province Algiers (French Alger, (Arabic: ولاية الجزائر) El-Jazair, The Islands) is the capital and largest city of Algeria in North Africa. ... Salé is the twin city to Rabat, captital of Morocco. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of the earths surface. ...


Although Barbary pirate attacks were more common in south and east Spain and the Balearic Islands, they also attacked the Atlantic northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. In 1617, the African corsairs launched their major attack in the region when they destroyed and sacked Bouzas, Cangas and the churches of Moaña and Darbo. Another attempt on Vigo was defeated by the city's garrison. Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4 992 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 14th  916 968  2,2%  183,69/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Catalan  â€“ Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Nickname: Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: ? Location Situation of Cangas within Galicia Government Parroquias  ? Alcalde (Mayor)  ? (?) Geographical characteristics Area km² Land  ? km² km² Water  ? km² km² Population  ? Total (2005)  ? (INE) Density  ?/km² Latitude  ? Longitude  ? Time zone CET (UTC+1) Summer (DST) CET (UTC+2) Cangas is a municipality in Galicia, Spain... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... Nickname: Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: ? Location Situation of Moaña within Galicia Government Parroquias  ? Alcalde (Mayor)  ? (?) Geographical characteristics Area km² Land  ? km² km² Water  ? km² km² Population  ? Total (2005)  ? (INE) Density  ?/km² Latitude  ? Longitude  ? Time zone CET (UTC+1) Summer (DST) CET (UTC+2) Moaña is a municipality in... Flag Seal Nickname: The Olive City Location Situation of Vigo within Galicia Government Parroquias Alcabre, Beade, Bembrive, Cabral, Candeán, Castrelos, Comesaña, Coruxo, Lavadores, Matamá, Navia, Oia, Saiáns, Sampaio, Sárdoma, Valadares, Zamáns. ...


Perhaps the best-known was Barbarossa (meaning red beard) the nickname of Khair ad Din, who after having been invited to defend the city of Algiers from the Spaniards killed its ruler and seized it in 1510, making it into a major base for privateering, as well as a regent for the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Khair ad Din A statue in Barbaros Park near the ferry stop in Beşiktaş Khair ad Din (circa 1475-1546) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and privateer who served in the Ottoman Empire and in the Barbary Coast. ... Map of Algeria showing Algiers province Algiers (French Alger, (Arabic: ولاية الجزائر) El-Jazair, The Islands) is the capital and largest city of Algeria in North Africa. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


Some of them were renegades or Moriscos. Their usual ship was the galley with slaves or prisoners at the oars. Two examples of these renegades are Süleyman Reis "De Veenboer" who became admiral of the Algerian corsair fleet in 1617, and his quartermaster Murad Reis, born Jan Janszoon van Haarlem. Both worked for the notorious corsair (privateer) Simon the Dancer, who owned a palace. These pirates were all originally Dutch. The Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter unsuccessfully tried to end their piracy. Look up renegade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, Lieutenant-Admiral of the United Provinces by Ferdinand Bol, painted 1667 Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 - 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous admirals in Dutch history. ...


Raids by Barbary pirates on Western Europe did not cease until 1816, when a Royal Navy raid, assisted by six Dutch vessels, destroyed the port of Algiers and its fleet of Barbary ships. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ...

Contents


Conflict with the Knights of Rhodes and Malta

The Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Knights of St. John, began their occupation of Rhodes in 1309. They began a new identity as the "Knights of Rhodes" and began to engage the Barbary Pirates in naval warfare, as part of their greater war on the Ottoman Empire. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St John of Jerusalem) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine hospitaller Order founded in Jerusalem, following the First Crusade, ca. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


To protect Rome from Islamic invasion, in 1530 Charles V deeded the island stronghold of Malta to the knights. The newly christened "Knights of Malta" widened their war against the pirates and their Ottoman masters to include the entire Mediterranean. In July of 1551, the Ottomans and Barbary Pirates retaliated by attacking the Maltese island of Gozo, kidnapping and enslaving the entire population of 5,000 to 6,000, taking them to Tarhuna Wa Msalata in Libya. Another reprisal occurred in 1561 when Nicolo Carriaciolo, the Bishop of Catani, was seized from a Maltese galley and held from ransom in Tripoli. [1] Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Gozo is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, second in size to Malta Island. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ...


From the 16th century until 1798, Malta served as a bastion defending Europe against the corsairs and pirates of Algeria and Barbary, and Christian nations respected her and kept friendly relations with the Order. Thus, Malta flourished in this golden age of the Order's history, and the pirate's booty was brought to the island, sold, and the money filled the Treasury of the Order. [2]


In 1798, Napoleon seized Malta enroute to his campaign in Egypt. Requesting safe harbor to resupply his ships, he waited until his ships were safely in port, and then brazenly turned his guns on his hosts. The Knights of Malta were unable to defend themselves from this internal attack and were forced to leave their island stronghold. Having held the Barbary Pirates in check for centuries, Napoleon's treachery created a power vacuum in the Mediterranean which the pirates greedily exploited. 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Barbary pirates and the U.S. Navy

When the U.S. became a country it had little in the way of a navy to protect its merchant ships, so in 1784, Congress appropriated $60,000 as tribute to the Barbary states. But continued attacks prompted the building of the United States Navy, including one of America's most famous ships, the USS Philadelphia, leading to a series of wars along the North African coast, starting in 1801. It was not until 1815 that naval victories ended tribute payments by the U.S., although some European nations continued annual payments until the 1830s. 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The second USS Philadelphia of the United States Navy was a 36 gun sailing frigate. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria...


The United States Marine Corps actions in these wars led to the line, "to the shores of Tripoli" in the opening of the Marine Hymn. This article is becoming very long. ... Tripoli Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... The Marines hymn is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps. ...


Barbary pirates in literature

Barbary pirates appear in a number of famous novels, including Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, The Sea Hawk by Rafael Sabatini, The Algerine Captive by Royall Tyler, Master and Commander by Patrick O'Brian, and the Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. Robinson Crusoe and Man Friday by Carl Offterdinger Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published in 1719 and sometimes regarded as the first novel in English. ... Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1660 [?] â€“ April 1731) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... The Count of Monte Cristo (Le comte de Monte Cristo) is a classic adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... 1940s paperback edition The Sea Hawk is a novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1915. ... Rafael Sabatini (April 29, 1875 - February 13, 1950) was an Italian/British writer of novels of romance and adventure. ... The Algerine Captive: or the Life and Adventures of Doctor Updike Underhill: Six Years a Prisoner among the Algerines is a novel published in 1797 by early American playwright and novelist Royall Tyler. ... The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad, is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centring on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen Maturin, who is also a physician... Patrick OBrian (December 12, 1914 – January 2, 2000; original name Richard Patrick Russ) was a novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and an Irish–Catalan... The Baroque Cycle is a series of books written by Neal Stephenson and published in 2003 and 2004. ... Neal Stephenson Neal Town Stephenson (b. ...


Miguel de Cervantes was captive in the bagnio of Algiers, and reflected his experience in some of his books, including Don Quixote. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bagnios were the slave prisons of Turkey and the Barbary regencies. ... Don Quixote de la Mancha (now usually spelled Don Quijote by Spanish-speakers; Don Quixote is an archaic spelling) (IPA: ) or El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


See also

The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Burning of the frigate Philadelphia in the harbor of Tripoli, February 16, 1804, by Edward Moran, painted 1897, depicts a naval action of the First Barbary War. ... The Second Barbary War (1815, also known as the Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, known collectively as the Barbary States. ... The Barbary Treaties refer to several treaties between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, known collectively as the Barbary States. ... Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... Eight ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Hornet, after the stinging insect. ... The American Captain William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey, circa 1800. ...

Further reading

  • London, Joshua E.Victory in Tripoli: How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a NationNew Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

References

A History of Pirates by Angus Konstam


Leiner, Frederick C. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa. Oxford University Press, 2006


Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. Hill & Wang, 2005


Iceland sources: Barbary To and Fro by Jens Riise Kristensen, Ørby publishing 2005. (www.oerby.dk) http://www.goiceland.org/history.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestmannaeyjar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heimaey http://www.halfdan.is/news/newsletter_020.htm http://www.cruiseatlantic.com/djupivogur.cfm http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0850769.html http://www.eas.ualberta.ca/elj/icepics/east.htm


  Results from FactBites:
 
Barbary pirates - LoveToKnow 1911 (1666 words)
They had the help of Moslem adventurers from the Levant, of whom the most successful were Arouj and his brother Khair-ed-Din, natives of Mitylene, both of whom were known to the Christians by the nickname of Barbarossa or "Redbeard." Spain in self-defence began to conquer the coast towns of Oran, Algiers and Tunis.
Bougie was the chief shipbuilding port and the timber was mainly drawn from the country behind it.
This port was so much the most formidable that the name of Algerine came to be used as synonymous with Barbary pirate, but the same trade was carried on, though with less energy, from Tripoli and Tunis - as also from towns in the empire of Morocco, of which the most notorious was Salli.
Barbary pirates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (887 words)
Their stronghold was along the stretch of northern Africa known as the Barbary Coast (a medieval term for the Maghreb after its Berber inhabitants), although their predation was said to extend throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard, and into the North Atlantic, purportedly as far north as Iceland.
Although Barbary pirate attacks were more common in south and east Spain and the Balearic Islands, they also attacked the Atlantic northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Barbary pirates appear in a number of famous novels, including Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, The Sea Hawk by Rafael Sabatini, The Algerine Captive by Royall Tyler, Master and Commander by Patrick O'Brian, and the Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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