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Encyclopedia > Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. 1478-1546) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades. He was born on the island of Midilli (Lesbos in today's Greece) and died in Istanbul. Image File history File links Barbarossa_Hayreddin_Pasha. ... Image File history File links Barbarossa_Hayreddin_Pasha. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Lesbos Island shown off the coast of Turkey, northwest of Izmir Lesbos (in Greek, Λέσβος see also List of traditional Greek place names; and in Turkish, Midilli Adası) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: Konstandinúpoli, historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and economic center. ...


His original name was Yakupoğlu Hızır (Hızır son of Yakup). Hayreddin or Khair ad-Din, which literally means "Goodness of the Faith", was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He became known as Barbarossa (Redbeard) in Europe, a name he inherited from his older brother Baba Oruç (Father Aruj) after Oruç was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Coincidentally, this name sounded like "Barbarossa" (Redbeard) to the Europeans, and he did have a red beard. Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Baba Aruj Aruj, turkish Oruç (c. ...

Contents

Background

Hızır was one of four brothers who were born in the 1470s on the island of Lesbos (Λέσβος) to their Muslim Turkish father, Yakup Ağa, and his Christian Greek wife, Katerina, who some say was the widow of a Christian priest. According to Ottoman archives Yakup Ağa was a Tımarlı Sipahi, i.e. a Turkish feudal cavalry knight, whose family had its origins in Eceabat and Balıkesir and later moved to the city of Vardar, near Thessaloniki. Yakup Ağa was among those appointed by Sultan Mehmed II to capture Lesbos from the Genoese in 1462, and he was granted the fief of Bonova village as a reward for fighting for the cause. He married a local Greek girl from Mytilene named Katerina, and they had two daughters and four sons: Ishak, Oruç, Hızır and Ilyas. Yakup became an established potter and purchased a boat to trade his products. The four sons helped their father with his business, but not much is known about the sisters. At first Oruç helped with the boat, while Hızır helped with pottery. Events and Trends battle of Avenches 1476 Prominent Persons Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer and mathematician A map of Europe in the 1470s. ... The Lesbos Island shown off the coast of Turkey, northwest of Izmir Lesbos (in Greek, Λέσβος see also List of traditional Greek place names; and in Turkish, Midilli Adası) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Eceabat is a district of Çanakkale Province, Turkey. ... Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province in Turkey and has a population of 215,436. ... Vardar in Skopje Axios redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mehmed II (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى Meḥmed-i sānÄ«) was first the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... Baba Aruj Aruj, turkish Oruç (c. ...


Early Career

All four brothers became seamen, engaged in marine affairs and international sea trade. The first brother to become involved in seamanship was Oruç, who was joined by his brother Ilyas. Later, obtaining his own ship, Hızır also began his career at sea. The brothers initially worked as sailors, but then turned privateers in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering of the Knights of St. John of the Island of Rhodes. Oruç and Ilyas operated in the Levant, between Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt. Hızır operated in the Aegean Sea and based his operations mostly in Thessaloniki. Ishak, the eldest, remained on Mytilene and was involved with the financial affairs of the family business. This article is about the concept in naval history. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes, (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Aegean Sea. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ...


Death of Ilyas, Captivity and Liberation of Oruç

Oruç was a very successful seaman. He also learned to speak Italian, Spanish, French, Greek and Arabic in the early years of his career. While returning from a trading expedition in Tripoli, Lebanon with his younger brother Ilyas, they were attacked by the Knights of St. John. Ilyas was killed in the fight, and Oruç was wounded. Their father's boat was captured, and Oruç was taken as a prisoner and detained in the Knights' castle at Bodrum for nearly three years. Upon learning the location of his brother, Hızır went to Bodrum and managed to help Oruç escape. Baba Aruj Aruj, turkish Oruç (c. ... Tripoli (Arabic طرابلس Trablos, academically transliterated Ṭarābulus) is the second-largest city in Lebanon. ... Bodrum (formerly Halicarnassus - in Greek Αλικαρνασσός-, and also, during the Middle Ages Petronium) is a Turkish port in MuÄŸla Province. ...


Oruç Reis the Corsair

Oruç later went to Antalya, where he was given 18 galleys by Shehzade Korkud, an Ottoman prince and governor of the city, and charged with fighting against the Knights of St. John who were inflicting serious damage on Ottoman shipping and trade. In the following years, when Shehzade Korkud became governor of Manisa, he gave Oruç Reis a larger fleet of 24 galleys at the port of Izmir and ordered him to participate in the Ottoman naval expedition to Puglia in Italy, where Oruç bombarded several coastal castles and captured two ships. On his way back to Lesbos, he stopped at Euboea and captured three galleons and another ship. Reaching Mytilene with these captured vessels, Oruç Reis learned that Shehzade Korkud, brother of the new Ottoman sultan, had fled to Egypt in order to avoid being killed because of succession disputes -- a common practice at that time. Fearing trouble due to his well-known association with the exiled Ottoman prince, Oruç Reis sailed to Egypt, where he met Shehzade Korkud in Cairo and managed to get an audience with the Mameluke Sultan Qansuh al-Ghawri, who gave him another ship and appointed him with the task of raiding the coasts of Italy and the islands of the Mediterranean that were controlled by Christians. After passing the winter in Cairo, he set sail from Alexandria and frequently operated along the coasts of Liguria and Sicily. Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is the capital city of the Antalya Province, located on the Gulf of Antalya on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. ... Manisa is the capital of the Turkish province of Manisa. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°zmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling Ä°zmir, contraction of its former name Smyrna), the second-largest port (after Ä°stanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey, is located on the Aegean Sea near the Gulf... Apulia is a region of Italy (called Puglia in Italian), bordering on Molise to the north-west, Campania to the south-west, Basilicata to the south, the Adriatic Sea to the east and the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) comes from... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri was the last of the Mamluk Sultans. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ...


Hızır's Career under Oruç Reis

In 1503 Oruç Reis managed to seize three more ships and made the island of Djerba his new base, thus moving his operations to the Western Mediterranean. Hızır joined Oruç Reis at Djerba. In 1504 the brothers contacted Abu Abdullah Mohammed Hamis, Sultan of Tunisia from the Beni Hafs dynasty, and asked permission to use the strategically located port of La Goulette for their operations. They were granted this right with the condition of leaving one third of their gains to the sultan. Oruç Reis, in command of small galliots, captured two much larger Papal galleys near the island of Elba. Later, near Lipari, the two brothers captured a Sicilian warship, the Cavalleria, with 380 Spanish soldiers and 60 Spanish knights from Aragon on board, who were on their way from Spain to Naples. In 1505 they raided the coasts of Calabria. These accomplishments increased their fame and they were joined by several other well-known Muslim corsairs, including Kurtoğlu (known in the West as Curtogoli.) In 1508 they raided the coasts of Liguria, particularly Diano Marina. Djerba [1] (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جزيرة جربة) is the largest island off North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabes off the coast of Tunisia. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... La Goulette (Arabic: ‎, Halq al Wadi) is the port of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. ... Map of the Papal States. ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... Lipari Castle above the town of Lipari. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish; Aragonese and Catalan also used Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... Calabria (Latin: Bruttium or Brutium), is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Province of Imperia (IM) Mayor Elevation m Area 6. ...


In 1509 Ishak also left Mytilene and joined his brothers at La Goulette. The fame of Oruç Reis increased when between 1504 and 1510 he transported Muslim Mudejars from Christian Spain to North Africa. His efforts of helping the Muslims of Spain in need and transporting them to safer lands earned him the honorific name Baba Oruç (Father Aruj), which eventually - due the similarity in sound - evolved in Spain, France and Italy into Barbarossa (meaning Redbeard in Italian). Mudejar Medieval Spanish corruption of the Arabic word Mudajjan &#1605;&#1583;&#1580;&#1606;, meaning domesticated. The term means those who accepted submission to non Muslim authorities in lands taken over by Christians in the Mediterranean. ... Meanings of Barbarossa (Italian: Red Beard): Barbarossa was the nickname of two famous people in history: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Khair ad Din, Barbary pirate and Ottoman admiral. ...


In 1510 the three brothers raided Cape Passero in Sicily and repulsed a Spanish attack on Bougie, Oran and Algiers. In August 1511 they raided the areas around Reggio Calabria in southern Italy. In August 1512 the exiled ruler of Bougie invited the brothers to drive out the Spaniards, and during the battle Oruç Reis lost his left arm. This incident earned him the nickname Gümüş Kol (Silver Arm in Turkish), in reference to the silver prosthetic device which he used in place of his missing limb. Later that year the three brothers raided the coasts of Andalusia in Spain, capturing a galliot of the Lomellini family of Genoa who owned the Tabarca island in that area. They subsequently landed on Minorca and captured a coastal castle, and then headed towards Liguria where they captured four Genoese galleys near Genoa. The Genoese sent a fleet to liberate their ships, but the brothers captured their flagship as well. After capturing a total of 23 ships in less than a month, the brothers sailed back to La Goulette. Bejaïa is a port in Béjaïa province, Algeria. ... View of Oran Oran (population 700,000) (Arabic: , Wahran) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... Location within Italy Map of Italy showing Reggio Calabria in the south Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... The Island of Tabarca or Nova Tabarca (in Spanish Nova Tabarca) is an Spanish island located in the Mediterranean Sea, close to the town of Santa Pola, in the province of Alicante. ... Flag of Minorca This is a taula from the site of Talatì de Dalt about 4km west of Maó Minorca (Menorca both in Catalan and Spanish and increasingly in English usage; from Latin Balearis Minor, later Minorica minor island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears Catalan official name...


There they built three more galliots and a gunpowder production facility. In 1513 they captured four English ships on their way to France, raided Valencia where they captured four more ships, and then headed for Alicante and captured a Spanish galley near Málaga. In 1513 and 1514 the three brothers engaged the Spanish fleet on several other occasions and moved to their new base in Cherchell, east of Algiers. In 1514, with 12 galliots and 1,000 Turks, they destroyed two Spanish fortresses at Bougie, and when the Spanish fleet under the command of Miguel de Gurrea, viceroy of Majorca, arrived for assistance, they headed towards Ceuta and raided that city before capturing Jijel in Algeria, which was under Genoese control. They later captured Mahdiya in Tunisia. Afterwards they raided the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, the Balearic Islands and the Spanish mainland, capturing three large ships there. In 1515 they captured several galleons, a galley and three barques at Majorca. Still in 1515 Oruç Reis sent precious gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I who, in return, sent him two galleys and two swords embellished with diamonds. In 1516, joined by Kurtoğlu (Curtogoli), the brothers besieged the Castle of Elba, before heading once more towards Liguria where they captured 12 ships and damaged 28 others. // Valencia is the name of two large cities in different parts of the world: Spain: Valencia, capital of the Valencia Autonomous Community. ... Location of Alicante in Spain Alicante (Castillian Spanish) or Alacant (Valencian) is the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of the Alacantí, in the southern part of the Valencian community, Spain, a historic Mediterranean port. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385,50 km²  - Land 385,50 km²  - Water 0. ... Cherchell or Cherchel is a seaport of Algeria. ... Majorca (Mallorca in Catalan and Spanish, sometimes also encountered in English),: from Latin insula maior, later Maiorica, (major island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Illes Balears, Spanish: Islas Baleares), which are located in the Mediterranean Sea and are a part of Spain. ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... Jijel (also called Djidjelli) is the capital of Jijel Province. ... Mahdia is a coastal town in Tunisia, founded by the Fatimids and named after their self-proclaimed Mahdi. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: Sardegna; Sardinian: Sardigna or Sardinna) in the is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Capital Palma Official language(s) Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Selim I (October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520); also known as the Grim or the Brave, (Yavuz in Turkish; Arabic: سليم الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ...


Rulers of Algiers

In 1516 the three brothers succeeded in liberating Jijel and Algiers from the Spaniards, but eventually assumed control over the city and surrounding region, forcing the previous ruler, Abu Hamo Musa III of the Beni Ziyad dynasty, to flee. The local Spaniards in Algiers sought refuge on the island of Peñón near Algiers and asked Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, to intervene, but the Spanish fleet failed to force the brothers out of Algiers. // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. ...


Algiers joins the Ottoman Empire

After consolidating his power and declaring himself Sultan of Algiers, Oruç Reis sought to enhance his territory inlands and took Miliana, Medea and Tenes. He became known for attaching sails to cannons for transport through the deserts of North Africa. In 1517 the brothers raided Capo Limiti and later the Island of Capo Rizzuto in Calabria. Miliana (Arabic: ‎) is a town in Ain Defla Province, Algeria. ... Médéa, or Lemdiyya (Arabic: المدية), population 123,535 (1998 census) is the capital city of the province of the same name, Algeria Categories: | ... In Greek mythology, Tenes was a son of King Cycnus of Colonae. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Isola di Capo Rizzuto is a town in the province of Crotone, Calabria, Italy. ...


For Oruç Reis the best protection against Spain was to join the Ottoman Empire, his homeland and Spain's main rival. For this he had to relinquish his title of Sultan of Algiers to the Ottomans. He did this in 1517 and offered Algiers to the Ottoman Sultan. The Sultan accepted Algiers as an Ottoman Sanjak (Province), appointed Oruç Governor of Algiers and Chief Sea Governor of the Western Mediterranean, and promised to support him with janissaries, galleys and cannons. January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Chamberlain of Sultan Murad IV with janissaries The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri (yeni çeri, meaning new soldier); in Greek: Γενίτσαροι; in Bulgarian: яничари; in Croatian and Bosnian: Janjičari; in Slovenian: Janjičarji; in Hungarian: Janicsárok; in Serbian :Јањичари; in Romanian: ieniceri; in Arabic: الانكشارية) comprised infantry units that formed...


Final Engagements and Death of Oruç Reis and Ishak

The Spaniards ordered Abu Zayan, whom they had appointed as the new ruler of Tlemcen and Oran, to attack Oruç Reis from land, but Oruç Reis learned of the plan and pre-emptively struck against Tlemcen, capturing the city and executing Abu Zayan. The only survivor of Abu Zayan's dynasty was Sheikh Buhammud, who escaped to Oran and called for Spain's assistance. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... View of Oran Oran (population 700,000) (Arabic: , Wahran) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ...


In May 1518, Emperor Charles V arrived at Oran and was received at the port by Sheikh Buhammud and the Spanish governor of the city, Diego de Cordoba, marquess of Comares, who commanded a force of 10,000 Spanish soldiers. Joined by thousands of local Bedouins, the Spaniards marched overland towards Tlemcen. Oruç Reis and Ishak awaited them in the city with 1,500 Turkish and 5,000 Moorish soldiers. They defended Tlemcen for 20 days, but were eventually killed in combat by the forces of Garcia de Tineo. Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic badawi &#1576;&#1583;&#1608;&#1610;, a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the eastern coast of the Arabian desert. ...


Hızır Reis, now given the title of Beylerbey by Sultan Selim I, along with janissaries, galleys and cannons, inherited his brother's place, his name (Barbarossa) and his mission. Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... Selim I (October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520); also known as the Grim or the Brave, (Yavuz in Turkish; Arabic: سليم الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Meanings of Barbarossa (Italian: Red Beard): Barbarossa was the nickname of two famous people in history: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Khair ad Din, Barbary pirate and Ottoman admiral. ...


Later Career

Pasha of Algiers

With a fresh force of Turkish soldiers sent by the Ottoman sultan, Barbarossa recaptured Tlemcen in December 1518. He continued the policy of bringing Moriscos from Spain to North Africa, thereby assuring himself of a sizeable following of grateful and loyal Muslims, who harbored an intense hatred for Spain. He captured Bone, and in 1519 he defeated a Spanish-Italian army that tried to recapture Algiers. In a separate incident he sank a Spanish ship and captured eight others. Still in 1519 he raided Provence, Toulon and the Îles d'Hyères in southern France. In 1521 he raided the Balearic Islands and later captured several Spanish ships returning from the New World off Cadiz. In 1522 he sent his ships, under the command of Kurtoğlu, to participate in the Ottoman conquest of Rhodes which resulted in the departure of the Knights of St. John from that island on 1 January 1523. Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur. ... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ... The ÃŽles dHyères (or ÃŽles dOr) is a group of three islands off Hyères in the Var département, in the south-east of France. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes, (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ...


In June 1525 he raided the coasts of Sardinia. In May 1526 he landed at Crotone in Calabria and sacked the city, sank a Spanish galley and a Spanish fusta in the harbor, assaulted Castignano in Marche on the Adriatic Sea and later landed at Cape Spartivento. In June 1526 he landed at Reggio Calabria and later destroyed the fort at the port of Messina. He then appeared on the coasts of Tuscany, but retreated after seeing the fleet of Andrea Doria and the Knights of St. John off the coast of Piombino. In July 1526 Barbarossa appeared once again in Messina and raided the coasts of Campania. In 1527 he raided many ports and castles on the coasts of Italy and Spain. Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Country Italy Region Marche Province Province of Ascoli Piceno (AP) Mayor Elevation 473 m Area 38. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Andrea Doria (November 30, 1466-November 25, 1560) was a Genoese condottiero and admiral. ... Piombino is a town and commune in the province of Livorno (Tuscany), Italy, on the medium coast of Tyrrhenian sea, in front of Elba Island and at the northern side of Maremma. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ...


In May 1529 he captured the Spanish fort on the island of Peñón that controlled the harbor of Algiers. In August 1529 he attacked the Mediterranean coasts of Spain and later helped 70,000 Moriscos to escape from Andalusia in seven consecutive journeys. In January 1530 he again raided the coasts of Sicily and in March and June of that year the Balearic Islands and Marseilles. In July 1530 he appeared along the coasts of the Provence and Liguria, capturing two Genoese ships. In August 1530 he raided the coasts of Sardinia and in October appeared at Piombino, capturing a barque from Viareggio and three French galleons, before capturing two more ships off Calabria. In December 1530 he captured the Castle of Cabrera, in the Balearic Islands, and started to use the island as a logistic base for his operations in the area. Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Viareggio is a town in the province of Lucca situated on the coast of the Ligurian Sea in the north of Tuscany, Italy. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Cabrera is one of the minor Balearic Islands belonging to Spain, just south of Majorca, in the Mediterranean Sea, at approximately 39° 9 N, 3° E. It is the largest of a small archipelago of islands and islets, including (from south to north) the Estells de Fora, LImperial, Cabrera...


In 1531 he encountered Andrea Doria, who had been appointed by Charles V to recapture Jijel and Peñón, and repulsed the Spanish-Genoese fleet of 40 galleys. Still in 1531 he raided the island of Favignana, where the flagship of the Maltese Knights under the command of Francesco Touchebeuf unsuccessfully attacked his fleet. Barbarossa then sailed eastwards and landed in Calabria and Puglia. On the way back to Algiers he sank a ship of the Maltese Knights near Messina before assaulting Tripoli which had been given to the Knights of St. John by Charles V in 1530. In October 1531 he again raided the coasts of Spain. January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... Favignana (Italian: Isola di Favignana) is an island and a commune of the Aegadian Islands. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ...


In 1532, during Suleiman I's expedition to Habsburg Austria, Andrea Doria captured Coron, Patras and Lepanto on the coasts of the Morea (Peloponnese). In response, Suleiman sent the forces of Yahya Pashazade Mehmed Bey, who recaptured these cities. But the event made Suleiman realize the importance of having a powerful commander at sea. He summoned Barbarossa to Istanbul, who set sail in August 1532. Having raided Sardinia, Bonifacio in Corsica, the Islands of Montecristo, Elba and Lampedusa, he captured 18 galleys near Messina and learned from the captured prisoners that Doria was headed to Preveza. Barbarossa proceeded to raid the nearby coasts of Calabria and then sailed towards Preveza. Doria's forces fled after a short battle, but only after Barbarossa had captured seven of their galleys. He arrived at Preveza with a total of 44 galleys, but sent 25 of them back to Algiers and headed to Istanbul with 19 ships. There he was received by Sultan Suleiman at Topkapi Palace. Suleiman appointed Barbarossa Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of North Africa. Barbarossa was also given the government of the Sanjak (Province) of Rhodes and those of Euboea and Chios in the Aegean Sea. Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 &#8211; September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor For the history of these states before 1804, see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. ... Coron can refer to the following things: Coron, a municipality in Palawan in the Philippines Coron Island, under the jurisdiction of the municipality Coron, Maine-et-Loire, a commune in the Maine-et-Loire département in France This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other... Patras (Demotic Greek Πάτρα, Classical Greek Πάτραι Pátrai, Latin Patrae, Ottoman Turkish Ballıbadra) is the third-largest city of Greece and the capital of the prefecture of Achaea, located in northern Peloponnese, 215 kilometers to the west of Athens. ... Naupactus is also a scientific name, see Naupactus (beetle) Nafpaktos, Latin: Naupactus or Naupactos (Italian, Lepanto; modern Greek, &#925;&#945;&#973;&#960;&#945;&#954;&#964;&#959;&#962;, rarely Epakto), is a town in the nomarchy of Acarnania and Aetolia, Greece, situated on a bay on the north side of the... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (&#924;&#969;&#961;&#941;&#945;&#962;) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Bonifacio (Bunifaziu in Corsican) is a town and commune of approximately 4,000 people near the southern tip of the island of Corsica, in the département of Corse_du_Sud, France. ... Capital Ajaccio Land area¹ 8,680 km² President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Population   - Jan. ... Montecristo, part of the Tuscan archipelago. ... The Mediterranean island of Lampedusa ( ) is the largest of the Pelagie Islands and is situated 205 km from Sicily and 113 km from Tunisia. ... Preveza is a town in north-western Greece. ... Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. ... Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes, (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names; Turkish: ; Genoese: Scio) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea 5 miles off the Turkish coasts. ... The Aegean Sea. ...


Kaptan-ı Derya of the Ottoman Navy

Barbarossa Castle in Capri still carries the name of the Ottoman admiral who captured the island in 1535. The Turks eventually departed from Capri, but another famous Ottoman admiral, Turgut Reis, recaptured both the island and the castle in 1553.
Barbarossa Castle in Capri still carries the name of the Ottoman admiral who captured the island in 1535. The Turks eventually departed from Capri, but another famous Ottoman admiral, Turgut Reis, recaptured both the island and the castle in 1553.
Statue of Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa near the Turkish Naval Museum on the Bosphorus in Istanbul
Statue of Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa near the Turkish Naval Museum on the Bosphorus in Istanbul

In 1534 Barbarossa set sail from Istanbul with 80 galleys and in April he recaptured Coron, Patras and Lepanto from the Spaniards. In July 1534 he crossed the Strait of Messina and raided the Calabrian coasts, capturing a substantial number of ships around Reggio Calabria as well as the Castle of San Lucido. He later destroyed the port of Cetraro and the ships harbored there. Still in July 1534 he appeared in Campania and sacked the islands of Capri and Procida, before bombarding the ports in the Gulf of Naples. He then appeared in Lazio, shelled Gaeta and in August landed at Villa Santa Lucia, Sant'Isidoro, Sperlonga, Fondi, Terracina and Ostia on the River Tiber, causing the church bells in Rome to ring the alarm. He then sailed south, appearing at Ponza, Sicily and Sardinia, before capturing Tunis in August 1534 and sending the Hafsid Sultan Mulei Hassan fleeing. He also captured the strategic port of La Goulette. Image File history File links Barbarossa_Castle_in_Capri. ... Image File history File links Barbarossa_Castle_in_Capri. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... ImageMetadata File history File links Barbaros_Park_Statue. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Barbaros_Park_Statue. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Coron can refer to the following things: Coron, a municipality in Palawan in the Philippines Coron Island, under the jurisdiction of the municipality Coron, Maine-et-Loire, a commune in the Maine-et-Loire département in France This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other... Patras (Demotic Greek Πάτρα, Classical Greek Πάτραι Pátrai, Latin Patrae, Ottoman Turkish Ballıbadra) is the third-largest city of Greece and the capital of the prefecture of Achaea, located in northern Peloponnese, 215 kilometers to the west of Athens. ... Naupactus is also a scientific name, see Naupactus (beetle) Nafpaktos, Latin: Naupactus or Naupactos (Italian, Lepanto; modern Greek, &#925;&#945;&#973;&#960;&#945;&#954;&#964;&#959;&#962;, rarely Epakto), is a town in the nomarchy of Acarnania and Aetolia, Greece, situated on a bay on the north side of the... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ... Location of Cosenza province in Italy San Lucido is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. ... Location of Cosenza province in Italy Cetraro is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... View of Corricella from Cape Pizzaco. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... Villa Santa Lucia is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Latium, located about 110 km southeast of Rome and about 35 km southeast of Frosinone. ... Sperlonga is a coastal town in Italy, about half way between Rome and Naples. ... Fondi is a small town in Italy, halfway between Rome and Naples. ... Terracina is a comune and episcopal see of the province of Latina - (until 1934 of the province of Rome), Italy, 76 km SE of Rome by rail (56 km by the Via Appia). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,500 km²  (580 sq mi... Ponza and the Pontine Islands. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... La Goulette (Arabic: ‎, Halq al Wadi) is the port of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. ...


Mulei Hassan asked Emperor Charles V for assistance to recover his kingdom, and a Spanish-Italian force of 300 galleys and 24,000 soldiers recaptured Tunis as well as Bone and Mahdiya in 1535. Recognizing the futility of armed resistance, Barbarossa had abandoned Tunis well before the arrival of the invaders, sailing away into the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he bombarded ports, landed once again at Capri and reconstructed a fort (which still today carries his name) after largely destroying it during the siege of the island. He then sailed to Algiers, from where he raided the coastal towns of Spain, destroyed the ports of Majorca and Minorca, captured several Spanish and Genoese galleys and liberated their Muslim oar slaves. In September 1535 he repulsed another Spanish attack on Tlemcen. Annaba (ِArabic عنّابة, formerly Bône) is a city in the north-eastern corner of Algeria near the river Wadi Seybouse and the Tunisian border. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ...


In 1536 Barbarossa was called back to Istanbul to take command of the naval attack on the Habsburg Kingdom of Naples. In July 1537 he landed at Otranto and captured the city, as well as the Fortress of Castro and the city of Ugento in Puglia. Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Country Italy Region Puglia Province Lecce (LE) Mayor Elevation 15 m Area 76 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 5,487  - Density 69/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Idruntini or Otrantini Dialing code 0836 Postal code 73028 Patron Blesses Otrantine Martyrs  - Day August 14 Website... Ugento is a town in Italy. ...


In August 1537, Lütfi Pasha and Barbarossa led a huge Ottoman force which captured the Aegean and Ionian islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, namely Syros, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos and Naxos. In the same year Barbarossa captured Corfu from Venice and once again raided Calabria. These losses caused Venice to ask Pope Paul III to organize a "Holy League" against the Ottomans. The Aegean Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000 CE. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Aegina town centre Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... Ios (Greek: Ίος) is an island in the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea. ... Paros, or Paro (Greek: Πάρος), is an island of Greece in the Aegean Sea, one of the largest of the group of the Cyclades. ... Tinos (Greek: Τήνος; Italian: Tine) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea. ... Karpathos (Greek: Κάρπαθος, Turkish : Kerpe, Italian :Scarpanto, Latin :Carpathus; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the second largest of the Greek Dodecanese islands, in southeast Aegean sea. ... Kasos is a Greek island in the Dodecanese. ... The primary use of &#8220;Naxos&#8221; is as the name of a Greek island in the Cyclades. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


In February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in assembling a Holy League (comprising the Papacy, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Maltese Knights) against the Ottomans, but Barbarossa defeated its combined fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria, at the Battle of Preveza in September 1538. This victory secured Turkish dominance over the Mediterranean for the next 33 years, until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The double-headed eagle The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Andrea Doria (November 30, 1466-November 25, 1560) was a Genoese condottiero and admiral. ... The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ...


In the summer of 1539 Barbarossa captured the islands of Skiathos, Skyros, Andros and Serifos and recaptured Castelnuovo from the Venetians, who had taken it from the Ottomans after the battle of Preveza. He also captured the nearby Castle of Risan and later assaulted the Venetian fortress of Cattaro and the Spanish fortress of Santa Veneranda near Pesaro. Barbarossa later took the remaining Christian outposts in the Ionian and Aegean Seas. Venice finally signed a peace treaty with Sultan Suleiman in October 1540, agreeing to recognize the Turkish territorial gains and to pay 300,000 gold ducats. Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Skiathos (Greek: Σκιάθος), Latin forms: Sciathos and Sciathus is a city and a small island in the Aegean Sea belonging to Greece. ... Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is the southernmost island of the Sporades, a Greek archipelago in the Aegean Sea. ... Andros, or Andro (Greek: Άνδρος), an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 10 km (6 miles) south east of Euboea, and about 3 km (about 2 miles) north of Tinos. ... Seriphos (or Serifos) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, located in the western Cyclades, south of Kythnos and northwest of Siphnos. ... Coordinates Mayor Dejan Mandić Municipality area 235 km² Population  - city  - municipality 12,739 33,034 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 1382 Area code +381 88 Car plates HN Official Website www. ... Risan (Latin Rhizinium, Greek Rhizon) is the oldest settlement in the Bay of Kotor on the shores of the Adriatic sea in southern Montenegro, geographically located at 43°21′ N 18°42′ E. Lying in the innermost portion of the bay, the settlement was protected from the interior by inaccessible... This article or section should be merged with Kotor Cattaro or Kotor is the chief town of an administrative district in Austria. ... Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ...


In September 1540, Emperor Charles V contacted Barbarossa and offered him to become his Admiral-in-Chief as well as the ruler of Spain's territories in North Africa, but he refused. Unable to persuade Barbarossa to switch sides, in October 1541, Charles himself laid siege to Algiers, seeking to end the corsair threat to the Spanish domains and Christian shipping in the western Mediterranean. The season was not ideal for such a campaign, and both Andrea Doria, who commanded the fleet, and the old Hernan Cortes, who had been asked by Charles to participate in the campaign, attempted to change the Emperor's mind but failed. Eventually a violent storm disrupted Charles' landing operations. Andrea Doria took his fleet away into open waters to avoid being wrecked on the shore, but much of the Spanish fleet went aground. After some indecisive fighting on land, Charles had to abandon the effort and withdraw his severely battered force. Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán(do) Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ...


In 1543 Barbarossa headed towards Marseilles to assist France, then an ally of the Ottoman Empire, and cruised the western Mediterranean with a fleet of 210 ships (70 galleys, 40 galliots and 100 other warships carrying 14,000 Turkish soldiers, thus an overall total of 30,000 Ottoman troops.) On his way, while passing through the Strait of Messina, he asked Diego Gaetani, the governor of Reggio Calabria, to surrender his city. Gaetani responded with cannon fire, which killed three Turkish sailors. Barbarossa, angered by the response, besieged and captured the city. He then landed on the coasts of Campania and Lazio, and from the mouth of the Tiber threatened Rome, but France intervened in favor of the Pope's city. Barbarossa then raided several Italian and Spanish islands and coastal settlements before laying siege to Nice and capturing the city on 5 August 1543 on behalf of the French king Francois I. He later landed at Antibes and the Île Sainte-Marguerite near Cannes, before sacking the city of San Remo, other ports of Liguria, Monaco and La Turbie. He spent the winter with his fleet and 30,000 Turkish soldiers in Toulon, but occasionally sent his ships from there to bombard the coasts of Spain. The Cathedral of St. Mary in Toulon was transformed into a mosque for the Turkish soldiers, and Ottoman money was accepted for transactions by the French salesmen in the city. // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: [1] (Latin: Nice the city) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat  (UMP) (since 1995... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Francis I, Renaissance prince, lover of women, patron of the arts Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 - July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims... Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol in classical norm or Antibo in Mistralian norm) is a resort town of southeastern France, on the Mediterranean Sea in the Côte dAzur, located between Cannes and Nice. ... View of the north side of the island, including the Fort Royal and the village of Sainte-Marguerite. ... Cannes (pronounced ) (Provençal Occitan: Canas in classical norm or Cano in Mistralian norm) is a city and commune in southern France, located on the Riviera, in the Alpes-Maritimes département. ... The name San Remo can refer to several different things: San Remo, Italy &#8211; a large town in Italy San Remo, Victoria &#8211; a town in Victoria, Australia The San Remo &#8211; an apartment building in New York City This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists... La Turbie or the Trophy of the Alps is a Roman monument on the Côte dAzur. ... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ...


In the spring of 1544, after assaulting San Remo for the second time and landing at Borghetto Santo Spirito and Ceriale, Barbarossa defeated another Spanish-Italian fleet and raided deeply into the Kingdom of Naples. He then sailed to Genoa with his 210 ships and threatened to attack the city unless it freed Turgut Reis, who had been serving as a galley slave on a Genoese ship and then imprisoned in the city since his capture in Corsica by Giannettino Doria in 1540. Barbarossa was invited by Andrea Doria to discuss the issue at his palace in the Fassolo district of Genoa, and the two admirals negotiated the release of Turgut Reis in exchange for 3,500 gold ducats. Barbarossa then successfully repulsed further Spanish attacks on southern France, but was recalled to Istanbul after Charles V and Suleiman had agreed to a truce in 1544. Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Province of Savona (SV) Mayor Elevation 2 m Area 5. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Province of Savona (SV) Mayor Elevation m Area 11. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Capital Ajaccio Land area¹ 8,680 km² President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Population   - Jan. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... Andrea Doria (November 30, 1466-November 25, 1560) was a Genoese condottiero and admiral. ...


After leaving the Provence from the port of Île Sainte-Marguerite in May 1544, Barbarossa assaulted San Remo for the third time, and when he appeared before Vado Ligure, the Republic of Genoa sent him a substantial sum to save other Genoese cities from further attacks. In June 1544 Barbarossa appeared before Elba. Threatening to bombard Piombino unless the city released the son of Sinan Reis who had been captured 10 years earlier by the Spaniards in Tunis, he obtained his release. He then captured Castiglione della Pescaia, Talamone and Orbetello in the province of Grosseto in Tuscany. There he destroyed the tomb and burned the remains of Bartolomeo Peretti, who had burned his father's house in Mytilene the previous year, in 1543. He then captured Montiano and occupied Porto Ercole and the Isle of Giglio. He later assaulted Civitavecchia, but Leone Strozzi, the French envoy, convinced Barbarossa to lift the siege. Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Vado Ligure is a town in the province of Savona, Liguria, Italy. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Castiglione della Pescaia is a seaside town built upon a hill. ... Talamone from the sea. ... Grosseto is a town and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Grosseto province. ... Grosseto is a town and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Grosseto province. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Montiano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 25 km southeast of Forlì. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,573 and an area of 9. ... Monte Argentario is a comune (municipality) and a peninsula in the Province of Grosseto in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 150 km south of Florence and about 35 km south of Grosseto. ... Isola del Giglio is a commune site on the omonymous island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, part of the Province of Grosseto. ... Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio, a sea port on the Tyrrhenian sea, 50 miles WNW of Rome, 42°06N 11°47E. According to the 2003 census, its population was 50,100. ...


The Turkish fleet then assaulted the coasts Sardinia before appearing at Ischia and landing there in July 1544, capturing the city as well as Forio and the Isle of Procida before threatening Pozzuoli. Encountering 30 galleys under Giannettino Doria, Barbarossa forced them to sail away towards Sicily and seek refuge in Messina. Due to strong winds the Turks were unable to attack Salerno but managed to land at Cape Palinuro nearby. Barbarossa then entered the Strait of Messina and landed at Catona, Fiumara and Calanna near Reggio Calabria and later at Cariati and at Lipari, which was his final landing on the Italian peninsula. There he bombarded the citadel for 15 days after the city refused to surrender, and eventually captured it. The island of Ischia near Naples, Italy. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Forio (known also as Forio of Ischia; pron. ... View of Corricella from Cape Pizzaco. ... Pozzuoli is a city of the province of Napoli, in the Italian region of Campania. ... Salerno is a town and a province capital in Campania, south-western Italy, located on the gulf of the same name on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Cape Palinuro is located in southeastern Italy, aproximately 40 miles southwest of Salerno. ... Fiumara is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 110 km southwest of Catanzaro and about 12 km northeast of Reggio Calabria. ... Calanna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 110 km southwest of Catanzaro and about 9 km northeast of Reggio Calabria. ... Location of Cosenza province in Italy Cariati is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. ... Lipari Castle above the town of Lipari. ...


He finally returned to Istanbul, and in 1545 left the city for his final naval expeditions, during which he bombarded the ports of the Spanish mainland and landed at Majorca and Minorca for the last time. He then sailed back to Istanbul and built a palace on the Bosphorus, in the present-day district of Büyükdere. Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


Retirement and Death

Barbarossa retired in Istanbul in 1545, leaving his son Hasan Pasha as his successor in Algiers. He then dictated his memoirs to Muradi Sinan Reis. They consist of five hand-written volumes known as "Gazavat-ı Hayreddin Paşa" (Memories of Hayreddin Pasha). Today they are exhibited at the Topkapi Palace and Istanbul University Library. They are fictionalised as "Akdeniz Bizimdi" (The Mediterranean was Ours) by M. Ertuğrul Düzdağ. Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. ... Istanbul University (Turkish Ä°stanbul Ãœniversitesi ) was founded as an institution of higher education named Darülfünun in 1863. ...


Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha died in 1546 in his palace in Istanbul. // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ...


Legacy

Barbaros Boulevard in Istanbul
Barbaros Boulevard in Istanbul

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha established Turkish supremacy in the Mediterranean which lasted until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. But even after their defeat in Lepanto, the Ottoman Turks quickly rebuilt their fleet, regained their lost territories, ventured into the Atlantic Ocean between 1585 and 1631 (going all the way to Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland), and continued to be a major Mediterranean sea power for three more centuries. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (500x693, 556 KB) Barbaros Boulevard in Istanbul starts from the mausoleum of Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa on the Bosphorus and goes all the way up to Levent and Maslak business districts and beyond. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (500x693, 556 KB) Barbaros Boulevard in Istanbul starts from the mausoleum of Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa on the Bosphorus and goes all the way up to Levent and Maslak business districts and beyond. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: Konstandinúpoli, historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and economic center. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429...


However, during these centuries of great seamen such as Kemal Reis before him, his contemporaries Turgut Reis and Piri Reis, or Piyale Pasha and Murat Reis after him, few other Turkish admirals ever achieved the overwhelming and unrivaled naval power of Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa. Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Piri Reis (originally Hadji Muhammad) was an Ottoman admiral born around 1465, in Gallipoli on the Dardanelles. ... Piyale Pasha (circa 1515-1578), also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain (Turkish: Piyale PaÅŸa), was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a high ranking Ottoman Vizier after 1568. ... Murat Reis Mosque in Rhodes Murat Reis the Older (Turkish: ) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ...


His mausoleum is in the Barbaros Park of Beşiktaş, Istanbul, where his statue also stands, right next to the Turkish Naval Museum. On the back of the statue are verses by the Turkish poet Yahya Kemal Beyatlı which may be translated as follows: This article is about a district in Ä°stanbul. ...


Whence on the sea's horizon comes that roar?
Can it be Barbarossa now returning
From Tunis or Algiers or from the Isles?
Two hundred vessels ride upon the waves,
Coming from lands the rising Crescent lights:
O blessed ships, from what seas are ye come?


(translation by John Freely in Strolling through Istanbul, p. 467, Sev Yayıncılık, 1997)


Barbaros Boulevard starts from his mausoleum on the Bosphorus and runs all the way up to the Levent and Maslak business districts and beyond. Levent District Levent is the central business district of Istanbul, located on the European side. ... Skyline of Maslak business district at sunset Maslak is one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the northern European part of the city. ...


In the centuries following his death, even today, Turkish seamen salute his mausoleum with a cannon shot before leaving for naval operations and battles.


Several warships of the Turkish Navy have been named after him. Seal of the Turkish Navy Branch of Turkish Armed Forces, Turkish Navy (Turkish: Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri) can participate in international operations and exercises beyond Mediterranean Sea. ...


Literature

  • Bradford, Ernle, The sultan's admiral: the life of Barbarossa, London, 1968.
  • Wolf, John B., The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, New York, 1979; ISBN 0-393-01205-0
  • Bono, Salvatore: Corsari nel Mediterraneo (Corsairs in the Mediterranean), Oscar Storia Mondadori. Perugia, 1993.

External links

  • Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
  • A brief article
  • An article on the Barbarossa brothers
  • Another article on the Barbarossa brothers
  • Original Gazawat by Seyyid Muradi

 
 

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