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"Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization[citation needed], or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, warlike, insensitive person whose behaviour is unacceptable in the society of the speaker.[citation needed] Barbarian may refer to: A Barbarian - the Greek/Roman term originally applied to any foreigner, now often used to denote a savage Barbarian F.C., a Rugby union team Barbarian kings of Italy: a list of the highly civilized Ostrogothic rulers, who avoided the term king. Barbarian, a one or... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Central New York City. ...


Origin of the term

The word "barbarian" comes into English from Medieval Latin barbarinus, from Latin barbaria, from Latin barbarus, from the ancient Greek word βάρβαρος (bárbaros). The word is onomatopeic, the bar-bar representing the impression of random hubbub produced by hearing a spoken language that one cannot understand, similar to blah blah, babble or rhubarb in modern English. Related imitative forms are found in other Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit barbara-, "stammering" or "curly-haired." Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In linguistics and poetry, onomatopoeia is the device of a word, or occasionally, a grouping of words, with a sound imitating the sound it is describing, such as bang, click, fizz, hush or buzz. Onomatopoetic words exist in every language, although they are different in each. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Babble is a British internet telephony service. ... For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Depending on its use, the term "barbarian" either described a non-Greek (or non-Roman) individual or tribe whose first language was non-Greek or a Greek individual or tribe speaking Greek crudely. The Greeks used the term as they encountered scores of different foreign cultures, including the Thracians, Egyptians, Persians, Indians, Celts, Germans, Phoenicians, Etruscans, Romans, and Carthaginians. However in certain occasions, the term was also used by Greeks, especially Athenians to deride other Greek tribes and states (such as Macedonians, Epirotes, Eleans and Aeolic-speakers) in a pejorative and politically motivated manner.[1] Of course, the term also carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning.[2][3] The verb barbarizein in ancient Greek meant imitating the linguistic sounds non-Greeks made or making grammatical errors in Greek. For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Linguists use the term Aeolic to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


Plato (Statesman 262de) rejected the Greek–barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once (Iliad 2.867), in the form barbarophonos ("of incomprehensible speech"), used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure largely in archaic literature before the 5th century BC.[4] Still it has been suggested that "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but simply those who spoke Greek badly.[5] For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Carians (Greek Καρες Kares, or Καρικοι Karikoi) were the eponymous inhabitants of Caria. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Achaemenid Empire. Indeed in the Greek of this period 'barbarian' is often used expressly to mean Persian.[6] Persian Wars redirects here. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Persia redirects here. ...


In the well-known opening sentence of Herodotus' account of that war, he gives the following statements as his reason for writing: Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...

To the end that (...) the works, great and marvellous, which have been produced some by Hellenes and some by Barbarians, may not lose their renown; and especially that the causes may be remembered for which these waged war with one another.

This clearly implies an equality: both Hellenes and barbarians are capable of producing "great and marvelous works" and both are deserving of being remembered. Nevertheless, in the wake of this victory, Greeks began to see themselves as superior militarily, politically, and culturally. A stereotype developed in which hardy Greeks live as free men in city-states where politics are a communal possession, whereas among the womanish barbarians everyone beneath the Great King is no better than his slave. This marks the birth of the cultural view termed "orientalism." For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ...


A parallel factor was the growth of chattel slavery especially at Athens. Although enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debt continued in most Greek states, it was banned at Athens under Solon in the early 6th century BC. Under the Athenian democracy established ca. 508 BC slavery came to be used on a scale never before seen among the Greeks. Massive concentrations of slaves were worked under especially brutal conditions in the silver mines at Laureion—a major vein of silver-bearing ore was found there in 483 BC—while the phenomenon of skilled slave craftsmen producing manufactured goods in small factories and workshops became increasingly common. Furthermore, slaves were no longer the preserve of the rich: all but the poorest of Athenian households came to have slaves to supplement the work of their free members. Overwhelmingly, the slaves of Athens were "barbarian" in origin[citation needed], drawn especially from lands around the Black Sea such as Thrace and Taurica (Crimea), while from Asia Minor came above all Lydians, Phrygians and Carians. It is hard not to despise the people you are keeping as your slaves, even essential: in the intellectual justification of slavery (Aristotle Politics 1.2-7; 3.14), barbarians are slaves by nature. From this period words like barbarophonos, cited above from Homer, began to be used not only of the sound of a foreign language but of foreigners speaking Greek improperly. In Greek, the notions of language and reason are easily confused in the word logos, so speaking poorly was easily conflated with being stupid, an association not of course limited to the ancient Greeks. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into slavery. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... Laurium or Laurion (Λαύριον, Thoricum before early 1000s BC, Ergastiri throughout the medieval times and the mid to late 1000s, Ergastiri is Greek for Workplace) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece and is one of the southernmost and the seat of the municipality of Laverotiki, famous in... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey. ... The Carians (Greek Καρες Kares, or Καρικοι Karikoi) were the eponymous inhabitants of Caria. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Politics (Greek Πολιτικά) is a work of political philosophy. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


Further changes occurred in the connotations of barbarus in Late Antiquity,[7] when bishops and catholikoi were appointed to sees connected to cities among the "civilized" gentes barbaricae such as Armenia or Persia, while bishops were appointed to supervise entire peoples among the less settled. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Eventually the term found a hidden meaning by Christian Romans through Cassiodorus. He stated the word barbarian was "made up of barba (beard) and rus (flat land); for barbarians did not live in cities, making their abodes in the fields like wild animals". [8] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ...


The female first name "Barbara" originally meant "A Barbarian woman", and as such was likely to have had a pejorative meaning - given than most such women in Graeco-Roman society were of a low social status (often being slaves). However, Saint Barbara is mentioned as being the daughter of rich and respectable Roman citizens. Evidently, by her time (about 300 A.D according to Christian hagiography, though some historians put the story much later) the name no longer had any specific ethnic or pejorative connotations. St. ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


The Berbers of North Africa were among the many peoples called "Barbarian" by the Romans; in their case, the name remained in use, having been adopted by the Arabs (see Berber (Etymology) and is still in use as the name for the non-Arabs in North Africa (though not by themselves). The geographical term Barbary or Barbary Coast, and the name of the Barbary pirates based on that coast (and who were not necessarily Berbers) were also derived from it. The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The term Berber is but a variation of the Latin original word Barbarian, earlier in history applied by Romans specifically to their Northern hostile neighbors from Germanica (modern Germany). ... For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Hellenic stereotype

Out of those sources the Hellenic stereotype was elaborated: barbarians are like children, unable to speak or reason properly, cowardly, effeminate, luxurious, cruel, unable to control their appetites and desires, politically unable to govern themselves. These stereotypes were voiced with much shrillness by writers like Isocrates in the 4th century BC who called for a war of conquest against Persia as a panacea for Greek problems. Ironically, many of the former attributes were later ascribed to the Greeks, especially the Seleucid kingdom, by the Romans[citation needed]. Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Persia redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Panaceia, or Πανάκεια (Latin Panacea), was the goddess of healing. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ...


However, the Hellenic stereotype of barbarians was not a universal feature of Hellenic culture. Xenophon, for example, wrote the Cyropaedia, a laudatory fictionalised account of Cyrus, the founder of the Persian empire, effectively a utopian text. In his Anabasis, Xenophon's accounts of the Persians and other non-Greeks he knew or encountered hardly seem to be under the sway of these stereotypes at all. Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Cyropaedia (lit. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. ...


The renowned orator Demosthenes made derogatory comments in his speeches, using the word "barbarian." Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ...


Barbarian is used in its Hellenic sense by St. Paul in the New Testament (Romans 1:14) to describe non-Greeks, and to describe one who merely speaks a different language (1 Corinthians 14:11). The word is not used in these scriptures in the modern sense of "savage". The term retained its standard usage in the Greek language throughout the Middle Ages, as it was widely used by the Byzantine Greeks until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Look up savage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Later developments, other cultures

Historically, the term barbarian has seen widespread use. Many peoples have dismissed alien cultures and even rival civilizations as barbarians because they were recognizably strange. The Greeks admired Scythians and Eastern Gauls as heroic individuals— even in the case of Anacharsis as philosophers—but considered their culture to be barbaric. The Romans indiscriminately regarded the various Germanic tribes, the settled Gauls, and the raiding Huns as barbarians. Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anacharsis He marvelled that among the Greeks, those who were skillful in a thing vie in competition; those who have no skill, judge —Diogenes Laertius, of Anacharsis. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ...


The Romans adapted the term to refer to anything non-Greco-Roman. The Persians saw the Greeks and later Romans and Arabs as inferior people with inferior and less civilized cultures and referred to them as "Soosk" or barbarians.[citation needed] The Indians referred to all alien cultures that were less civilized in ancient times as 'Mlechcha' or Barbarians. In the ancient texts Mlechchas are people who are barbaric and who have given up the Vedic beliefs. Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ , meaning non-Aryan, barbarian) is a derogatory term for people who did not conform with conventional Hindu beliefs and practices. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

"Barbarians" according to Chinese cosmology.
"Barbarians" according to Chinese cosmology.

The Chinese (Han Chinese) of the Chinese Empire sometimes (depends on the dynasty, geographic location, and timeline) regarded the Xiongnu, Tatars, Turks, Mongols, Jurchen, Manchu, Japanese, Koreans, and Europeans as "barbaric". The Chinese used different terms for "barbarians" from different directions of the compass. Those in the east were called Dongyi (東夷), those in the west were called Xirong (西戎), those in the south were called Nanman (南蠻), and those in the north were called Beidi (北狄). However, despite the conventional translation of such terms (especially 夷) as "barbarian", in fact it is possible to translate them simply as 'outsider' or 'stranger', with far less offensive cultural connotations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... This article is about the people. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Dongyi (東夷) was a collective term for people in Eastern China and in the east of China. ... Chionites (OIONO/Xiyon/西戎/Hiun/Hion) became noted around 320 CE when they began to encroach upon Khorasan and the frontiers of the Kushan state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Beidi (北狄) is a term which originally denoted an ancient ethnic group (Di) but is now used to refer to all non-Han ethnic groups in todays Northern China, Mongolia, and Siberia, especially those who lived beyond the Great Wall. ...


The Japanese adopted the Chinese usage. When Europeans came to Japan, they were called nanban (南蛮), literally Barbarians from the South, because the Portuguese ships appeared to sail from the South. The Dutch, who arrived later, were also called either nanban or kōmō (紅毛), literally meaning "Red Hair." The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ...

The picturesquely coarse and primitive Doitsu-bashi ("German bridge") in Ōasahiko-jinja, Naruto, Tokushima, Japan.
The picturesquely coarse and primitive Doitsu-bashi ("German bridge") in Ōasahiko-jinja, Naruto, Tokushima, Japan.

In Mesoamerica the Aztec civilization used the word "Chichimeca" to denominate a group of nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes that lived in the outskirts of the Triple Alliance's Empire, in the North of Modern Mexico, which were seen for the aztec people as primitive and uncivilized. One of the meanings attributed to the word "Chichimeca" is "dog people". Naruto (鳴門市; -shi) is a city located in Tokushima, Japan. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... The Chichimeca are a group of nomads in northern Mexico. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ...


Converted barbarians have historically proved sometimes the staunchest supporters of the more developed culture they have recently subverted. Historic examples are the Lombards and the Manchu. "The best Romans," wrote Henry James, "are often northern barbarians." A running theme in all histories of China is that of the conquering outsiders who become utterly Chinese, sinicized: for the English-speaking world the outstandingly familiar example is Kublai Khan. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...


Italians in the Renaissance often called anyone who lived outside of their country a barbarian. The term has also been used to refer to people from Barbary, a region encompassing most of North Africa. The name of the region, Barbary, comes from the Arabic word Barbar, possibly from the Latin word barbaricum, meaning "land of the barbarians". This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Even today, barbarian is used to mean someone violent, primitive, uncouth or uncivilized in general, in very much the same disapproving and superior sense that Edward Gibbon used the term in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, which recounts how "the Roman world was overwhelmed by a deluge of Barbarians" a usage epitomized in Gibbon's Book I, chapter 38: Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ...

Beyond the Rhine and Danube, the northern countries of Europe and Asia were filled with innumerable tribes of hunters and shepherds, poor, voracious, and turbulent; bold in arms, and impatient to ravish the fruits of industry. The Barbarian world was agitated by the rapid impulse of war; and the peace of Gaul or Italy was shaken by the distant revolutions of China.

Compare the modern usage of Philistine. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Functional definition

A non-pejorative, simply functional concept of *barbarian*, as sociologists have redefined the term, depends upon a carefully-defined use of "civilization", denoting a settled, urban way of life that is organized on principles broader than the extended family or tribe, in which surpluses of necessities can be stored and redistributed, and division of labor produces some luxury goods (even if only for gods and kings). The barbarian is technically a social parasite on civilization, who depends on settlements as a source of slaves, surpluses and portable luxuries: booty, loot and plunder. In this limited sense, without cities there can be no barbarians.[citation needed] Central New York City. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... A Lincoln Town Car luxury sedan is an example of a luxury good. ... The Nazi propaganda poster titled New People reads: This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the people 60,000 Reichmarks during his lifetime. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


The nomad subsists on the products of his flocks, and follows their needs. The nomad may barter for necessities, like metalwork, but does not depend on civilization for plunder, as the barbarian does. The culture of the nomad is not to be confused with the barbarian. "Culture" should not simply connote "civilization": rich, deep authentic human culture exists even without civilization, as the German writers of the early Romantic generation first defined the opposing terms, though they used them as polarities in a way that a modern writer might not. For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


A famous quote from anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss says: "The barbarian is the one who believes in barbary",[9] a meaning like his metaphor in Race et histoire ("Race and history", UNESCO, 1952), that two cultures are like two different trains crossing each other: each one believes it has chosen the good direction. A broader analysis reveals that neither party 'chooses' their direction, but that their 'brutish' behaviors have formed out of necessity, being entirely dependent on and hooked to their surrounding geography and circumstances of birth. This is about the social science. ... This article is about the anthropologist. ...


Modern academia

The term "barbarian" is commonly used by medieval historians as a non-pejorative neutral descriptor of the catalog of peoples that the Roman Empire encountered whom they considered "foreigners", such as the Goths, Gepids, Huns, Picts, Sarmatians, etc.[10] Although some terms in academia do go out of style, such as "Dark Ages", the term Barbarian is in full common currency among all mainstream medieval scholars and is not out of style or outdated, though a disclaimer is often felt to be needed, as when Ralph W. Mathisen[11] prefaces a discussion of barbarian bishops in Late Antiquity, "It should also be noted that the word "barbarian" will be used here as a convenient, non-pejorative term to refer to all the non-Latin and non-Greek speaking exterae gentes[12] who dwelt around, and even eventually settled within, the Roman Empire during late antiquity". A medievalist is a person who specializes in medieval studies. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


The significance of barbarus in Late Antiquity has been specifically explored on several occasions.[13]


Examples of this modern usage can also be seen in the Dictionary of the Middle Ages, the largest and most respected encyclopaedia about the Middle Ages in the English language, which has an article titled "Barbarians, the Invasions" and uses the term barbarian throughout its 13 volumes. A 2006 book by Yale historian Walter Goffart is called Barbarian Tides and uses barbarian throughout to refer to the larger pantheon of tribes that the Roman Empire encountered. Walter Pohl, a leading pan-European expert on ethnicity and Late Antiquity, published a 1997 book titled Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity. The Encyclopædia Britannica and other general audience encyclopaedias use the term barbarian throughout within the context of late antiquity. Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1 (2003) The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989, with a supplemental volume added in 2003. ... Walter Goffart is an historian of the later Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages who specializes in research on the barbarian kingdoms of those periods. ... Walter Pohl (b. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


Romantic and post-Romantic barbarians

Main article: Noble savage

The modern sympathetic admiration for such fantasy barbarians as Conan the Barbarian is a direct descendant of the Enlightenment idealization of the "noble savage". The German Romantics recharacterized the barbarian stereotype. Now it was the civilized Roman — or that modern Romanized Gaul, the Frenchman — who was effeminate and soft, and the stout-hearted German barbarian exemplified 'manly' virtue. The reforming of Arminius as "Hermann der Cherusker" the noble barbarian countering evil Rome provided a prototype from the 16th century onwards. A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius or Hermann der Cherusker (born 16 BC – died 21 AD) was a war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, which marks the beginning of German military history. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


These fantasy barbarians are often represented as lone warriors, very different from the vibrant cultures on which they are based. Several characteristics are commonly shared:

  • Extreme physical prowess
  • Unmatched fighting skill
  • An appetite for, and the ability to attract, women (Or men in the case of female characters)
  • Meat eating (this fits several social norms. Nomadic peoples and military men often ate more meat because they were not in one place long enough to farm and harvest.)
  • An appetite for large amounts of alcohol
  • A blending of British, Germanic, Slavic, and nomadic Turco-Mongol cultures
  • A strong sorcery element that is almost never used by the barbarian character
  • A violent temper
  • A robust tolerance for pain

In fantasy novels and role-playing games, barbarians (or berserkers) are still depicted as brave uncivilized warriors, often able to attack with a crazed fury. Conan is simply best known of the type. Among the oddest of these fantasy barbarians is comic book character Cerebus. Originally presented as a spoof of Conan, the character meets all the necessary elements of the fantasy barbarian save the fact he is a 3 foot tall aardvark. Cerebus ran 300 issues and moved away from, but never completely abandoned his barbarian roots. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking horsemen of Turkic and Mongolian descent in Central Asia who served as rulers and conquerors in Central and Western Asian societies during the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... Berserkers in the kings hall, illustration by Louis Moe, 1898 Berserkers (or Berserks) were Norse warriors who were commonly understood to have fought in an uncontrollable rage or trance of fury; the berserkergang. ... Cerebus the Aardvark (or simply Cerebus) was an ambitious monthly independent comic book begun by Canadian artist Dave Sim in 1977, and running for 300 issues and 6,000 pages, through March 2004. ... For other uses, see Aardvark (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ The term barbaros, "A Greek-English Lexicon" (Liddell & Scott), at Perseus
  2. ^ Foreigners and Barbarians (adapted from Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks), The American Forum for Global Education, 2000. The status of being a foreigner, as the Greeks understood the term does not permit any easy definition. Primarily it signified such peoples as the Persians and Egyptians, whose languages were unintelligible to the Greeks, but it could also be used of Greeks who spoke in a different dialect and with a different accent...Prejudice toward Greeks on the part of Greeks was not limited to those who lived on the fringes of the Greek world. The Boeotians, inhabitants of central Greece, whose credentials were impeccable, were routinely mocked for their stupidity and gluttony. Ethnicity is a fluid concept even at the best of times. When it suited their purposes, the Greeks also divided themselves into Ionians and Dorians. The distinction was emphasized at the time of the Peloponnesian War, when the Ionian Athenians fought against the Dorian Spartans. The Spartan general Brasidas even taxed the Athenians with cowardice on account of their Ionian lineage. In other periods of history the Ionian-Dorian divide carried much less weight.
  3. ^ Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton. Athens: Its Rise and Fall. Kessinger Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1419108085, pp. 9-10. Whether the Pelasgi were anciently a foreign or Grecian tribe, has been a subject of constant and celebrated discussion. Herodotus, speaking of some settlements held to be Pelaigic, and existing in his time, terms their language "barbarous;" but Mueller, nor with argument insufficient, considers that the expression of the historian would apply only to a peculiar dialect; and the hypothesis is sustained by another passage in Herodotus, in which he applies to certain Ionian dialects the same term as that with which he stigmatizes the language of the Pelasgic settlements. In corroboration of Mueller's opinion, we may also observe, that the "barbarous-tongued" is an epithet applied by Homer to the Carians, and is rightly construed by the ancient critics as denoting a dialect mingled and unpolished, certainly not foreign. Nor when the Agamemnon of Sophocles upbraids Teucer with "his barbarous tongue," would any scholar suppose that Teucer is upbraided with not speaking Greek; he is upbraided with speaking Greek inelegantly and rudely. It is clear that they who continued with the least adulteration a language in its earliest form, would seem to utter a strange and unfamiliar jargon to ears accustomed to its more modern construction.
  4. ^ Hall, Jonathan. Hellenicity, p. 111, ISBN 0226313298. "There is at the elite level at least no hint during the archaic period of this sharp dichotomy between Greek and Barbarian or the derogatory and the stereotypical representation of the latter that emerged so clearly from the fifth century."
  5. ^ Hall, Jonathan. Hellenicity, p. 111, ISBN 0226313298. "Given the relative familiarity of the Karians to the Greeks, it has been suggested that barbarophonoi in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but simply those who spoke Greek badly."
  6. ^ Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. Ancient Greeks West and East, 1999, p. 60, ISBN 9004102302. "a barbarian from a distinguished nation which given the political circumstances of the time might well mean a Persian."
  7. ^ See in particular Ralph W. Mathison, Roman Aristocrats in Barbarian Gaul: strategies for Survival in an Age of Transition (Austin) 1993, pp. 1-6, 39-49; Gerhart B. Ladner, "On Roman attitudes towards barbarians in late antiquity" Viator 77 (1976), pp. 1-25.
  8. ^ Arno Borst. Medieval Worlds: Barbarians, Heretics and Artists in the Middle Ages. London: Polity, 1991, p. 3.
  9. ^ Le barbare, c'est d'abord celui qui croit à la barbarie.
  10. ^ Barbarian Tides (2006), by Walter Goffart, Page 3
  11. ^ Ralph W. Mathisen "Barbarian Bishops and the Churches "in Barbaricis Gentibus" During Late Antiquity" Speculum 72.3 (July 1997), p. 665.
  12. ^ Mathisen notes that Eusebius, in his Life of Constantine described the emperor as bishop "of those outside" (exterae gentes).
  13. ^ For examples, by Ralph W. Mathison, Roman Aristocrats in Barbarian Gaul: Strategies for Survival in an Age of Transition (Austin, Texas) 1993, and Gerhart B. Ladner, "On Roman attitudews towards barbarians in Late Antiquity" Viator 7 (1996:1-25).

Walter Goffart is an historian of the later Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages who specializes in research on the barbarian kingdoms of those periods. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...

See also

Barbarism may refer to: Barbarism (derived from barbarian), the condition to which a society or civilization may be reduced after a societal collapse, relative to an earlier period of cultural or technological advancement; the term may also be used pejoratively to describe another society or civilization which is deemed inferior... Look up barbarism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amongst Barbarians is a play (1989) by British playwright Michael Wall; and a British made-for-TV movie (1990) directed by Jane Howell starring David Jason, Anne Carroll, Rowena Cooper, Con ONeill and Lee Ross. ... Michael Wall, a British playwright, was born 22 November, 1946, and died 11 June, 1991, at age 45. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ... Look up its all Greek to me in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Compare

  • European, of or pertaining to the Occident, Europe, now also with pejorative connotations.

A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ...

Further reading

  • Hall, E. Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-Definition through Tragedy. Oxford/New York, 1989.
  • Terry Jones and Alan Ereira. Barbarians. BBC Books, 2006. ISBN 0-563-49318-6

Terence Graham Parry Jones (born in Colwyn Bay, Wales, on February 1, 1942) is a British comedian, screenwriter and actor, film director, childrens author, popular historian, political commentator and TV documentary host. ... BBC Books is the book publishing division of BBC Worldwide, the commercial subsidiary of the British Broadcasting Corporation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Barbarian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1658 words)
The barbarian is technically a social parasite on civilization, who depends on settlements as a source of slaves, surpluses and portable luxuries: booty, loot and plunder.
The culture of the nomad is not to be confused with the barbarian.
The modern sympathetic admiration for such fantasy barbarians as Conan the Barbarian is a direct descendant of the Enlightenment idealization of the "Noble Savage".
Barbarian - definition of Barbarian in Encyclopedia (496 words)
Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term.
Barbarian is used in its Hellenic sense by Paul in the New Testament (Romans 1:14 KJV) to describe non-Greeks, and to describe one who merely speaks a different language (1 Corinthians 14:11 KJV).
The culture of the nomad is not to be confused with the barbarian, either.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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