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Encyclopedia > Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Obama

Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 20, 2009
Vice President Joe Biden
Preceded by George W. Bush

In office
January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008
Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald
Succeeded by Roland Burris

Member of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th district
In office
January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004
Preceded by Alice Palmer
Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]
Honolulu, Hawaii[2]
Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)
Children Malia Ann (b.1998)
Natasha (Sasha) (b.2001)
Residence Chicago, IL (private)
White House, Washington, D.C. (official)
Alma mater Occidental College
Columbia University (B.A.)
Harvard Law School (J.D.)
Occupation Community Organizer
Lawyer
Constitutional law professor
Author
Religion Christian,[3] former member of United Church of Christ [4][5]
Signature Barack Obama's signature
Website The White House
This article is part of a series about
Barack Obama
Background  · Illinois Senate  · U.S. Senate
Political positions · Public image · Family
2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign
Transition · Inauguration · Electoral history
Presidency (Timeline, First 100 days)

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until November 2008, when he resigned following his election to the presidency. Barack may refer to: Barack (brandy), a Hungarian palinka brandy, barack is the Hungarian word for peach Barack (given name), Semitic name meaning he who is blessed Barack Obama, the nominee for the Democratic Party in the U.S. presidential election, 2008 and current junior U.S. senator from Illinois... Obama may refer to: Barack Obama, a United States Senator from Illinois Obama, Fukui, a city in Japan Obama, Nagasaki, a town in Japan Category: ... This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Open seat redirects here. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Biden redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Peter G. Fitzgerald (born October 20, 1960) was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 1999 until 2005. ... Roland W. Burris is a former politician and statewide officeholder in Illinois. ... The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... Alice J. Palmer (born June 20, 1939 in Indianapolis, Indiana) is a former Democratic State Senator from Illinois, representing the states 13th District. ... Kwame Raoul (born September 30, 1964) is the Illinois State Senator for the 13th district, which he has served since 2004. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Michelle Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is Vice President for Community and External Affairs for the University of Chicago Hospitals. ... The family of Barack Obama is an extended family of American, Kenyan, and Indonesian heritage known through the writings and career in politics of U.S. Senator and Democratic Nominee for the 2008 Presidential Election, Barack Obama. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Occidental College is a small private coeducational liberal arts college located in Los Angeles, California. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... B. A. redirects here. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... J.D. redirects here. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... Barack Obama was born on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Barack Obama, Sr. ... The Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama stretched from 1996 to 2004, when Barack Obama was elected to the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate career of Barack Obama began on January 4, 2005. ... Barack Obama campaigning in New Hampshire, August 2007 U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-IL), a candidate and the presumptive nominee[1] of the Democratic Party in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election, has taken positions on many political issues through his public comments and his senatorial voting record. ... Barack Obama, the Junior Senator from Illinois (Democratic Party), was nominated as the first African American candidate of a major political party for President of the United States during the third day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado on August 27, 2008. ... The family of Barack Obama is an extended family of American, Kenyan, and Indonesian heritage known through the writings and career in politics of U.S. Senator and Democratic Nominee for the 2008 Presidential Election, Barack Obama. ... Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... In keeping with tradition, President Bush left a letter (shown here on the Resolute desk) to Obama in the Oval Office. ... The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President of the United States took place on 20 January 2009. ... Senator Obama on the campaign trail Electoral history of Barack Obama, junior United States Senator from Illinois (2005-present) and, as of June 2008, Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States in 2008 // Illinois Senate, 13th district, 1996[1]: Barack Obama (D) - 48,592 (82. ... Barack Obama being sworn in as President of the United States. ... The following is a timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama, which began on January 20, 2009 after his inauguration. ... Barack Obamas Inauguration Barack Obama was inaugurated at the United States Capitol on January 20, 2009 The first 100 days of Barack Obamas presidency began with his inauguration on January 20, 2009 as the 44th President of the United States. ... This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Seniority in the United States Senate is based upon a series of ranked factors, only resorting to the next factor when tied. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Barack Obama being sworn in as President of the United States. ...


Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer in Chicago prior to earning his law degree, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the United States Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. Columbia College is the main undergraduate college at Columbia University, situated on the universitys main campus of Morningside Heights in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... The Harvard Law Review is a journal of legal scholarship published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Lyndon B. Johnson signs the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... The University of Chicago Law School, having recently celebrated its centennial in the 2002-2003 school year, has established itself as a high profile part of the University of Chicago. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... For other uses, see Keynote (disambiguation). ... 2004 Democratic National Convention logo The 2004 Democratic National Convention culminated in the arrival of John Kerry on July 29 to address the delegates. ...


While serving as a Senator, he belonged to several committees, including the Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works, Veterans' Affairs, Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works is responsible for dealing with matters related to the environment and infrastructure. ... The United States Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs is responsible for dealing with matters related to veterans. ... The United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP) has jurisdiction over matters relating to health, education, labor, and pensions. ... The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to the Department of Homeland Security and other homeland security concerns, as well as the functioning of the government itself, including the National Archives, budget and accounting measures other than appropriations, the Census, the...


After a particularly close campaign in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primary against rival Hillary Rodham Clinton, he won his party's nomination as a candidate for president, becoming the first major African American candidate for president. In the 2008 general election he defeated Republican candidate John McCain and was sworn in as president on January 20, 2009. Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... This article provides an overview of the nomination process. ... Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, and is a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... GOP redirects here. ... McCain redirects here. ... The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President of the United States took place on 20 January 2009. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States,[6][7] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[8] a European American from Wichita, Kansas,[9][10][11] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[12][13] The couple married on February 2, 1961[14], and Obama was born later that year. Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[13] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[15] Barack Obama was born on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Barack Obama, Sr. ... Kapiolani Medical Center for Women & Children is part of Hawaii Pacific Healths network of hospitals. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Barack Obama. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. ... A traditional Luo village at the Bomas of Kenya museum The Luo (also called Jaluo and Joluo) are an ethnic group in Kenya, eastern Uganda and northern Tanzania. ... Nyang’oma Kogelo is a village in Siaya District, Nyanza Province, Kenya. ... The capital of Kenyas Nyanza Province, on Lake Victoria, is Kisumu (click to enlarge map) Nyanza Province of Kenya, on Lake Victoria, is one of Kenyas seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi; it is in the southwest corner of Kenya. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ... Entrance to UH Manoa Campus UH Campus University of Hawaii, Upper Campus The University of Hawaii at Mānoa is a public, co-educational university and is the flagship campus of the greater University of Hawaii system. ...


After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[16] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, from ages six to ten. Lolo Soetoro (c. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[17] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[18] Madelyn Lee Payne Dunham (born October 26, 1922)[3] and Stanley Armour Dunham (March 23, 1918 – February 8, 1992) are the maternal grandparents of Barack Obama, the United States Senator from Illinois and candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 U.S. presidential election. ... Stanley Armour Dunham (March 23, 1918 – February 8, 1992) was the American maternal grandfather of Barack Obama, the President of the United States. ... The school was originally called Oahu College, and the main gate at the corner of Wilder and Punahou Street reflects this. ... Educational oversight Secretary Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Raymond Simon National education budget $862 billion(public and private, all levels)[1] (2004) Primary language(s) English Federal, state, private system Established Activated Literacy ()  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women % 97 (citation)% 97 (citation)% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 76. ... This article is about the social science. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. ...

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).

Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[19] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[20] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[21] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[22] Maya Kassandra Soetoro-Ng (born August 15, 1970 in Jakarta, Indonesia)[1] is the half sister of Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois who is a candidate for the Democratic Party nomination for United States President. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Barack Obama. ... Stanley Armour Dunham (March 23, 1918 – February 8, 1992) was the American maternal grandfather of Barack Obama, the President of the United States. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race, or the descendants of such mixed people. ... Booze redirects here. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Wikinews has related news: McCain and Obama participate in Saddleback Church forum The Civil Forum on the Presidency was the venue of back-to-back interviews of U.S. presidential candidates John McCain and Barack Obama by pastor Rick Warren on August 16, 2008, at Saddleback Church in Lake Forest...


Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[23] The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, based in Honolulu, Hawaii, is the second largest daily newspaper in the state of Hawaii (the largest being the Honolulu Advertiser. ...


Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College.[24] After two years he transferred in 1981 to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[25] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[26][27] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[28][29] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Occidental College is a small private coeducational liberal arts college located in Los Angeles, California. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... B. A. redirects here. ... Business International Corporation (BI) was a publishing and advisory firm dedicated to assisting American companies in the operations abroad. ... The New York Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG) is a New York State-wide non-partisan political organization. ...


After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[28][30] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[31] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[32] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[33] Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ... Roseland, located on the far south side of the city, is one of the 77 official community areas of Chicago, Illinois. ... West Pullman is a neighborhood located on the far south side of city of Chicago, Illinois. ... Riverdale, one of the 77 official community areas of Chicago, Illinois, is located on the citys far south side. ... The Victory Monument in the Black Metropolis-Bronzeville District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Altgeld Gardens is a housing project in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is the Chicago Housing Authoritys most structurally comprehensive and self-contained development. ... Gamaliel Foundation provides training and consultation and develops national strategy for its affiliated congregation-based community organizations. ... The family of Barack Obama is an extended family of American, Kenyan, and Indonesian heritage known through the writings and career in politics of U.S. Senator and Democratic Nominee for the 2008 Presidential Election, Barack Obama. ...


Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[34] and president of the journal in his second year.[35] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[36] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[37][38] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[34] Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Sidley Austin LLP, formerly known as Sidley Austin Brown & Wood LLP, is the sixth-largest U.S.-based corporate law firm with over 1,700 lawyers, annual revenues of more than one billion dollars, and offices in Chicago, New York, Washington, DC, London, and 11 other cities. ... Hopkins & Sutter was a Chicago-based law firm that practiced from 1921 to 2000, when it merged with Milwaukee-based Foley & Lardner. ... J.D. redirects here. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ...


Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[35] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[39] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[39] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[39] African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... The University of Chicago Law School, having recently celebrated its centennial in the 2002-2003 school year, has established itself as a high profile part of the University of Chicago. ... Michelle Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is Vice President for Community and External Affairs for the University of Chicago Hospitals. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance is a memoir by current United States Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. ...


From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and 700 volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[40][41] Project Vote (or Voting for America, Inc. ...


For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching constitutional law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[42] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[28][43][44] The University of Chicago Law School, having recently celebrated its centennial in the 2002-2003 school year, has established itself as a high profile part of the University of Chicago. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... In law firms and investment banks, an associate is a junior member. ... Of counsel is often the title of an attorney employed by a law firm or organization to assist in litigation but who is usually not an associate or partner. ...


Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[28][45] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[28] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[28] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[28] Public Allies is an American non-profit organization dedicated to youth leadership development. ... The Woods Fund of Chicago is a philanthropic organization devoted to poverty relief and the promotion of social mobility, founded in 1941. ... The Joyce Foundation is a charitable foundation based in Chicago, Illinois in the United States and operating principally in the Great Lakes region. ... The Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC) (also referred to as the Annenberg Challenge to Chicago) was a public-private partnership founded in 1995 to improve school performance by what it called on the ground investments in the form of professional development and technical assistance. ... The Chicago Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Inc. ... The Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) is a non-profit organization, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, which is committed to sustainable development and livable urban communities. ...


Political career: 1996–2008

State legislator: 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[46] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[47] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[48] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[49] The Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama stretched from 1996 to 2004, when Barack Obama was elected to the United States Senate. ... The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... Alice J. Palmer (born June 20, 1939 in Indianapolis, Indiana) is a former Democratic State Senator from Illinois, representing the states 13th District. ... This article is about the Chicago community area. ... Kenwood, located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, is one of the official Chicago Community Areas. ... South Shore is a largely African-American neighborhood, which is growing in diversity, on the south side of Chicago. ... Chicago Lawn, one of the 77 official community areas, is located on the southwest side of Chicago, Illinois. ... Within the Australian, Canadian, United Kingdom, and United States tax systems, a tax credit is an item which is treated as a payment already made towards taxes owed. ...


Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was reelected again in 2002.[50] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[51][52] The 2000 United States House of Representatives election for the 1st district in Illinois took place on November 7, 2000. ... Bobby Lee Rush (born November 23, 1946) is an American politician from Illinois. ...


In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[53] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[48][54] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[55] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[56] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ...


2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[57] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[58] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[59] He won the March primary with 52% of the vote.[60] The Illinois United States Senate election of 2004 was held on November 2, 2004. ... For other persons named David Axelrod, see David Axelrod. ... Peter G. Fitzgerald (born October 20, 1960) was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 1999 until 2005. ... Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (born August 16, 1947) is an American politician and lawyer who represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1993 to 1999. ... Harold Washington (April 15, 1922 – November 25, 1987) was an American lawyer and politician who became the first African American Mayor of Chicago, serving from 1983 until his death. ... Paul Martin Simon (November 29, 1928 – December 9, 2003) was an American politician from Illinois. ...


In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[61] He spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities, while questioning the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and speaking about obligations to American soldiers. He criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[62] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and elevated his status as a star in the Democratic Party.[63] 2004 Democratic National Convention logo The 2004 Democratic National Convention culminated in the arrival of John Kerry on July 29 to address the delegates. ... The Big Three Television Networks are the three traditional broadcast (over the air) TV networks in the United States: ABC, CBS and NBC. NBC and CBS were founded as radio networks in the 1920s. ...


Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[64] Two months later, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[65] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[66] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes' 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[67] Jack Ryan (born October 6, 1959) is a Republican from the state of Illinois who was forced to withdraw from the 2004 United States Senate race due to an alleged sex scandal involving his relationship with his ex-wife, actress Jeri Ryan. ... Alan Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is an American political activist, author and former diplomat. ...


U.S. Senator: 2005–2008

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[68] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[69] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[70] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[71][72] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[73] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[74][75] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[76] The United States Senate career of Barack Obama began on January 4, 2005. ... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ... The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing African American members of the Congress of the United States. ... Congressional Quarterly (CQ) produces a number of publications that report primarily on the United States Congress. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine that provides Insight for Insiders through nonpartisan reporting on the current political environment as well as emerging political and policy trends. ... A lame duck is an elected official who loses political power or is no longer responsive to the electorate as a result of a term limit which keeps him from running for that particular office again, losing an election, or the elimination of the officials office, but who continues... Warren Harding redirects here. ...


Legislation

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate
Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[77]

Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[78] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[79] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[80] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[81] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[82] List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate is a compilation of legislation sponsored by United States Senator Barack Obama in the 109th United States Congress and the 110th United States Congress. ... The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ... Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act (McCain-Kennedy Bill, S. 1033) was a comprehensive immigration reform bill introduced in the United States Senate on May 12, 2005, which was the first of its kind since the early 2000s in incorporating legalization, guest worker programs, border enforcement components. ... President George W. Bush signs the Secure Fence Act of 2006, in the Roosevelt Room on October 26, 2006. ... Senators Nunn and Lugar leave the White House in 1991 after briefing President George H. W. Bush on the Nunn–Lugar legislation The Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program (occasionally known as Nunn–Lugar based on a 1992 U.S. law sponsored by Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar) is an... The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (S. 2590)[1] is bill that would require the full disclosure of all entities or organizations receiving federal funds beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2007 on a website maintained by the Office of Management and Budget. ... Thomas Richard Tom Carper (born January 23, 1947) is an American economist and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. ... Thomas Allen Tom Coburn, M.D. (born March 14, 1948) is a medical doctor and a Republican U.S. Senator from Oklahoma. ... McCain redirects here. ...


Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[83] Obama is not hostile to tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[84] Tort reform is the phrase used by its advocates who claim it is a change in the legal system to reduce litigations alleged adverse effects on the economy. ... The U.S. Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, 28 U.S.C. Sections 1332(d), 1453, and 1711-1715, grants federal courts original jurisdiction over certain mass actions and class actions (forms of civil action) in which the amount in controversy exceeds $5 million, and any of the members... The FISA Amendments Act of 2008 (also called the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, H.R. 6304, enacted 2008-07-10) is an Act of Congress that amended the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. ... For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database. ...


In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[85] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[86] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[87] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[88] neither of which have been signed into law. The Honest Leadership and Open Government Act proposes a set of rules aimed at reducing the amount of corruption in Congress by lobbyists. ... The Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2006 (S. 4069) is a proposed bill, introduced November 16, 2006, by Sen. ... On January 30, 2007, Barack Obama introduced the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007. ...

Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[89]

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[90] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[91] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[92][93] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[94] Richard Green Dick Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. ... The State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) is a national program in the United States designed for families who earn too much money to qualify for Medicaid, yet cannot afford to buy private insurance. ...


Committees

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[95] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[96] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[97] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[98][99][100][101] U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works is responsible for dealing with matters related to the environment and infrastructure. ... The United States Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs is responsible for dealing with matters related to veterans. ... The United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP) has jurisdiction over matters relating to health, education, labor, and pensions. ... The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to the Department of Homeland Security and other homeland security concerns, as well as the functioning of the government itself, including the National Archives, budget and accounting measures other than appropriations, the Census, the... The Subcommittee on European Affairs is a subcommittee of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... The President of the Palestinian National Authority is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Palestinian government redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no content If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...

2008 presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[102][103][104] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[104] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence and providing universal health care.[105] Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Old State Capitol State Historic Site, in Springfield, Illinois, is the fifth capitol building built for the U.S. state of Illinois. ... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The House Divided speech is one of Abraham Lincolns best-known speeches. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... Universal health care, or universal healthcare, is health care coverage which is extended to all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region. ...

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.

A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after initial contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[106][107][108][109] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[110] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama was named the presumptive nominee[111][112] and delivered a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[113] Obama now campaigned in the general election against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee. On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[114] : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... This article provides an overview of the nomination process. ... Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, and is a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... -1... McCain redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Biden redirects here. ...

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech in Grant Park.

At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and called for him to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic candidate.[115][116] Obama delivered his acceptance speech to 84,000 supporters and presented his policy goals; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.[117][118] If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer. ... The Taste of Chicago is held in Grant Park annually around Independence Day. ... The 2008 Democratic National Convention will be held from August 25 to August 28 at the Pepsi Center in Denver, Colorado. ... Politics An acclamation is a form of election not using a ballot. ...


During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[119][120][121] On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[122] Campaign finance in the United States is the financing of electoral campaigns at the federal, state, and local levels. ...

Obama meets with then-President George W. Bush in the Oval Office on November 10, 2008.

After McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, three presidential debates were held between the contenders spanning September and October 2008.[123][124] In November, Obama won the presidency with 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.6%,[125] and 349 electoral votes to 173.[126][127] to become the first African American president.[128][129][130][131] In his victory speech, delivered before thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[132] Thus began the transition period from the Bush to Obama administration. The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. ... This article is about the political process. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 Cartogram representation of the Electoral College for the elections of 2004 and 2008. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer. ... The Taste of Chicago is held in Grant Park annually around Independence Day. ... In keeping with tradition, President Bush left a letter (shown here on the Resolute desk) to Obama in the Oval Office. ...


Presidency

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama
See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[133] Barack Obama being sworn in as President of the United States. ... The President of the United States has the authority to nominate members of his or her cabinet to the United States Senate for confirmation under Article II, Section II, Clause II of the United States Constitution. ... The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President of the United States took place on 20 January 2009. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Mexico City Policy and referred by critics as the "Global Gag Rule"),[134] changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[135] directed the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[136] and reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.[137] He also issued orders closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010.[138] However, Obama determined that there would be no immediate change from Bush-era policy to not give detainees at Bagram Air Force Base in Afghanistan the ability to appeal their detention in U.S. courts.[139] The Mexico City Policy, named for the place of the population conference where it was announced, was instituted by United States President Ronald Reagan in 1984 to make the issue of abortion a condition for providing funds from the US foreign aid agency USAID. Called the global gag rule by... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with freedom of information legislation. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a controversial[1] United States detention center operated by Joint Task Force Guantanamo since 2002 in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, which is on the shore of Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. ... Bagram Air Base (ICAO: OAIX) is an airport located at the ancient city of Bagram, southeast of Charikar in Parvan, Afghanistan. ...


On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law an $787 billion economic stimulus package with the intended goal of ameliorating the effects of the economic downturn brought about by the subprime mortgage crisis and the resulting credit crunch. The legislation was the third version of the bill, which had been under debate for over three weeks in the House of Representatives and Senate.[140] Stimulus bill redirects here. ... The Recession and the countries affected. ... The subprime mortgage crisis is an ongoing problem manifesting itself through liquidity issues in the banking system which have become more prevalent due to foreclosures which accelerated in the United States in late 2006 and triggered a global financial crisis during 2007 and 2008. ... This article is about the series of financial market events, starting in July 2007, which suggested a weakening in the world economies. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


On February 18, 2009, Obama announced that the U.S. military presence in Afghanistan would be bolstered by 17,000 new troops by summer.[141] The announcement followed the recommendation of several experts including Defense Secretary Robert Gates that additional troops be deployed to the strife-torn South Asian country.[142][143] The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Political positions

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[144] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU[145] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[146] Barack Obama campaigning in New Hampshire, August 2007 U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-IL), a candidate and the presumptive nominee[1] of the Democratic Party in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election, has taken positions on many political issues through his public comments and his senatorial voting record. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Americans For Democratic Action (ADA) was formed in January 1947, when Eleanor Roosevelt, John Kenneth Galbraith, Reinhold Niebuhr, Hubert Humphrey and 200 other activists. ... The American Conservative Union (ACU) is a large conservative political lobbying group in the United States. ...

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.

In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[147] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[148] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[149] He has proposed rewarding teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[150] Abington Township is a township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... FDR redirects here. ... This article concerns proposals to change the Social Security system in the United States. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... The social safety net is a term used to describe a collection of services provided by the state (such as welfare, universal healthcare, homeless shelters, and perhaps various subsidized services such as transit), which prevent any individual from falling into poverty beyond a certain level. ... Universal health care, or universal healthcare, is health care coverage which is extended to all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region. ... Merit pay provides bonuses for workers who perform their jobs better, according to measurable criteria. ... Collective bargaining is the process whereby workers organize collectively and bargain with employers regarding the workplace. ...


On taxation, his plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, raise income taxes for those making over $250,000, raise the capital gains and dividends taxes,[151] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[152] In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[153] Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ... A tax haven is a place where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... This article is about political advocates. ...        Taxation in the United States is a complex system which may involve payment to at least four different levels of government and many methods of taxation. ...


For environment, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[154] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[155] Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ...


In foreign affairs, Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[156] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[157] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,[158] and spoke out against the war.[159][160] He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[161][162] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Iraq Resolution and Iraq War Resolution are popular names for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 (Public law 107-243, 116 Stat. ... There have been considerable protests against the Iraq War in the buildup to and following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Although Obama had previously said he wanted all U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming president, after he won the primary, he said he might change or refine plans as further developments unfold.[163] In November 2006, he called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[164] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[165] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[166][167][168] In August 2007, Obama remarked that "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president, he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[169] The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is an American advocacy group that lobbies the United States Congress and White House in favor of a strong US-Israel relationship. ... The Israel lobby in the United States is defined as a loose coalition of individuals and organizations who attempt to influence American foreign policy in support of Israel. ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 sq mi). ...


Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not weaponize space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to make it less necessary to have ICBMs on high-alert status.[170] A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... Future Combat Systems (FCS) is a U.S. military program based on Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research, which is intended to be the core building block of the US Armys Future Force. ... The Titan II Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... ICBM redirects here. ...


Obama has called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[171] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[172] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and, in his view, the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[173] For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Belligerents JEM factions NRF alliance Allegedly supported by: Chad Janjaweed Sudan SLM (Minnawi) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Strength N/A N/A Casualties and losses est. ... In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset, for either financial or social goals. ... This article is about a journal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Family and personal life

Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama
Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.

In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[174] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[175] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[176] until her death on November 2, 2008.[177] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[178] Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[179] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops during World War II.[180] Barack Obama was born on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Barack Obama, Sr. ... The family of Barack Obama is an extended family of American, Kenyan, and Indonesian heritage known through the writings and career in politics of U.S. Senator and Democratic Nominee for the 2008 Presidential Election, Barack Obama. ... Michelle Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is Vice President for Community and External Affairs for the University of Chicago Hospitals. ... Bernie Mac (born Bernard Jeffrey McCullough on October 5, 1957 (sometimes incorrectly given as 1958) in Chicago, Illinois) is a two time Emmy Award-nominated American actor and comedian. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Maya Kassandra Soetoro-Ng (born August 15, 1970 in Jakarta, Indonesia)[1] is the half sister of Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois who is a candidate for the Democratic Party nomination for United States President. ... Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance is a memoir by current United States Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The 89th Infantry Division was an infantry unit of the United States Army that was activated for service in World War I and World War II. Known as the Rolling W, they have not been active since 1945. ... U.S. Generals Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley and George Patton inspects the camp after liberation Ohrdruf forced labor camp was a Nazi concentration camp located near Weimar. ...


Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[181] Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian at the conversational level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[182][183] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[184] This article is about the sport. ...

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[185]

In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[186] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[187] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[188] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[189] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[190] The Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[191] Camp Lemonier (or Camp Le Monier) is a United States Navy base, specifically a Forward Operating Site[1], situated in Djibouti and is home to Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) of the United States Central Command. ... Michelle Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is Vice President for Community and External Affairs for the University of Chicago Hospitals. ... Sidley Austin LLP, formerly known as Sidley Austin Brown & Wood LLP, is the sixth-largest U.S.-based corporate law firm with over 1,700 lawyers, annual revenues of more than one billion dollars, and offices in Chicago, New York, Washington, DC, London, and 11 other cities. ... The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (also Lab School and abbreviated UCLS; the upper classes are nicknamed U-High) is a private, co-educational day school in Chicago, Illinois. ... Sidwell Friends School is a K-12 Quaker private school located in Washington, D.C. and Bethesda, Maryland in the United States. ...


Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[192] The purchase of the property was coordinated with Tony Rezko, a major political contributor to Obama, who bought an undeveloped lot adjacent to the Obama property on the same day as Obama,[193] and later sold part of the adjacent lot to the Obamas.[193] The transaction attracted media attention because of Rezko's later indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges for unrelated activities.[194][195] Nonetheless, Obama later said that the deal was a "mistake on my part and I regret it."[193] This article is about the Chicago community area. ... Kenwood, located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, is one of the official Chicago Community Areas. ... Antoin Tony Rezko (born 1955 in Aleppo, Syria) is an American restaurateur and real estate developer in Chicago, Illinois. ...


In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[196] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[197] Money is a Time Warner financial magazine. ...


Obama is a Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Audacity of Hope : Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream is the second book written by U.S. Senator Barack Obama. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Atheist redirects here. ... The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African American Christian churches that minister to black communities in the United States. ... Trinity United Church of Christ is a predominantly black church with more than 8,500 members, located on the southeast side of Chicago. ...


While he has never been a heavy smoker,[citation needed] Obama has tried to quit smoking several times.[202] Smoking is not permitted in the White House, and Obama has said he will not smoke there.[202] A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ...


Cultural and political image

Then President George W. Bush invited then President-Elect Barack Obama and former Presidents George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter to a meeting in the Oval Office on Jan. 7, 2009.
Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

Obama's family history, early life and upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[203] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[204] Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[205] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... Barack Obama, the Junior Senator from Illinois (Democratic Party), was nominated as the first African American candidate of a major political party for President of the United States during the third day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado on August 27, 2008. ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... The National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ), was founded in 1975 by 44 men and women in Washington, D.C. Headquartered at the University of Maryland, College Park and with 3300 members, it is the largest organization of journalists of color in the nation. ...

Obama presents his first weekly address as President of the United States, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Many have acknowledged that Obama is an adept orator on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ronald Reagan.[206][207] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his success is because he is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation.[208] Obama delivered a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[209] he has suggested he will make a series of addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[210] Stimulus bill redirects here. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Jonathan Haidt is associate professor of psychology at the University of Virginia. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... FDR redirects here. ... FDR shortly after giving one of his famous fireside chats The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio talks given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944. ...


Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[211] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[212] but Obama established relationships with prominent foreign figures before his presidential candidacy, including with then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair,[213] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni,[214] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy.[215] The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a proposed political party in Italy. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Walter Veltroni (Rome, 03 July, 1955) is a Italian politician and lead member of the Democrats of the Left party. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ...


Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[216] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[217] and received an Emmy Award.[218] In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[219] The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album has been awarded since 1959. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cassette recording of Patrick OBrians The Mauritius Command done by Patrick Tull An audiobook is a recording that is primarily of the spoken word as opposed to music. ... Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance is a memoir by current United States Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. ... The Audacity of Hope : Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream is the second book written by U.S. Senator Barack Obama. ... This article is about the will. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... An Emmy Award. ... TIME redirects here. ... Time magazines Person of the Year issue for 2007 featuring Vladimir Putin Person of the Year (formerly Man of the Year) is an annual issue of the United States newsmagazine Time that features and profiles a man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of...


Notes

  1. ^ "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/. 
  2. ^ a b "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com. August 8, 1961. http://www.politifact.com/media/img/graphics/birthCertObama.jpg. Retrieved on December 12, 2008. 
  3. ^ "American President: Barack Obama". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/obama. Retrieved on January 23, 2009. 
  4. ^ United Church of Christ (January 20, 2009). Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President. Press release. http://www.ucc.org/news/obama-inauguration.html. Retrieved on January 21, 2009. "Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States." 
  5. ^ An Associated Press wire story on Obama's resignation from Trinity United Church of Christ in the course of the Jeremiah Wright controversy stated that he had, in doing so, disaffiliated himself with the UCC. (See "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com. November 17, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27775757/. Retrieved on 2009-1-20. .)
  6. ^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible". Politics (Washington Post). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/23/AR2008082301620.html. Retrieved on October 27, 2008. 
  7. ^ Harada, Wayne (February 1, 2009). "Daniel Dae Kim next to take turn as King of Siam". Honolulu Advertiser. http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/20090201/COLUMNISTS17/902010311/1153. Retrieved on February 10, 2009. "Abercrombie read a letter from President Obama, who set the record straight about his origins: 'Kapi'olani is the place of my birth.'" 
  8. ^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19
  9. ^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck. August 21, 2008. http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/born_in_the_usa.html. Retrieved on October 24 2008. 
  10. ^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish". Politics (The Chicago Sun-Times). http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/368961,CST-NWS-ireland03.article. Retrieved on November 23, 2008. 
  11. ^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/12/AR2007051201551.html. Retrieved on November 8, 2008. 
  12. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales". East African. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927225314/http://www.nationmedia.com/EastAfrican/01112004/Features/PA2-2212.html. Retrieved on April 13, 2008. 
  13. ^ a b Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nation/politics/chi-0703270151mar27-archive,0,91024,full.story. Retrieved on October 27, 2008. 
  14. ^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother". Time. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1729524,00.html. Retrieved on April 9, 2007. 
  15. ^ Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). "The Ghost of a Father". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2007/12/13/ST2007121301893.html. Retrieved on June 24, 2008.  See also: Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found". East African. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927223905/http://www.nationmedia.com/EastAfrican/01112004/Features/PA2-11.html. Retrieved on June 24, 2008.  In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (February 27, 2006). "27, 2006-voa17.cfm Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya". Voice of America. http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-08/August 27, 2006-voa17.cfm. Retrieved on June 24, 2008. 
  16. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.
  17. ^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. http://archives.starbulletin.com/2004/03/21/news/story4.html. Retrieved on April 13, 2008.  See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
  18. ^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother". Time. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1729524,00.html. Retrieved on June 24, 2008.  See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (November 29, 2006). "Obama for President... of Indonesia". Jakarta Post. http://old.thejakartapost.com/yesterdaydetail.asp?fileid=20061129.F03. Retrieved on June 24, 2008. 
  19. ^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.
  20. ^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/1230439131.html?dids=1230439131:1230439131&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Mar+11%2C+2007&author=Richard+A.+Serrano&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=A.20&desc=THE+NATION. Retrieved on January 4, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students". Associated Press. Boston Globe. November 21, 2007. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/11/21/obama_gets_blunt_with_nh_students/. Retrieved on January 4, 2008.  In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/02/AR2007010201359.html. Retrieved on January 4, 2008.  Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DB173FF937A15753C1A9609C8B63&sec=&spon=&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink. Retrieved on January 4, 2008. 
  22. ^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum". LAKE FOREST, California: CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/08/16/warren.forum/. Retrieved on January 4, 2009. 
  23. ^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. http://archives.starbulletin.com/2007/02/08/news/story02.html. Retrieved on January 4, 2008.  "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."
  24. ^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College. January 29, 2007. http://www.oxy.edu/x8270.xml. Retrieved on April 13, 2008. 
  25. ^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83". Columbia College Today. http://www.college.columbia.edu/cct_archive/jan05/cover.php. Retrieved on June 9, 2008. 
  26. ^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on May 9, 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20010509024017/http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/obama/cv.html. Retrieved on November 3, 2008. 
  27. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (August 6, 2008). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/08/06/obama_shows_hints_of_his_year_in_global_finance/?page=1. Retrieved on April 13, 2008. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. http://www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on June 6, 2008. 
  29. ^ Scott, Janny (October 30, 2007). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/us/politics/30obama.html. Retrieved on April 13, 2008.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.
  30. ^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (March 30, 2007). "Portrait of a pragmatist". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080209030448/http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0703300121mar30,1,6651421,full.story. Retrieved on June 6, 2008.  Lizza, Ryan (March 19, 2007). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link). New Republic. http://www.pickensdemocrats.org/info/TheAgitator_070319.htm. Retrieved on April 13, 2008.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.
  31. ^ Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "15, 1990&s.endDate=February 15, 1990 A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. http://search.boston.com/local/Search.do?s.sm.query=&s.author=Linda+Matchan&s.tab=globe&s.si%28simplesearchinput%29.sortBy=-articleprintpublicationdate&docType=&date=&s.startDate=February 15, 1990&s.endDate=February 15, 1990. Retrieved on June 6, 2008.  Corr, John (February 27, 1990). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_trackval=PI&s_search_type=customized&s_dispstring=Author(John%20Corr)%20AND%20date(02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced-0=(John%20Corr)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes. Retrieved on June 6, 2008. 
  32. ^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42.  reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335.  Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (March 2, 2008). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer". Newsday: p. A06. http://www.newsday.com/news/printedition/nation/ny-usobam025598601mar02,0,7841545,full.story. Retrieved on June 6, 2008. 
  33. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.
  34. ^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (January 28, 2007). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2007/01/28/at_harvard_law_a_unifying_voice/?page=full. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Kantor, Jodi (January 28, 2007). "In law school, Obama found political voice". The New York Times: p. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/us/politics/28obama.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Kodama, Marie C (January 19, 2007). "Obama left mark on HLS". The Harvard Crimson. http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=516664. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Mundy, Liza (August 12, 2007). "A series of fortunate events". The Washington Post: p. W10. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/08/AR2007080802038_pf.html. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Heilemann, John (October 22, 2007). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. http://www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=When+They+Were+Young&expire=&urlID=24417790&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnymag.com%2Fnews%2Ffeatures%2F39321%2F&partnerID=73272. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.
  35. ^ a b Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review". The New York Times: p. A20. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DC1631F935A35751C0A966958260. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Ybarra, Michael J (February 7, 1990). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 3. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/28797353.html?dids=28797353:28797353&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "15, 1990&s.endDate=February 15, 1990 A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. http://search.boston.com/local/Search.do?s.sm.query=&s.author=Linda+Matchan&s.tab=globe&s.si%28simplesearchinput%29.sortBy=-articleprintpublicationdate&docType=&date=&s.startDate=February 15, 1990&s.endDate=February 15, 1990. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Corr, John (February 27, 1990). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_trackval=PI&s_search_type=customized&s_dispstring=Author(John%20Corr)%20AND%20date(02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced-0=(John%20Corr)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Drummond, Tammerlin (March 12, 1990). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times: p. E1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/60017156.html?dids=60017156:60017156&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.  Evans, Gaynelle (March 15, 1990). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama". Black Issues in Higher Education: p. 5. http://www.diverseeducation.com/artman/publish/article_11791.shtml. Retrieved on November 15, 2008.  Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (April 18, 1990). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive). The Miami Herald: p. C01. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=MH&p_theme=realcities2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_site=miami&s_trackval=MH&s_dispstring=Title(Law%20Review's%20first%20black%20president%20aims%20to%20help%20poor)%20AND%20date(04/18/1990%20to%2004/18/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=04/18/1990%20to%2004/18/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Law%20Review's%20first%20black%20president%20aims%20to%20help%20poor)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes. Retrieved on June 15, 2008. 
  36. ^ Aguilar, Louis (July 11, 1990). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1 (Business). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/28774085.html?dids=28774085:28774085&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved on June 15, 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago" 
  37. ^ Adams, Richard (May 9, 2007). "Barack Obama". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/may/09/barackobama.uselections20081. Retrieved on October 26, 2008. 
  38. ^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/973560/Barack-Obama. Retrieved on October 26, 2008. 
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  185. ^ "Senator Barack Obama Visit to CJTF-HOA and Camp Lemonier: August 31—September 1, 2006" (video). Combined Joint Task Force—Horn of Africa (YouTube). February 6, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9GqdzQeCz0. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. 
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  187. ^ Obama (2006), p. 329.
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  189. ^ Martin, Jonathan (July 4, 2008). "Born on the 4th of July". The Politico. http://www.politico.com/blogs/jonathanmartin/0708/Born_on_the_4th_of_July.html. Retrieved on July 10, 2008. 
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  191. ^ "Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School", 'International Herald Tribune, November 22, 2008
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  193. ^ a b c McKinney, Dave and Chris Fusko (November 5, 2006). "Obama on Rezko deal: It was a mistake". The Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/124171,CST-NWS-obama05.article. Retrieved on 209-20-21. 
  194. ^ "Rezko found guilty in corruption case". The Associated Press (MSNBC.com). June 4, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24973282/. Retrieved on June 24, 2008. 
  195. ^ Slevin, Peter (December 17, 2006). "Obama Says He Regrets Land Deal With Fundraiser". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/16/AR2006121600729.html. Retrieved on June 10, 2008. 
  196. ^ "Obama's Money". CNNMoney.com. December 7, 2007. http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/moneymag/0712/gallery.candidates.moneymag/5.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. 
    See also:Goldfarb, Zachary A (March 24, 2007). "Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/24/AR2007032400305.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. 
  197. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (April 17, 2008). "Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/17/us/politics/17obama.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. 
  198. ^ Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: Obama, Barack (October 23, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579,00.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. 
  199. ^ Obama, Barack (June 28, 2006). "'Call to Renewal' Keynote Address". Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois (website). http://obama.senate.gov/speech/060628-call_to_renewal/. Retrieved on June 16, 2008. 
  200. ^ Kantor, Jodi (April 30, 2007). "Barack Obama's search for faith". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/04/30/america/30obama.php?page=2.  April 30, 2007
  201. ^ Obama, Barack (October 23, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579,00.html. 
  202. ^ a b "Obama says he won't be smoking in White House". Reuters. December 7, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSTRE4B61GF20081207. Retrieved on 2009-20-21. 
  203. ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?". Washington Monthly. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0411.wallace-wells.html. Retrieved on April 7, 2008.  See also: Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/12/28/america/obama.php. Retrieved on April 7, 2008. 
  204. ^ Payne, Les (August 19, 2007). "In One Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive). Newsday. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/newsday/access/1322008241.html?dids=1322008241:1322008241&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved on April 7, 2008. 
  205. ^ Dorning, Mike (October 4, 2007). "Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/1353513781.html?dids=1353513781:1353513781&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+4%2C+2007&author=Mike+Dorning. Retrieved on April 7, 2008.  See also: Harnden, Toby (October 15, 2007). "Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1565992/Barack-Obama-is-JFK-heir%2C-says-Kennedy-aide.html. Retrieved on April 7, 2008. 
  206. ^ Holmes, Stephanie (November 30, 2008). "Obama: Oratory and originality". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/world/a-classic-orator-obama-learnt-from-the-masters-20081129-6nf1.html. Retrieved on December 11, 2008. 
  207. ^ Gallo, Carmine (March 3, 2008). "How to Inspire People Like Obama Does". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/mar2008/sb2008033_156351.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. 
  208. ^ "New emotion dubbed 'elevation" (in English). Toronto Star. December 11, 2008. http://www.thestar.com/living/article/551538. Retrieved on December 11, 2008. 
  209. ^ YouTube - ChangeDotGov's Channel
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  213. ^ Obama.senate.gov (August 24, 2005). Obama to visit nuclear, biological weapons destruction facilities in former Soviet Union. Press release. http://obama.senate.gov/press/050823-obama_to_visit/. 
  214. ^ Quel giorno di tre anni fa a Washington Barack mi raccontò la sua speranzaRome Mayor's Leadership Bid May Lead to Early Italian Elections; VELTRONI A NEW YORK - Il politico prevale sull' amministratore; Libreria Rizzoli Galleria
  215. ^ Pedder, Sophie (February 20, 2008). "Sarkozy, Obama and McCain". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/blogs/certainideasofeurope/2008/02/sarkozy_obama_and_mccain.cfm. Retrieved on November 20, 2008. 
  216. ^ Goodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). "Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/musicNews/idUSN0852813420080210. Retrieved on November 24, 2008. 
  217. ^ Strange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). "Celebrities join YouTube revolution". The Times (UK). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/film/article3491460.ece. Retrieved on December 18, 2008. 
  218. ^ Wappler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). "Emmys give knuckle bump to will.i.am; more videos on the way". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/soundboard/2008/06/emmys-give-knuc.html. Retrieved on December 18, 2008. 
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References

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance is a memoir by current United States Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. ... Three Rivers Press is the trade paperback imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House. ... The Audacity of Hope : Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream is the second book written by U.S. Senator Barack Obama. ... The Crown Publishing Group is a subsidiary of Random House, the worlds largest English-language general trade book publisher. ...

Further reading

  • Graff, Garrett. "The Legend of Barack Obama", Washingtonian, November 1, 2006. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Curry, Jessica. "Barack Obama: Under the Lights", Chicago Life, Fall 2004. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Lizza, Ryan. "Above the Fray", GQ, September 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Koltun, Dave (2005) "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political “Star”" in "The Road to Congress 2004" Editors: Sunil Ahuja (Youngstown State University) and Robert Dewhirst (Northeast Missouri State University), Nova Science Publishers, Haupauge, New York, Binding: Hardcover Pub. Date: 2005, ISBN 1-59454-360-7
  • MacFarquhar, Larissa. "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?", New Yorker, May 7, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Mundy, Liza. "A Series of Fortunate Events", The Washington Post Magazine, August 12, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Wallace-Wells, Ben. "Destiny's Child", Rolling Stone, February 7, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
  • Zutter, Hank De. "What Makes Obama Run?", Chicago Reader, December 8, 1995. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.

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  • FACTBOX: Barack Obama, Democratic President-elect (Reuters, November 5, 2008)
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Persondata
NAME Obama, Barack, Jr.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Obama, Barack Hussein
SHORT DESCRIPTION US Jr. Senator from Illinois; President-Elect of the United States of America
DATE OF BIRTH August 4, 1961
PLACE OF BIRTH Honolulu, Hawaii
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH


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