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Encyclopedia > Bar Kokhba revolt
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Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. Alternatively, some sources call it The Third Revolt, counting also the riots of 115-117, the Kitos War, suppressed by the general Quintus Lucius Quietus who governed the province at the time. Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: ?מיהו יהודי) is the name of the religious, social and political debate on the exact definition of which person can be called Jewish. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... 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In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (partially the Old Testament, it also consists of the book of the prophets, and the five books of Moses) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history... The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... 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The term, which first came into general use in the early 1970s, is sometimes... Events The messianic, leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation) The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Events Pope Sixtus I succeeds Pope Alexander I Jews in Egypt and Cyrene ignite a revolt against the rule of the Roman Empire, which spreads to Cyprus, Judea, and the Roman province of Mesopotamia. ... Events Emperor Trajan dies, leaving the Roman Empire at its maximal territorial extent. ... The Kitos War (115—117) is the name given to the second of the Jewish-Roman wars. ...

Contents


Background

After the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE as a result of the failed Great Jewish Revolt, the Sanhedrin at Yavne provided spiritual guidance for the Jewish nation, both in Judea and throughout the diaspora. The Destruction of Jerusalem (specifically, the Second Destruction of Jerusalem) was the culmination of the successful campaign of Titus Flavius against Judea after an unsuccessful attack four years prior by Cestius Gallus. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Yavne (Hebrew יבנה, Arabic يبنة Yibnah) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ...


The Roman authorities took precautions against the rebellious province. Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetor as a governor and stationed an entire legion, X Fretensis. A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... Legion can refer to several encyclopedic topics, including: In military history, an organization or military unit: A Roman legion. ... Legio X Fretensis (Of the sea streits) was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 41/40 BC to fight during the civil war; X Fretensis is recorded to exist at least until 260 AD. Its symbol was the bull (Latin: Taurus – holy animal of the goddess Venus, the mythical...


In 130 CE, Emperor Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem. At first sympathetic towards the Jews, Hadrian promised to rebuild the city, but the Jews felt betrayed when they found out that his intentions were to rebuild the Jewish holiest city as a pagan metropolis, and a new pagan temple on the ruins of the Second Temple was to be dedicated to Jupiter. For other uses, see number 130. ... A bust of Hadrian. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus) and Heathenry are catch-all terms which have come to connote a broad set of spiritual/religious beliefs and practices of a natural religion, as opposed to the Abrahamic religions. ... Drawing of the Second Temple in Jerusalem during the time of Herod the Great A stone (2. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ...


An additional legion, VI Ferrata, was stationed in the province to maintain order and the works commenced in 131 CE, after the governor of Judaea Tineius Rufus performed the foundation ceremony of Aelia Capitolina, the city’s projected new name. "Ploughing up the Temple" was a religious offense that turned many Jews against the Roman authorities. The tensions grew higher when Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah), which he, an avid Hellenist, viewed as mutilation. A Roman coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina was issued in 132 CE. Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) was a Roman legion. ... Events Emperor Hadrian builds the city Aelia Capitolina on the location of Jerusalem Births Galen, anatomist Deaths Categories: 131 ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brith milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: ברית מילה; literally covenant [of] circumcision), also bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish boys into a covenant between God and the Children of Israel... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Mutilation is an act or injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually without causing death. ... Events The messianic, leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ...


Revolt

The Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva convinced the Sanhedrin to support the impending revolt, and regarded the chosen commander Simon Bar Kokhba to be the Jewish Messiah, according to the verse from Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob" ("Bar Kokhba" means "son of a star" in the Aramaic language). Akiba ben Joseph (or Rabbi Akiva, Rebbi Akiva, c. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led Bar Kokhbas revolt against the Romans in 132, establishing an independent state of Israel which he ruled for three years as Nasi (prince, or president). His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two-year war. ... The Jewish Messiah, (משיח) or Mashiach, or Moshiach, has traditionally referred to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (in Hebrew, mashiach -- משיח (messiah) means anointed with holy olive oil) and inducted to rule the Jewish people. ... Numbers can mean: Number The Book of Numbers, the fourth book of the Bible NUMB3RS, a CBS television show This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (יַעֲקֹב Holder of the heel, Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ; Arabic يعقوب YaÊ¿qÅ«b), later known as Israel (יִשְׂרָאֵל Prince with God, Standard Hebrew Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew YiÅ›rāʾēl; Arabic اسرائيل Isrāʾīl) is a Biblical... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ...


At the time, Christianity was still a minor sect of Judaism, and most historians believe that it was this messianic claim in favor of Bar Kokhba that alienated many Christians (who believed that the true messiah was Jesus), and sharply deepened the schism between Judaism and Jewish-Christians. The Christian community in Jerusalem promptly left the city on the eve of the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ being a title meaning Anointed One or Messiah. Christian viewpoints on Jesus (known as Christology) are both diverse and complex. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Three sieges have the name Siege of Jerusalem: The Siege of Jerusalem in 701 BC by Sennacherib, fighting a revolt against the Assyrian Empire The Siege of Jerusalem in AD 70 by Titus, ending the Great Jewish Revolt The Siege of Jerusalem in 1099 by the crusaders, a part of...


The Jewish messianic leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. In 132 A.D., the Bar Kokhba Revolt quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... Modiin (מודיעין) is a city in the Center District of Israel In Israel. ...


"The Era of the redemption of Israel"

Bar Kokhba's tetradrachm. Obverse: the Temple with the rising star. Reverse: the text reads: "Year one of the redemption of Israel"
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Bar Kokhba's tetradrachm. Obverse: the Temple with the rising star. Reverse: the text reads: "Year one of the redemption of Israel"

A sovereign Jewish state was restored for two and a half years that followed. The functional civil administration was headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, who took the title Nasi Israel (ruler or prince of Israel). The "Era of the redemption of Israel" was announced, contracts were signed and coins were minted with corresponding inscriptions (some were overstruck over Roman silver coins). c. ... c. ... In logic (and usually without being paired with reverse), obverse has a meaning close to contrapositive. ... Reverse may refer to: Obverse and reverse side of a coin changing the direction: of movement: forward - reverse, see gearbox of a design: see reverse engineering This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The term Jewish state is sometimes used to describe the State of Israel and refers to its status as a nation-state for the Jewish people. ...


Rabbi Akiva presided over the Sanhedrin. The religious rituals were observed and the korbanot (i.e. sacrifices) were resumed on the Altar. Some attempts were made to restore the Temple in Jerusalem. Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) in Judaism, is commonly called a religious sacrifice or an offering in English, but is known as a Korban in Hebrew because its Hebrew root K [a] R [o] V (קרב) (or K [o] R [a] V) means to [come] Close (or Draw Near) [to... Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... An ancient Roman altar PROTESTANTISM RULES!!! An altar is any structure upon which sacrifices or other offerings are offered for religious purposes. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ...


Roman reaction

The outbreak took the Romans by surprise. Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. The size of the Roman army amassed against the rebels was larger than that commanded by Titus Flavius sixty years earlier, but Roman losses were so heavy that the generals' report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary formula "I and my army are well." Sextus Julius Severus was an accomplished Roman general of the 2nd century AD. He was consul in 127 and then served as governor of Moesia; he was appointed governor of Roman Britain around AD 131. ... The Danube (German: , Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: , Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, Bulgarian: Дунав, Romanian: , Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was a deliberative body which was important in the government of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. ...

A cluster of papyrus containing Bar Kokhba's orders found in the Judean desert by modern Israeli archeologist Yigael Yadin.

The struggle lasted for three years before the revolt was brutally crushed in the summer of 135. After losing Jerusalem, Bar Kokhba and the remnants of his army withdrew to the fortress of Betar, which also subsequently came under siege. Some of the rebels were killed there, while others perished in the caves overlooking the Dead Sea. Bar Kokhbas papyrus found in Judean desert by Yigael Yadin. ... Bar Kokhbas papyrus found in Judean desert by Yigael Yadin. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Yigael Yadin (March 20, 1917 - June 28, 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Betar was the last standing Jewish fortress in the Bar Kochba revolt of the 2nd century CE, destroyed by the Roman army on Tisha Bav. ... The Jordan River flowing into the Dead Sea The Dead Sea (Arabic البحر الميت, Hebrew ים המלח) is the lowest exposed point on the Earths surface. ...


Outcome of the War and Beginning of another Jewish Diaspora

According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ...

Expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian. A miniature from the 15th century manuscript "Histoire des Empereurs"
Expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian. A miniature from the 15th century manuscript "Histoire des Empereurs"

Hadrian attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torah law, the Jewish calendar and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremoniously burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, as an insulting reminder of the Jews' ancient enemies the Philistines, long-extinct by then. He reestablished Jerusalem as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it. Later they were allowed to mourn their humiliation once a year on Tisha B'Av (see Western Wall, or 'Wailing Wall'). Jews remained scattered for close to two thousand years. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 as a result of the Spanish Inquisition (also on Tisha B'Av), the rising Ottoman Empire welcomed the Jews, and with its conquest of the areas around Palestine by 1517, the Empire (under Suleiman) began to allow increasing numbers of Jews to move back to 'Palestine'. The Jews re-established the Jewish State of Israel in 1948. Betar became a symbol of Jewish resistance. Download high resolution version (1448x1900, 203 KB)Expulsion of the Jews in the Reign of the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 135): How Heraclius turned the Jews out of Jerusalem. ... Download high resolution version (1448x1900, 203 KB)Expulsion of the Jews in the Reign of the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 135): How Heraclius turned the Jews out of Jerusalem. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... This figure, in a detail of a medieval Hebrew calendar, reminded Jews of the palm branches ( Lulav) and the citron ( Etrog) to be brought to the synagogue at the end of sukkot, closing the solemn convocations of the calendar in autumn. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: (without niqqud: הר הבית), Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, â–¶ (help· info)) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) (Greek: Ιουδαία) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael), an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... The historic Philistines (פלשתים) (see other uses below) were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... A polis (πολις) — plural: poleis (πολεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ... // Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Western Wall by night The Western Wall (Hebrew: הכותל המערבי HaKotel HaMaaravi), or simply The Kotel, is a retaining wall from the time of the Second Temple. ... Western Wall by night The Western Wall, known as the Kotel HaMaaravi (or simply Kotel)הכותל המערבי in Hebrew , also called the Wailing Wall (or Al-Buraq Wall, in a mix of English and Arabic) is a retaining wall from the time of the Second, q. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Sources

Unfortunately, the events lacked a major historian figure such as Josephus Flavius. The best recognized sources are Cassius Dio, Roman History (book 69) and Aelius Spartianus, Life of Hadrian (in the Augustan History). The discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls has exposed some new historical data. Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 850 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on...


Further Reading

  • Yohannan Aharoni & Michael Avi-Yonah, "The MacMillan Bible Atlas", Revised Edition, pp. 164-165 (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.).

External link

  • David Pileggi, "The Bar Kochva letters": discovery of the papyri


  Results from FactBites:
 
Simon bar Kokhba at AllExperts (382 words)
Due to the failure of the earlier Great Jewish Revolt in the eastern Roman provinces, Bar Kokhba's support was mostly limited to the Roman province of Judea.
Despite some initial successes, his revolt was brutally crushed by Emperor Hadrian: Bar Kokhba and his followers were killed in a dramatic last stand at the fortress of Betar, southwest of Jerusalem.
Bar Kokhba was the subject of an operetta, Bar Kokhba, by Abraham Goldfaden, written some time between 1883 and 1885, in the wake of the pogroms following the 1881 assassination of Czar Alexander II of Russia, as the tide turned against Jewish emancipation.
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