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Encyclopedia > Bar (music)

In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. The word measure is heard more frequently in the U.S., while bar is used in other English-speaking countries, although musicians generally understand both usages. The word bar derives from the vertical lines which separate one measure from another, and not the bar-like (i.e., rectangular) dimensions of a typical measure of music. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... See also the beat disambiguation page. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Types of barlines. (a) standard; (b) double (1st definition); (c) double (2nd definition); (d) begin repeat; (e) repeat
Types of barlines. (a) standard; (b) double (1st definition); (c) double (2nd definition); (d) begin repeat; (e) repeat

A bar line (or barline) is a vertical line which separates bars. A double bar can consist of two single barlines drawn close together, separating two sections within a piece, or a barline followed by a thicker barline, indicating the end of a piece or movement. A repeat barline looks like the second type of a double bar but has two more dots, one above the other, indicating that the section of music that is before is to be repeated. The beginning of the repeated passage can be marked by a begin-repeat barline; if this is absent the repeat is understood to be from the beginning of the piece or movement. This begin-repeat barline, if appearing at the beginning of a staff, does not act as a true barline because no bar is before it; its only function is to indicate the beginning of the passage to be repeated. examples of types of barlines This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... I like pie. ...


Note that the term double bar refers not to a type of bar (i.e., measure), but to a type of barline.


In music with a regular meter, bars function to indicate a periodic agogic accent in the music. Traditionally the first beat of each bar is slightly accented, regardless of its duration. In music employing mixed meters, barlines are instead used to indicate the beginning of rhythmic note groups, but this is subject to wide variation: some composers use dashed barlines, others (including Hugo Distler) have placed barlines at different places in the different parts to indicate varied groupings from part to part. Metre or meter (US) is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western music notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational device used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each bar and what note value constitutes one beat. ... Hugo Distler (June 24, 1908 – November 1, 1942) was a German composer. ...


Quote: "The bar line is much, much more than a mere accent, and I don't believe that it can be simulated by an accent, at least not in my music." - Igor Stravinsky (DeLone et. al. (Eds.), 1975, chap. 3). Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer best known for three compositions from his earlier, Russian period: LOiseau de feu (The Firebird) (1910), Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). ...


A hypermeasure, large-scale or high-level measure, or measure-group is a metric unit in which, generally, each regular measure is one beat (actually hyperbeat) of a larger meter. Thus a beat is to a measure as a measure/hyperbeat is to a hypermeasure. Hypermeasures must be larger than a notated bar, perceived as a unit, consist of a pattern of strong and weak beats, and along with adjacent hypermeasures, which must be of the same length, create a sense of hypermeter. The term was coined by Edward T. Cone. (Stein 2005, p.18-19, 329) A metric system is a system of units for measurement developed in late 18th century France with decimal multipliers. ... See also the beat disambiguation page. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ...


History

Barlines came into general use in the 1600s, when music began to be written in score format rather than individual parts. 16th-century usage was primarily restricted to lute and vihuela music, but such barlines typically were not used to indicate a regular meter. (Source: Harvard Dictionary of Music) The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ... Orpheus playing a vihuela. ...


See also

Mensurstriche is a German term used in musical notation to denote barlines that are drawn between staves, but not across them. ... In Arab music a wazn (plural, awzān) is a rhythmic pattern or cycle, literally translated as measure (also called darb, mizan, and usul). ...

References

  • DeLone et. al. (Eds.) (1975). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  • Stein, Deborah (2005). Engaging Music: Essays in Music Analysis, Glossary. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517010-5.
Musical notation edit
Staff : Bar line | Clef | Key signature | Ledger line | Time signature | Rehearsal letter
Notes : Accidental | Dotted note | Note value | Rest | Slur | Tie
Expression marks: Articulation | Dynamics | Octaves | Ornaments | Tempo

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bar (music) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (480 words)
In music with a regular meter, bars represent a periodic pulse in the music.
In music employing mixed meters, barlines are instead used to indicate the beginning of rhythmic note groups, but this is subject to wide variation: some composers use dashed barlines, others (including Hugo Distler) have placed barlines at different places in the different parts to indicate varied groupings from part to part.
Hypermeasures must be larger than a notated bar, perceived as a unit, consist of a pattern of strong and weak beats, and along with adjacent hypermeasures, which must be of the same length, create a sense of hypermeter.
Bar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (413 words)
Bar (establishment), a retail establishment which serves alcoholic beverages (in Britain, a pub; in continental Europe, a café; in Italy, the term Bar is largely used, and is generally equivalent to caffé);
Bar (heraldry), a fess-like charge sometimes stated to be a diminutive of the fess.
Bar, Ukraine, a fortress in the Podolia region of Ukraine that was once a part of Poland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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